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Art. I. An Eitinuite of the Philosophical Character of Dr 
Priestley. By William Hknev, M. D., F. R. S., 
Ac. &c. - 
II. Account ofdie Russian Vapour-Bath. ByT.S. Traill, 
M, D. Communicated by the Author, 

IIJ. On the Breeding Spots of Birds. By Frederick 
Faber, ...... 

IV. Analysis of the Stony Pericarp of the Lithospermum 
officinale. By Captain Charles Lb Hunte. Com- 
tQunicatet} by the Author, . ■ . - 

V. On the Vlt^ity. of Toads enclosed in Stone and Wood. 
By the Eeverend W. Buckland, F. E. S., F. L. S., 
F. G. S,, and Professor of Geology aiid Mineralog; 
in the University of Oxford. Cmnmunicated by 
theAntbor, _ . . - > . 

VI. On the Chenuatl Clonstitution of Hanuotome or Crou- 
qtone. By Arthur Connbll, Esq. F. R. S. E, 
Communicated by the Author, ... 
VII. On the History of the Natoral Sciences, in reference 
to the Sdendfic Knowledge of the Egyptians of the 
source from whence Moses derived bis Cosmi^ony, 
and the general agreement of that Cosmogony with 
Modem Geology,- .... 

VIII. On the Fundamental Types of Organiiation. By G. 
R. Tretiranus, M. D., &C. . - • 

IX. Analysis of the Labradorite Felspar found in the Trap- 
Rocks of Scotland:' By Captain Lk Hdnte. Com- 
muninted by the Author, ... 

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Art. X. Physiological Investigations arising from the Mecha- 
nical Efiecta of Atmospherical Pressure on the 
Animal Frame. By John Dalton, F. R. S< ' 90 

XL On the Uniform Permeability of all known Substances 
to the Magnetic Tnfluence, and the Application 
of the fact in Engineering and Mining, for the 
Determination of the Thickness of Solid Sub- 
stances not otherwise Meaaorable. By the Rev. 
WitUAM ScoREBBY, F. R.S. L. & Ed, Correspon- 
dent of the Institute of France, &c. &c. Com- 
municated by the Author, - - . . 97 
XII. A Register of the date of various Natural Appear- 
ances, kept at Treverouz Farm, in the Parish of 
Limpslield in Surrey. By Hsnhy Cox, Esq. 
CoEomunicated by W. Jacob, Esq. F. R. S. - 133 

XIH. Earliest Knowledge of Gold and Silver.— Hesiod.— 
Scandinavian Museum.—Tfae Patriarchs. — The 
Book of Job.— Accumulation of Wealth with the 
Hebrew Nation.— Accumulations in Syria and 
Persia ; in Greece ; in Rome, - - - 1S6 

XIV. On the Origin and Composition of Basalt, - -150 

XV. On the Cholera Animalcule, - - - i55 

XVI. On the Crystallization of Ice, and of Vdns of Ice in 

Ice. By Professor Hessel, _ . - 158 

XVII. Account of the Introduction of the Wood-Grouse or 
Capercailzie (Tetrao Urogallus) to the Forest of 
Braemar. By Janes Wilson, Esq. F. R. S. E., 
M. W. S., &c Communicated by the Author, I60 
XVIII. Catrine Works Meteorological Register for 18S1, - I66 

XIX. Description of several New or Rare Rants which 
have lately flowered in the nelgbbonrhood of 
Edinburgh, and chiefly in the Royal Botanic 
Garden. By Dr Gbahah, Professor of Botany 
in the University of Edinbni^h, - - I67 

XX. Celestial PhenomenafromJulyl.toOctoberl. 183S, 
calculated for £he Meridian of Edinburgh, Mean 
Time. By Mr Grorob Innes, Astronomical Cal- - 
culator, Aberdeen, - - - - 17* 

XXI. Scientific Intelligence, - - - - 177 


1. First View of Sierra Leone. Z. Description of an African 


ToFoado. S. On the duUnce to which Spray of the Sea 
may be carried, - - - - 177-18! 

4. Wild Animals in the Illinois Conntry, in North America, 

5. Entomology in Scotland, . - . 181-187 


6. Heigbta of Mountains and Lakes in N<Hlh Amenca, - 188 


7- On the Gold, Silver, and PUtina of Russia, > - ] 89 


8. Zygophyllum arb<«eum of JacquiD, - , - I9I 

Art. XXII. List of Patents granted in England from 2d Au- 
gust to 30th August 1831, - - - ib. 
XXIII. List of Patents granted In Scotland from 15th 

to 28th March 1832, . . 192 

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inT. L -Memoir of William Roscoe, Esq. By Dr Thokas 
Stiwart Traill, F. R. S. £., &c. Commanicated 
by the Author, - . - . , 193 

H. On the Mode of determining FoBsil Plants. By Pro- 

feMor LiNDLEY, - - - - 221 

III. On the Vitality of Toads. By the Rev. Edward 

StaMlby. F.L.S;, F.G.S., &c, Communicated 
by the Author, - ■ - . 228 

IV. On a Production of Naphthaline in an Oil-Gas Appa- 

ratus. By A. CoNNBLL, Esq. F. R. S. E. Com- 
manicated by the Author, - - 231 
V. On the Character and Affinities of certain Genera, 
' chiefly belonging to the Flora Peruviana. By Mr 
David Don, Librarian of the Linnean Sodety; 
Member of the Imperial Academy Nature Curi»> 
acMum : of the Imperial Society of Naturalists at 
Moscow ; of the Roysi Botanical Society of Ratis- 
bon; and of the Wemerian Society of Edinburgh, 
&c (Continued firom No. fw Oct. 18S1, p. 280.) 333- 

VI. Observations mi the Structure and Development of 

the TofcgoTia. By Dr Rudolph Waoneb, of Er- 
lai)g«n, - - - - - 245 

VII. An Exposition of some of the Iiaws and Phenomena 

of Magnetic Induction, with original Illustntive 
Experiments. By the Rev. William Scoresbv, 
F. R. S. Lond. & Edin., Correspondent of the Insti-. 
tute of France, Sec. &c. Commumcated by the 
Author, ----- 257 

VIII. Additional Observations on the Relation of Nitric 

and Nitrous Acids to Bromine and Iodine. By 
Arthur Connell, £sq. F. R. S. E., &c. Commu- 
nicated by the Author, - - 28S- 

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Akt. IX. Mkjor-General Sir Howard D«L'oL«t 

Militaiy Bridgei, and the Paasage of Rivers in Mi- 
litary Operation*, - - . 28» 
X. Experiments on the Expansion and Contraction of 
Building, Stones, by Variations of Temperature. 
By WiLLiAK H. C B&aTLETT, Lieutenant tJnited 
States Engineers, - - - - 304 

XI. Obserrationa on Saline Crystallization. By Henry 
OoDEx, M. D., Extraordinary Member of the Royal 
Medical Society of Edinburgh. Communicated by 
Ibe Author, - - - - SO9 

XII. On tbeMi^nitudec^ the Ultimate Particlesof Bodies i 
lofiisory Animals not formed imiaMdiaSely ftom 
Dead Matter; EKtraordinary Minuteness of tbe 
Infusoria i Improved Arrangenient of the Infuso- 
ria ; Marvellous Multiplication of the Infusoria ; 
Estimate of the relative Value of the Microscopes 
of Chevalier, Ploessel, and Schick. By Prof. C 
G. Ehrenbero of Berlin, - - - 319 

■XII. Outline of the Geologj of the Bhurtpoor District 
By Javbs Haiuiie, Esq. Bengal Medical Esta- 
blishment. Communicated by the Author, - 328 
XIV. Meteorological T^les, deduced from a Raster (^ 
the Weather, k^ at Bancoorah in the East 
Indies, during the Years 1827 and 1828, - 357 
XV. On the Graphite or Black- Lead of Ceylon, - - 346 
XVI. Analysis of several Indian, Chinese, and New Hol- 
land Coals. By J. Prinsef, Esq. Secretary to the 
Physical Class of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, 3*7 
XVn. On the Fossil Flora, - - - - 34C» 

^VIII. Notice by Dr Graham of Botanical Excursions into 
the Highlands of Scotland from Edinburgh this 
eeason, ------ 350 

XIX. Description of several New or Rare Plants which 
have lately flowered in tbe neighboiirhood of 
Edinburgh, and chiefly in the Royal Botanic 
Garden. By Dr Grahak, Professor of Botany 
in the University of Edinburgh, - - 961 

XX. Celestial Phenomena from October 1. 183S to January 
I. 1S33, calculated for the Meridian of Edin- 
burgh, Mean Time. By Mr Georoc Inne^, A»- 
tronomical Calculator, Aberdeen, - - S6S 

_,, C.oo;;lc 


Art. ^XU Scientific InteUrgvnce, - - • - 968 


I. Uitctuout'Dew, - - " - - - . ib. 

■"■r- ..■'■■ chSMtlGTRV. ' 

^. The Ne^j Vtpiim Sugar. ^,.Oii,tbe Gnjaaeaf Wine, ,S69«371 

4<' 'Obesity. 5. Portable Milk. 6. Quuititjr of Egga con- 
■mtdJhi&^mdoB. ' 7: DeBtiWiUoh of Frarixwater Pidt - 
b)r<{die ulonmeai of tlieScii into a Lalie, • S71-S7S 

8, Elevations ii^^ustralia New South Walei- 9- Oa Subter- 
raneous amt Ominoii! Sounds. 10. FoHil Fro^&c 11. 
On the Permanenca of the Earth's Axis of Rtrtation, S^3-S^$ 

IS. Indian CoShtt,. 


13. Academy oT St' Peterrtbnrgh, - - - t ib. 

Art. XXII; List of Patents granted in England from Slit 

Angurt to I6th September 1831, -. - 378 

XXTIf. List 6t fiieaijs granted in Scotland ftom 44 . 
' April to 4th September 1832, , - , '- 37? 

iHtotx;'. ■'''.■' ■■■'■.- " _ ■ '.' ' ■.'■ '.381 

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Jn EstimaU of the PhUosophicai Character of Dr PrietiUy. 
By William Hkney, M. D., F. R. S. 8ic &c.» 

J. HE principal source of the materials of tiie following sketch, 
ia the work in which the discoveries of Dr Priestley were oii^ 
Dally announced to the public It con^sts of six volumes in 
octavo, which were published by him at intervals between the 
years 1774 and 1786 ; the first three under the title of " Expe- 
riments and Observations on different kinds of Air ;" and the 
last three under that of " Experiments and Ohservadons rela- 
ting to variuis Branches of Natural Philosophy, with a continua- 
tion of the Observations on Air." . These volumes were after- 
wards methodized by himself, and compressed into three octavos, 
which were printed in 1790: As a record of facts, and as a 
book of reference, the systematized work is to be preferred ; 
but as affording materials for the history of that department 
of science which Dr Priestley cultivated with such extraordinary 
success, and, still more, for estimating the value of his discove- 
lies, and adjusting his station as an experimental philosopher, 
the simple narrative, which he. originally gave in the order of 
time, supplies the amplest and the firmest ground-w<H-k. 

In every thing that respects the history of this branch of ex- 
perimental jdiilosophy, the writings and researches of Dr Priest- 
1 ley, to which I have alluded, are peculiarly instructive. They 

* Read to the first meeting nf the British Agsomtion for tbe Promotion of 
Science, at York, September 28. 1(01. A beautiliil lUograpliical Memoir of 
Dr Priestley, b; Boron Cuvier, is printed In tbe Number for Juij 1827 of , 
this JoumaL 



2 Dr Henry's Estimate ^ 

are diatingiuBhed by great merits, and by great defects ; tbe Ut- 
ter of which are wholly undi^uised by thear author. He ua- 
veilB, with perfect fi'anlcness, the whole process of reasoning, 
which led to his discoveries ; he pretends to no more sagacity 
than belonged to him, jind sometimes disclaims errai that to 
which he was ffurly entitled ; he freely acknowledges his mis- 
takes, and candidly confesses when his success was the result of 
accident, rather than of judicious anticipation ; and by wnting 
Jiistorically and analytically, he exhibits tbe progressive improve- 
ment of his views, from their first dawnings to their final and di». 
duct development. Now, with whatever delight we may con- 
template a systematic arrangement, the materials of which have 
been judiciously selected, and from which every thing has been 
excluded that is not essential to the harmony of the general de- 
ogn, yet there can he do question that, as elucidating the opera- 
tions of the human mind, and enabling us to trace and appred- 
ate its powers dT invention and discovery, the analytic method 
<^ writing has decided advantages. 

To estimate, justly, the extent of Dr Priestley's clmm to philo- 
sophical reputation, it is necessary to take into account the state 
of our knowledge of gaseous chemistry at the time he b^;aD 
his inquiries. Without underrating what had been already done 
by Van Helmont, Ray, Hooke, Mayow, Boyle, Hales, Macbride, 
Black, Cavendish, and scHne others, Priestley may be safely af- 
firmed to have entered upon a field, which, though not altoge- 
ther untitled, had yet been very imperfectiy prepared to yield 
the rich harvest, which he afterwards gathered from it. The 
very implements with which he was to work were for the most 
part to be invented ; and of the merits of those which he did in- 
vent, it is a sufficient proof that they continue in use to tins day, 
with no very important modifications. All his contrivances for 
collecting, transferring, and preserving diiferent kinds of lur, and 
for submiiting those lurs to the action of solid and liquid sub- 
stances, were exceedingly simple, beautiful, and efi^ectual. They 
were chiefly, too, the work of his own hands, or were construct- 
ed under his directions by unskilled persons ; for the dass of in- 
genious artists, from whom the chemical philosopher now derives 
such valuable aid, had not then been called into existence by 
the demands of the sdence. With a very limited knowledge of 

th£ Philosophical Character of Dr Priestley. g 

the general prinaples of chemistry, and almost without praiAice 
in its mort commra manipulations ; — teitricted by a nartoir ith 
axne, oad at fint witfa little pecumsiy aseistance from othen^— 
compelled, too, to devote a large pt^tion of his time to- other 
pressipg occupationB, he neverthelesB surmounted all obstacles ; 
and in tbe care«' of discovery outBtri{^>ed many who had long 
been exclusively devoted to soienoe, and were richly provided 
with all appliances and means for its advancement. 

It is well known that the accident of living noar a- public 
brewery at Leeds, first directed tbe attention of Dr Priestley to 
pneumatic chemistry, by casually presentii^ to his observation 
the appearance attmiding the extinction of Ugfated chips of wood 
in the gas wlucfa floaSs over fennenung Jiquors. He remarlaed, 
that the smojce formed distinct clouds floating on the surface of 
the atmosphere of thevcMel, and that this mixture of air and 
smoke, when throi^n over the ndesof the vat, tell to the ground ; 
from whence he deduced the greater weight of this sc^t of air 
than of atmospheric air. He next found that water imbibes the 
new air, and again abandons it when bo^ed or frozen. These 
more obvious properties of fixtjd air having been ascertained, he 
extended his inquiries to its other qualities and relations ; and 
was afterwards led by analogy to the discovery of various other 
gases, and to the investigation of their characteristic properties. 

It would be inconsistent with the scope of this essay to give 
a full catalogue of Dr Priestley's discoveries, or to enumerate 
more of them than are necessary to a just estimate of his philo- 
sophical habits and charactfr. He was the unquestionable au- 
thor of our first knowledge of oxygen gas, c^ nitrous oxide, of 
muriatic, sulphurous, and flu(»- add gases, of ammoniaoal gas, 
and of its condensation into a solid form by the acid gases. Hy- 
drogen gas was known hefon bis time; but he greatly extended 
our acquaintance with its properties. Nitrous gas, barely dis- 
covered by Dr Hales, was fir^ investigated by Priestley, and ap- 
plied by him to eudiometry. To the chemical history of the 
acids derived from nitre, he contributed a vast acces^n of ori- 
ginal and most valuable facts. He seems to have been quite 
aware that those acids are essentially gaseous substances, and 
that they might be exhibited as such, provided a fluid could 

A a t;,„„,| 

4 Dr Henry's Estimate of > ■ 

be fouDd that is incapable of absorbiDg or acting upon them*. 
He obtained, and distinctly described-|-, the curious crystalline 
ctunpound of sulphuric acid with the vapour of^ nitrous acid, of, 
more correctly, of sulphuric and hyponitrous acids, which, being 
of rare occurrence, was forgotten, and has since been redisco- 
vered, like many other neglected antidpatioaa of the same au- 
thor. He greatly enhtrged our knowledge of the important class 
of metals, and traced out many of their most interesting relations 
to oxygen and to acids. He unfolded, and illustrated by sim- 
ple imd beautiful experiments, distinct views of combustion ; of 
the respiration of animals, both of the inferior and higher classes ; 
of the change produced in organized bodies by putrefaction^ 
' and of the causes that accelerate or retard that process ; of the 
importance of azote as the characteristic ingredient of animal 
substances, obtainable by the action of dilute nitric acid on mus- 
cle and tendon ; of the functioas and economy of living T^;eta- 
Ues ; and of the relations and subserviency which exist between 
the animal kingdoms. After trying, without eSect, a variety 
of methods, by which he expected to purify air vitiated by the 
breathing of animals, he discovered that its purity was restored 
by the growth of living and healthy vegetables, freely exposed to 
the solar Ught. 

It is impossible to account for these and a variety of other 
discoveries, of less importance singly, but forming altogether a 
tribute to science, greatly exceeding, in richness and extent, that 
<^ any contemporary, without pronouncing that their author 
must have been furnished by nature with intellectual powera 
far surpassing the common average of human endowments. If 
we examine with which of its various faculties the mind of Si 
Priestley was most eminently gifted, it will, I believe, be found 
^lat it was most remarkable for clearness and quickness of ap- 
prehension, and for rapidity and extent of associadon. On th^e 
qualities were founded that apparently intuitive perception of 
analogies, and that happy facility of tradng and pursuing them 
through all their consequences, which led to several of his most 
brilliant discoveries. Of these analc^es many were just and 
kgibmate, and have stood the test of examination by the clearer 
light, unce reflected upon them from the improved condition of 
■ Series i. vol. IL p. 17S. T Series ii. vol. L p. 86. 

the Ph3o3opUcal Character of]>r PriesBty. B 

sraettce. But, in other cases, fats oDalogies were fimciful and aa- 
founded, and led him far astray from the path which might 
have conducted him directly to truth. It is curious, however, 
as he himself observes, that in missiDg one thing, of which he 
was in search, he often found another of greater value. In such 
cases, his vigilance seldom failed to put him in full possesutm of 
the treasure upon which he bad stumbled. Finding by expoi- 
ence, how much chance had to do with the success of his inves* 
ligations, he resolved to multiply experiments, with the view of 
increasing the numerical probabilities of discovery. We find 
him confessing, on one occa^on, that he " was led m, by a ran- 
dom e^ipectation of some change or other taking phu:e.^ In 
other instances, he was influenced by theoretical views of so 
flimsy a texture, that they were dispersed by the first appeal to 
experiment. " These mistakes,^ he observes, " it was in my 
power to have concealed ; but I was determined to show bow 
little mystery there is in the bu^ness of experimental philosophy; 
and with how httle s^acity, diticovertes, which some persons are 
pleased to consid^ great and wonderful, have been nude." 
Candid acknowledgments of this kind were, however, turned 
a^nst him by persons envious of hb growing fame ; and it waa 
asserted that o^/ his discoveries, when not the fruits of plagiarism, 
were " lucky guesses," or owing to mere chance*. Such de- 
tractors, however, could not have been aware of the great 
amount of credit that is due to the philosopher, who at once 
perceives the value of a casual observation, or of an unexpected 
result; who discriminates what facts are trivial, and what are 
important ; and selects the latter, to guide him through difScult 
and perplexed mazes of investigation. In the words of D'AIem- 
bert, " Ces hazanh ne tant que pour ceux <piijouent ^en.'" 

Th« talents and qualifications which are here represented as 
having characterized the nund of Dr Priestley, though not of 
the rarest kind, or of the highest dignity, were yet such as ad- 
mirably adapted him for improving chemical saence at the time 
when he lived. What was then wanted, was a wider field, of 

* Tbese charges, espedall? tbat of plagiarism, which hud been uiy'iutly 
advanced by some friends of Dr Higgiaa, were triumphantly repelled by Dr 
PiiCBtley, in a pomphlat entitled, " Philosophical SmpiricigDi," puUuhed in 

L ,l,z<,i:,., Google 

6 - Dt 'Heary^s Estimate ^ 

flbservaticHi ; — an «iliirged sphere of chemical j^mwiaia ;— an 
acquainUnoe with a far greater number of individual bodies, 
Aaa vm .tb«n known-; fiom the properties of which, and from 
tboce of thar comtnnatiotw, tentaCire approximatftms to general 
pmciples ini^t at first be deduced ; to be confirmed or correct- 
ed, enl&i^ed or drcumscribed, by future experience. It would 
hare retarded the progress of science, and pUt off, to a far dis- 
tant ^sy, that affluence c^ new facts which Priestley so rapidly 
accumulated, if he had stopped to investigate, with painful and 
rigid -fWecinOn, all-tbe minute draimstances of temperature, of 
qtedfic gravity, of 'absolute and relative weights, and of crystal- 
line structure, on which the more exact science of our own times 
is firmly based, andfrtHn which its evidences must henceforward 
be dedvsd. Nor could such refined investigations have then 
been euried on with any success, on account of the imperfec. 
tkm of pbiiogophical instruments. It would have been fruitless, 
also, at that time, to have indulged in speculations respecting tbe 
ultimate constitution of bodies ; — speculations that have no solid 
ground-work, except in a class of &ctB developed within tbe litat 
thirty-five years, all tending to eslabUsh the laws of combination 
in definite and in multiple propcmianB, and to support the still 
pux« extensive generaliKation, which has been reared 1^ the 
genius of Dsdt(X). 

. It was, indeed, by tbe activity of his intellectual faculties, 
eather than by their reach or vigour, that Dr Priestley was 
enabled lo render such important services to natural stnence. 
We should look, in vain, in aoy thing that be has achieved, for 
demonstratioDs of that powerful and sustained attention, whidi 
enables the mind to institute dose and accurate compariaiBis ;— 
to trace resemblances that are far from obvious ;— <nd to dis- 
criminate ^fferences that are recondite and cbecun. The ana^ 
k^lies which caught his observation lay near the surface, wd 
were eagerly and hastily pursued ; ofiten, indeed, beyond the 
boundaries within which they ought to have been civcumscribf 
cd. Quick as his mind was in the perception of reserablaoces, 
it appears (probably for that reason) to have been little adapt- 
ed for those pn^und and cautious abstractiuis, which supply 
the only solid foundations of general laws. In sober, patient, 
and successful inductiwi, Prjestley must yield the palm to many 

the PhilompAiail Character <fDr PrieiUe^. 7 

odwEB, who, though far leas fotile thui hhmdf in dmt and 
bappj comlnnadonB of thought, surpaned him in the wc oT c 

ttaicbiDg and ngorouB logic; m the art of advanoii^, by seoure 
iteps, irom jfibnomaia to gcnnal ccochuioDS ;-;-and again m 
the em^Uryamt of gcottal axioms as the instnunents of ikrtber 

Among the defects of his {^liloBophical habits, may be re- 
marked, that he frequently pursued an object ti inquiry too es- 
clusiTeJy, Deglectiag others, vhich were necessarily coonectod 
with it, and which, if investigated, would hare thrown great 
light on the main reneardi. As an instance, vaay be menticHted 
hia waittiog to examine the rtjation of gases to water. This 
tdation, of which he had indistinct glimpses, was a source <^ 
perpetual embanrasunent to him, and led lum to imagine cfaang- 
ts in the intimate constitution of gases, which were in fiut doe 
to nothing more than an interchange of place betweoi the gat 
in the vatex and that above the water, or between the former 
and the external atmosphere. Thus he erroneoudy suppowd 
that hydrogen gas was transmuted into azotic gas, by reaun< 
tng loag confined by the water of a pneumatic dstem. Tha 
lame eager direction of his mind to a ungle object, caused him 
also to om'look sevnal new substances, which he must ne> 
eessarily have obtained, and which, by a more wati^ul care, be 
night have secured and identified. At a very eariy period t^ 
lus inquiries, (viz. before November 1771), he was in possessioB 
of oxygen gas from saltpetre, and had remarked its striking ^ 
feet on the flame of a candle ; but be pursued the subject no 
&uiher unnl August 1774, when he again procured the iwne 
kind of gas from the red oxide of mercury, and, in a less pure 
state, from red lead. Placed thus a second time within his 
grasp, he did not omit to make prize of this, his greatest, dis. 
covery. He must, also, have obtained chlorine by the sotuticm 
c^ manganese in spirit of salt ; but it escaped his notice, because, 
bong received over mercury, the gas was instantly abswbed*. 
If he had employed a bladder, as Sdieele afterwards did, to 
collect the produce of the same materials, be could not have 
fuled to witicipate the Swedish philosc^her, in a discovery not 
less important than that of oxygen gas. Carbonic oxide early 
* Series ii. p. 2G3. 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

8 Dr Henry's EatimaU of 

and repeatedly preiented itself to bis obsetratioD, withont fns 
being aware of its true diBtinctions from other kinds <tf -inflam. 
mable air ; and it wasrestrved for Mr Cnrickshank of Wodwich 
to unftdd its real nature and characters. It is rernaricaUe also, 
that in various parts of his works, Dr Priestley has stated fasts 
that might have given him a hint of the law, «nce unfolded by 
the sagacity' of M. Gay-Lussac, " that gaseous eubstances com- 
bine in definite volumes." 
He shows that 

1 measure of fixed air unites with 1$ measure of alkaline air, 

1 measure of mlphurouB acid with S measures of do. 

1 measureof fiuor acid with St measures of do. 
: 1 measure of oxygen gas with S measures nitrous, very 
nearly ; 
and that by the decomposiuoa of 1 vol. of ammonia, 3 vols, of 
hydrogen are evolved. 

Let not, ■ however, fulures such as these tQ reap all that was 
within Ins compass, derogate more than thdr due share from 
the merits of Dr Priestley ; for they may be traced to that very 
ardour of temperament, which, though to a certain degree a 
di^squalification for close and correct observation, was the vital 
and sustaining prin<npte of his zealous devotion to the pursuit 
of sdentific truth. - Let it be remembered, that philosophers of 
the lofdest pretensicHis are chargeable with similar overughts ;^— 
that even Kepler and Newtoa overlooked discoveries, upon the 
very confines of which they trod, but which they left to coni^r 
glory on the iiames of less illustrious followers. 
■ Ctf the general correctness of Dr Priestley's experiments, it is 
but justice to him to speak with decided approbation. In some 
instances, it must be ackoowledged, ihat his results have been 
recti6ed by subsequent inquirers, chiefly as respects quantitjea 
and proportions. But of the immense number of new facts 
originating with him, it is surprinng how very few are at vari- 
ance with recent and correct observations. Even in these few 
examples, his errors may be traced to causes connected with the 
actual condition of snence at the time ; sometimes to the use of 
impure substances, or to the imperfection of his instruments of 
research ; but never to carelessness of inquiry or negligence of 
truth. Nor was he more remarkable for the zeal with which 

the PkUoiophkai CkaraOer ofDr PnetUey. 

he sought satiBfactory evideoce, thwi for the fiddity wkh which 
he T^torted it. In do one instoooe is he chargeable wilh dub- 
ststing, or even with straining or colouring, a fact, to suit an 
hypothecs. And though this praise may, dmibtless, be craw' 
ceded to the great majority of experimental ]:^ik«opher8, yet 
Dr Priestley was ungularly exempt from that dispontioo to 
view phenomena through a coloured medium, which sometimes 
steals imperceptibly over minds of the greatest g^ieral probity. 
This security be owed to his freedom from all undue attach- 
ment to hypotheses, and to the facility with which he was accua- 
tomed to frame and abandon them ;— a fadhty resulting not 
fiom habit only, but Irom principle. " Hypotheses^ be pro- 
nounces, in one place, " to be a cheap commodity i" in another 
to be ** of no value except as the parents of facts C and so far 
, as he was himself concerned, he exhorts his readers " to cchiu- 
der new facts only as discoveries, and to draw oonclunons for 
themselves." The only exception to this general pruse is to be 
fMind in the. pertinacy with which he adhered, to the 1a>t> to 
the Stahtian hypothesis of phlogiston ; and in the anxiety which 
he evinced to reconcile to it new phenranena, which were con- 
iddered by almost all other philosophers as proofs of its utter 
unsoundness. But thb anxiety, it mu^ be remembered, was 
chiefly ^parent at a period of hfe, when most men feel a reluc- 
tance to change the principle of arrangement, by which they 
have been long accustomed to class the multifarious particulars 
.of their knowledge. 

In all those feelings and habits that connect the purest morals 
with the highest philosophy (and that there is such a connec- 
tion no one can doubt), Dr Priestley is entitled to unqualified 
esteem and admiration. Attached to science by the most gene- 
rous motives, be pursued it with an entire disregard to his own 
peculiar interest He neither sought, nor accepted when offer- 
ed, any pecuniary aid in bis philosophical pursuits, that did not 
leave him in possession of the most complete independence of 
thought and of action. Free from all little jealousies of con- 
temporaries or rivals, he earnestly invited other labourers into 
the field which he was cultivating; gave publicity,. in his own 
volumesr to their experiments ; and with true candour, was as 
ready to record the evidence which contradicted, as that which 

10 Dr Henry's EttimaU ^ 

oonfinKd, Ub oirn viewB Mid Koults! Every hint wbaA he 
bad' tienred from the -wtitii^ or coDversation of odienim uii> 
neenvdly aobiowledgcd. Aa the bert vt^ of aoGeJenting the 
fKQgseea of acieace, be reconuneaded and pradtiaed tix eariy 
^bliostion of all diaooTciies ; though (juke' avare that, in bi> 
•ira cose, more duraUe fame would often have resulted from a 
.delayed ani more finisfaed perSixnatace. " Theee psnons,^ be 
janarics, " are very fHroperly disapptnotcd, who, for the sake (rf a 
iittle nKNie re^mtatioD, delay publishing their discoveries till 
4faey are anticipated by others."' 

In pekiect cooastency with that liberality of temper which 
has been ascribed to Dr Priestley, it may be remarked also, that 
be uxdi the most enlao^^ views of the scope and objects of Na- 
iural Science. In various passages of bis *rarks he has eafcaced, 
irith wiarm and impreeeive eloquence, the conaderations that 
4ow from ibo'contemplation of those arrangements in the mu 
-tural woiU^-wtncb are not only perfect in themselves, hut are 
esssnUal parts of one grand and harmonious design. He strenu- 
ously recommends experimental philosophy as an ^reeaUe re- 
Uef from employments that excite the feelings or overstrain the 
aUentionj and he proposes it to the young, the high<bom, and 
,the affluent, as a source of pleasure unalloyed with theanxietiea 
and a^tatioos of public life. He regarded the benefits of its 
investigations, not merely as issuing in the ooqitirement of new 
facts, however strilung and valuable ; nor yet in the deduction 
of general principles, however sound and important ; but as 
bamng a necessary tendency to increase the intellectual power 
and energy of man, and to exalt human nature to the highest 
dignity of whidi it in suscep^ble. The springs of such in- 
quiries be represents as inexhaustible; and the prospects, that 
may be gained by successive advances in knowledge, as in them- 
selves " truly sublime and glorious." 

Into our estimate of the intellectual character of an indivi- 
dual, the extent and the comprehensiveness of his studies most 
always enter as an essential dement. Of Dr Priestley it may 
be justly affirmed, that few men have taken a wider range over 
the vast and diversified field of human kiiowledge. In devo- 
ting, through the greater part of his life, a large portion of bis 
attention to theological pursuits, he fulfilled, what he strongly 

.■ CoLwk 

the FkUasophical Character tfUr PrietSey. 11 

fielt to be hu primuty duly a« a imaMter of t^paa- Tbi> m 
not the fit occasion to prmounee an 'Opinioa c^ the fruits td 
those inquiries, rdatnl as they are to topici wlndi still eoo. 
tinue to be>' agitated u mtftera of earneat cootroveny.; In 
£thic8, in Metsphyncs, in the philotophy of Language and in 
that of General History, he expatiated tai^y. He has giT«M ' 
particular histories of the SoflDces of Electri^ty and of Option 
charaoerized by strict impartiality, and by great penpocuity of 
language and arrang^nent. Of the mathematics, he appMUS 
to have had only a general or elementary knowledge ; nor, p«t^ 
baps, did the origiiud qualiues, or acquired habits, of his mind 
fit him to excel in the exact at^ences. On the whole, though 
Dr Priestley may have been surpassed by many, in vigour of 
uttderatanding and capadty for profound research, yet it woold 
be .difficult to |»oduce an instanoe of a writer more eminent 
for the variety and versatility of his talents, or more meritorious 
for thw aealous, unwearied, and productive employment. 


Since the foregoing pages were written, I bave added a few 
remarks on a passage contained in a recent work of Victra- 
Cousin, in which that writer has committed a material error as 
to the origin of Ur Priestley's philosophical discoveries. <* I^a 
chimie," he observe^ " est une creation du dixhuiti^me siecle, 
une creation de la France ; c'est I'Europe entiere qui a appel^ 
chimie Pranfaise le mouvement qui a imprime h cette belle sci- 
ence une impulsion si forte et une direction ri sage ; c^est 4 
Texemple et sur les traces de Lavtnsier, de Guy ton, de Four- 
croy, de Berthollet, de Vauquelin, qui se sont formes et que 
marcbent encore les grands chimistes Strangers, ici Priestley et 
Davy ; U Klaproth et Berzelius.'" (Cours de THistoire de la 
Fhiloeopbie, torn i. p. &5.) 

It is to be lamented that so enlightened a writer as Victor 
Couran, yielding, in this instance, to ihe seduction of national 
vanity, should have advanced pretenaons in bdialf of his 
countrymen, which have no foundation in truth or justice. No- 
thing can be more absurd or unprofitable than to claim honours 


18 Ttr Henry'-a Ettimate of 

in stnence, rather for individuals or for nations, the title to which 
may be at once set ^de hj ao appeal to public and authentic 

- It was in England, not in France, that the first decided ad- 
vances vere made in our knowledge of elastic fluids. To say 
nothing of anterior writers, Dr Black had traced the causticity 
acquired by alkaUes, and by certain earths, to thrar being freed 
from combination with fixed air ; and Mr Cavendi^, in 1766, 
had enUrged our knowledge of that gaa and of inflammable 
air. In England, the value of these difcovmes was fully ap. 
preciated ; in France, little ot no attentim was paid to them, 
till the philosophers of that country were roused by the striking 
- phenomena exhibited by the experiments of Priestley. Lavoisier, 
it is true, had been led, by an examination of evidence derived 
from previous writers, to discard the hypothesis of phlogiston. 
The discovery of oxygen gas by Dr Priestley not only completed 
the demonstration of its fallacy, but served as the ctnu^-stoiM 
of a more sound and consistent theory. By a series of researches 
executed at great expense, and with consummate skill, the 
French philosopher verified in some cases, and corrected in 
others, the results of his predecessors, and added new and im- 
portant observations of his own. Upon these united, he 
founded that beautiful system of general laws, chiefly relating 
to the absorption of oxygen by combustible bodies, and to the 
constitution of acids, to which alone the epithet of the Aoti^ 
phlogistic or French theory of chemistry is properly applied. 
Of the genius manifested in the construction of that system, and 
the taste apparent in its expoution, it is scarcely possible to 
speak with too much praise. But it is inverting the order of timt 
to assert, that it had any share in giving orijpn to the researches 
of Priestley, which were not only anterior to the French theory, 
but were carried on under the influence of precisely oppo^te 
views. This, too, may be asserted of the discoveries of Scheele, 
who, at the same period with Dr Priestley, was following, in a 
distant part of Europe, a scarcely less illustrious career. 

It is the natural progress of most generalizations in srience, 
that, at first too hasty and comprehensive, they require to he 
narrowed as new facts arise. This has happened to the theory 
of Lavoisier, in consequence, of its having been discovered, 


the P/iaios(^bical Character of Br Priettlei/. 13 

that combustion is not necessarily acconopatiiecl widi an absorp- 
tion of oxygen, and that acids exist independently of oxygeo, 
regarded by him as the general acidifying principle. But after 
all the deductions that can justly be made on that account 
from the merits of Lavoisier, he must still hold one of- the 
highest places amaug those illustrious men, who have advanced 
chemistry to its present rank among the phyacal sdences. It 
is deeply to be lamented that his fame, otherwise unsullied, 
should have been stained by his want of, candour and justice 
to Dr Priestley, in appropriating to himself the discovery of 
oxygen gas. This diarge, c^ten jnreferred and never answered, 
would not have been revived in this place, but for the claim 
so recently and indiscreetly advanced by M. Victor Counn. 
To the credit of Dr Priestley it may be observed, that in 
asserting his own ri^t, he exercised more forbearance than 
could reasonably have been expected under such drcumstances- 
Id an unpublished letter to a friend, he thus alludes to the 
subject of M. LavcHuer's pla^^arism. ** He,^ (M. HAvoisier) 
" is an Intendani rf the FmanceSy and has much public 
business, but finds leisure for various philosophical pursuits, 
Jbr which he is exceedingly well qualified. He ought to have 
acknowledged that my giving him an account of the air I had 
got from Mercfirius Calcmatug, and buying a quantity of M. 
Cadetvwhile I was at Paris, led him to try what air it yielded, 
which he did presently after I left. I liave, however, barely 
hinted at this in my second volume.*" The communication 
alluded to was made by Dr Priestley to M. Lavoisier in October 
ITIi i and the memcnr, in which the latter assumes to himself 
the discovery that mercurius calcinatua (red oxide of mercury) 
affords oxygen gas when distilled per scy was not read to the 
Academy of Sciences before April 1775 f. In evindng so little 
irritability about his own claim, and leaving its vindication with 
oalm and just confidence to posterity, the English philosopher 
has lost nothing of the honour of that discovery, which is now 
awarded to him, by men of science ^f every country, as solely 
and nndividedly his own. 

• Letter to the lat« Ur Henry, dated Calne, December 31- 1776. 
t See an AbBtract of this Memaii' in the Joamfd da Roxier, Mai 1 TT5. 

( 1* ) 

Account efihe Russian Vapour-Bath. By T. S. Traili., M. D. 
Communicated by the Author.* 

T^HK existetKC in Hoilriiu^ of two eataUishraeBtB wbere the 
Rosnui Vapour.BBth is usedi brought to my recollection the 
descriplioro ginn byAcerU, and other travelien, of the iotense 
beat aoA sudden tranutioa to cold, so much relished by the na- 
tiiHis of Northern Europe, and r^ed my curiosity to experi- 
snce in my own person the eSfacts of this ungular species of 
batfaiiig. I was fonher indoeed to take this step from finding 
myBtil suddenly opfseBied with a violent feverish cold, whii^ 
raised tny pulse connderaUy above 100°, and rendered me lit- 
tle able to jcnn the public dianer-t^e in the Apollo Saal. 

Accompanied by two friends who widied to make the same 
experiment, I repured to the AxEXAinxsBAD, whidi is under 
the directitm of its propriety, a Jewish fAyncian, who had 
Itbendly open^ it gratuitously to the members of the Societyof 
Na^r/bracher^ then assembled at Hamburgh. We were ushei'- 
ed into a very neat saloon, provided with nx couches, beside 
each of which stood a dresnng table, and a convenient appara- 
tas for suspending the clothes of the baUier. Here we un- 
dressed, and were furnished with long flannel dresstng-gowns and 
warm slippers, after which we were all conducted into a small 
hot apartment, where we were denred to lay aside our gowns 
and slippers, and were immediately introduced into the room 
called the bath, in which the dim light admitted through a 
single window of three panes, just sufficed to shew us that 
there were in it two persons, like ourselves in purU tiaturali- 
bta ; one of whom was an essential personage, the operator, the 
other « gentleman just finishing the process by a co[uous affu- 
sion of cold water over his body. This sudden introduction in> 
to an Atmosphere of hot steam was so oppresave, that I was 
forced to cov^ my face with my hands, to moderate the pain- 
ful impre^tai on the lips and nostrils, and was compelled to 
withdraw my head, as murli as posable, from the most heated 

* Read before the Literary and Philoaophical Society of IJverpooL 

I ,l,;<,i:..,G00glf 

Dr Tnull on the Butitan Vapour-Batk. 15 

part of the atmos^diere, bj sitting domi on a low bench which 
ran along two udes of the bath. 

At first our modesty felt some alaim at our perfect nudity, 
and that of those around us ; but I bochi JeU that it would be 
absolutely imposable to endure the contact of any aoit of cove*- 
ing of our nakedness in a temperature so high ; and ooostJed mj^ 
self with the reflection, that it was no worse than the promis- 
cuous bathing I had so ofWn practised at the sea-b^ha of 
Liverpool ; an exposure which, not withstand ing my pasnon fiar 
bathing, was always disagreeable at the comnunoement of each 
season ; but to which cuatiMn had soon rendered me indiflerenL 
' The bath-room is about 15 feet kng^ by about b> .loueb in 
breadth. It is liaed with wood, rendered quite black by con- 
stant immermoQ in hot steam. On two sides it has three tien 
of benches, or rude couches, each of which is calculated to 
hold two persons, with their feet toward each o^er ; so that 
twelve persons might bathe as the same time. The lowest 
bench projects farthest into the room ; they rise two feet above 
each other; and each has a wooden pillow at the ends. 

In one comer of the farther end of the apartment stands 
the furnace, which is supplied with fuel from without, and baa 
a thin arch of fire-brick turned over the fixe, against which the 
flame reverberates, until the arch is red hot . Over this arch is 
built a anall brick chamber, the only aperture to which is by 
a small door about two feet long, and flfbmi inches -wide, 
opening nearly to the level of the arch. To increase the heaU 
ed surface, numerous small earthen jars, or broken pottery, 
are piled on the arch, and all are kept up to a low red heali 
On these, a ba«n of water is occasionally dashed ; and the 
clouds of steam which instantly issue . from the door of the 
heated chamber, form the source of beat employed to maintain 
the temperature of the bath. 

In the corner opposite to the furnace is a reservtnr of cold 
water, into which the person who manages the bath frequently, 
during our stay in the bath, plunged to oool his surface; a 
precaution not unnecessary for an individual who 'is exposed 
daily oght hours, stark naked, to a temperature quite oppre»- 
nve to the luuniliated. Yet this exposure and this allfimatbn 
cannot be unhealthy ; for I never saw a more athletic man thaM 

]6 Dr Traill on the Russian VapouT-Baik. 

this person, who informed me that he had been constantly en> 

gaged in this occupation for sixteen or eighteen months. 

The centre of the ceiling of the bath-room is perforated by 
numeTous holes which allow a copious shower-bath of cold 
wata* to descend on the head of the bather, when a Talve ' 
managed by a cord is opened. 

Such is the apparatps necessary for a Russian vapour-bath. 

After remuning some time in the bath, the first sensaticHts 
of oppressive heat subsided, and I ascended to the second tier 
of benches, the wood of which, however, was somewhat cooled 
by the plentiful affusion of cold water. At each remove this 
f^ration is repeated ; otherwise the contact of the wood would 
be insupportable to the skin. It is needless to say, that the 
pcrsfnration very soon began to run from every pore, not mere- 
ly aa a moist exhalation, but ran oiF in copious streams. This 
greaUy moderated the sensation of heat. 

After lying extended for some lime on the second tier of 
benches, a bucket of cold water was dashed on the upper onej 
and we removed there ; but the heat, so near the ceiling, was 
fully as oppressive as on first entering ; and I found it neces- 
sary to allow the lur to enter my nose through my fingers. If 
I inhaled it with the mouth wide open, I felt an oppressive 
heat in my chest ; but by degrees even this degree of heat be- 
came supportable ; though I never was able to sit upright on 
the upper bench ; so strong was the temperature of the humid 
atmosphere close to the c^ng. 

While we were groping our way from bench to bench, the 
assistant more than once plunged headlong into his cold batli, 
to refresh himself ere he commenced on us the next part of bit 
professional occupation. 

We were one by one requested to descend to the second tier ; 
and the assistant, grasping in his hand a bundle of birch rods, 
began assiduously to whip his patients, who lay extended on the 
bench at full length, from head to heel. This application dif- 
fers essentially from the well remembered scholastic birch di^ 
cipline ; for the leaves are left on the twigs, and tli.e sensations 
produced in no way resemble the efiect of the instrument em- 
ployed in English schools to c<mvey & Jv,ndament(d knowledge 
of Greek and Latin into the heads of our yoiith. In fact, this . 

Dr Traill on the Rustian Vapour-Bath. 17 

specieB of whipping is performed very dexterously, with a sort 
of brushing motion, from the shoulders downwards ; sod the 
application becomes gena^ oyer the body and limbs, as the 
bather turns oo his wooden couch. The sensations produced 
by this operaUoD are agreeable, and are very far from producing 
that excessive redness of the surface described by Acerbi. 

The operator now anoints the whole body with a liquid mild 
aosp ; and, after again mounting to the upper tier for some time, 
we descend one by one to the middle of the floor, where a power- 
ful afiuston of cold water from ihe shower-bath in the ceiling re- 
moves every vestige of soap. This sudden a^'usion of cold wa- 
ter is remarkably grateful ; it is scarcely possible to describe the 
effect, which is highly exhilarating and refreshing. 

It is usual again to undergo the steaming after the tempera- 
ture of the bath is increased by the affuaon of water on the 
glowing pottery in the furnace. For this purpose, the opera- 
tor opens the door above described, and placing us out of the 
direction of the immediate efflux of the steam, he dashes, in suc- 
cessive jets, a small bucket of water into the furnace. The 
apartment is instantly 611ed with clouds of steam, at a high tem- 
perature i and when the door of the aperture as closed, we re- 
sume our places on the benches, gradually proceeding to the 
highest, OS we become inured to the temperature. From the 
upper tier we finally descend to have the cold shower-bath re- 
peated ; af^er which we leave the bathing-room, are rubbed dry 
by asnstants in the small heated apartment, where we resume 
the flannel dressing-gown and slippers, and are reconducted to 
the saloon, where we find the couches spread with blankets ; 
and we recline for half an hour in a most profuse perspiration, 
and in a state of luxurious Unguor, and mental tranquility. 

On a subsequent occaMon, I provided myself with the means 
of ascert^ning the temperature of the bathing-rooo), and noted 
its effect on the pulse of myself and two other bathers. The 
heat is generally from 45° to 50° of Reaumur ; that is, from 
133°.S5 to 14<4°.5 of Fahrenheit On the occasion referred to, 
it ranged in the bath, during my stay, from 42° to 46° R., = 
126°.5 and 135°.5 F. in the lower part of the bathing-room; 
but I was unable to examine the temperature near the ceiling, 
on account of the thick vapour, and the intensity (tf the tempera- 

VOL. XIII. so. XXV. — JHLT 1832. B ,M,ili> 

18 Dt Traill on the Rustian Vapour-Ba^ 

ture, which afi^cted my eyea. This t«nperKture, h^h as it is, 
is far short of what Acerbi asicrts of the FiDiuah baths ; he says 
that they reached from tOP to 76° of Celrius, = to IfiS" to 16T 
of our scale : but perhaps his tb^rmonctcrs were subject to the 
influence of the open firp-ploce in the rude bothsof that pco[de; 
for their furnace coneisted of s few loose stones pieA tato a sort 
of rude arch, over a fire on the floor of the hut : or perhaps he 
did not accurately ascertain the temperature ; as he never en- 
tered the bath but momentarily, for the purpose of pladng his 
theriDOiDeter ; and I am confirmed in (his by observing that the 
Finnish operator, in his ^axe, appears dressed in her ordinary 
clotheS) which I ^ould think insupportablG in so high a tempe- 
rature as he assigns. 

The eflect of the Russian vapour-bath is to accelerate the 
pulse, which soon r^iuns its natural standard on leaving the 
bath ; and, when I took it in a highly feverish state, I was with- 
in an hour after entirely free of fever, and abie fully to enjoy 
th« philosophic soir^ that evening. 

On bathing a second time, I was accompanied by the same 
two friends : our pulsen were befoir about 74 in a minute. On 
just coming out of the bath, 

Dr Traill's pulse, . - =116 

Mr Johnston's do. - - =88 

MrPalk'sdo. - - - = 88 
A quarter of an hour afterwards, while on the couch, they were 
as follows : 

Dr Traill's pulse, . - =111 

Mr JohostCHi's do. - - =88 

MrPalk'sdo. - - - = 88 
After being dressed, and sitting in an adjoining cofiec-room, ' 
perhaps one hour after the bath, . 

Dr Traill's pulse beat, - - =88 

Mr Johnston's do. - - =88 

Mr Talk's do. - - - =80 
These experiments shew the great difference in the excitabi- 
lity of the heart in different individuals^ from exposure to the 
same heat. My pulse, in my best healthr is about 70 ; fflnce I 
had the gout it ranges &om 74 to 80, but is very et^ily ex> 
dted; and I have often found it riused to more than 90 by an 
interesting conversation, or even a cup of stnmg tea. 

Ih- TniU OH the Bustian V^nur-Batk. 19 

The process <^' ^ rapour-bath is completed by a pleDtifuJ 
suj^ly of towels, with vhicit we gradually dry the surface, 
while we are well mMed down by an asnatant We then re- 
sumed OUT drees, and retired to a coffee-rocHn, where there was 
a jdentiful supply of newspapers, and had a cup of good eo^e 
for twopence Sterling. As I have already stated, the baths 
were free to the nalur/bracher ; but I ascertained that the whole 
expense <^ the bath and its accompaniments is not more than 
one marc, or sixteenpenee English, and fat twopence more the 
ba^er is entitled to a cup of co^e, and to read the newspapers 
in a handsome apartment. 

I received from the liberal owner pennission to examine his 
sfJendid establishment of vapour and shower baths devoted to 

The vapour-bath resembles that already described, but is 
much neater. 

The variety of shower-baths surprised me. They are of 
every coneeivaMe toTta, from the powerful stream to the mi- 
nute drizxing of water from orifices as fine as a needle, which 
jet tiny streams of warm w cold water, at the option of the 
bather, in every pos^ble directioD on her person. By means of 
policed brass arms, curved so as to enclose the body, move^e 
by universal joints, connected with a cistern, and perfixated with 
inoumerabJe minute holes, a crogg^re of jets (if I may be al- 
lowed the expresdon) is kept up on any part of the body. If 
the bather inclines to sit, a perforated seat is placed on a tai^ 
flat trough, which collects and carries, off the water, jets of wa- 
ter play from the various moveable arms from each side, from 
above, and from below, so that every part of the snrfoce is be-, 
dewed. A general stopcock (ximmands the whole flow of wai 
ter, while each brazen-rod is under the control of one appro- 
priate to itself. These are at the disposal of the bather ; and 
each trough or bath is surrounded by curtains' to dcreen the 
person from the eyes of the as^stont. 

Similar shower-baths are appropriated to gentlemen. The 
whole forms one of the most elegant and perfect estaUishmenta 
<^ the kind I have ever seen, and is a som-ce of emolument to 
the spirted proprietor. 

I inquired anxiously into the medical efficacy of die Ruann 

go Dr Traill on the Russian VapouT'Baih. 

vapour-batb, and found that in chronic rheuinatisin, in the stiff- 
ness of limbs consequent on gout, and other Lpi^ cootiaued in- 
flwnmaliona, in some caaes of paUy, in various cutaneous dift- 
ea^es, it is a most powerful and valuable reipedy. While in the 
establisbinent I saw an invalid ent^, who informed me* that^ 
After severe acute rheuipalisDi, of several months' duration, .tie 
W8»fio lame that he bad been carried bj two persons iqiq the 
bajth ; but that, qfter live or six times undei^gniitg the diampline 
I have described, be could walk alone as well as I saw him (he 
had walked, luded by a stick, from his house to the bath), and 
appeared confident that in a little time he should entirely re. 
cover the power and flexibility of his limbs. 

From all I could learn in Hamburgh, I am inclined to consi-' 
der the Russian vapour-bath as a most valuable remedy in some 
chronic diseases, and regret that we have not a simiUr e^tablish- 
ment in any of our medical charitable institutions. 
Febntarv 31. 183!. 

On the Breeding Spots of Birds. By Fbederick Fabkh.* 

Xhe learned editor of the interesting Travels of M- Boie iu 
Norway, considers it as indispensable, for the complete deve- 
lopment of the eggs, that they ccmie in contact with the exterwd 
skin of the bird. This is certainly the case ; but I doubt very 
much if it is the reason of their plucking the feathers off thrir 
belly. Some water-birds, as the different species of Coiymbm, 
preserve the same dense mass of feathers on their belly during 
breeding, as at other seasons. Most birds, however, at this 
period have a much thinner covering on their abdomen than 
usual, and this is produced, in my opinion, partly by the fric- 
tion of hatching, partly by the excess of animal warmth which 
is CMcentrated in that region. The female of the Iceland grous, 
and of many wading birds, have the breast and belly nearly 
quite bare while breeding. But this falling out of the fcadiers 
is a consequence of hatching, and belongs to the next period. 
Aji «itirely different relation takes place among some of the 
boreal aquatic and wading birds. These pluck off a number 

• Thew observationa are taken from Faber's veij interesting woA on the 
Habits and Manners of Bnreaj Birds, of which a trauBlatlon, now finished, 
will, we trust, soon be published 

M- F&het mt the Breeding spoil of Birds. «! 

of feathers from one or moie spots of the belly on the develop- 
ment of the pairing impulse, and before they have Wd any eggs. 
Of have b^un to hatch. This gives rise to certain naked BpMs, 
which I call BrVeeRng spots. The utility of this arrangement 
is various. There is generally so thick a layer of feathers upon 
the belly of most aquatic birds, that without some process of this 
kind, the eggs would hardly ever be brought directly in contact 
with the skin of the mother. In the second place,. most aquatic 
birds have no nest, or other means of furnishing warmth to their 
*ggs, even in the coldest climates. The breeding spots thus 
form as it were a nest on the body of the parents, as they collect 
with their bills all tlie eggs into this artificial cavity, so that they 
are quite surrounded by the feathers. 

The discovery of this peculiar phenomenon in the history of 
the bcff«al birds is entirely my own. Only occasionally do we 
find former writers directing our attention to these breeding spots, 
but none seem to have recognised their real importance. Bang ' 
only found in the boreal birds, the discovery was reserved for 
a naturalist who had an opportunity of spending the summer in 
their native haunts. Gunnerus remarks of the ProceUaria gla- 
ciaiia*, that he had found no such cavity, but that the n:>ediCRl 
student Martin bad observed-|- them to possess a hole under the 
cn^ beneath the lai^ feathers, which he thought might per- 
haps serve for the hatching of eggs. Fabricius remarks, also of 
this Hid J. that he had found this hollow ; his words are, Jretun 
deplumem sub abdomine eiiam reperi. M. Brae Imb observed, 
ID his Travels (p. 192), which were written at the fiame time 
with my Prodromus, With respect to the Lestris parasiHc'a, thsft 
thisbird lays only two eggs, and shews that the two pbrenta, 
which sit alternately, have on both aides of the belly a naked 
spot^ of'thenieof one of the eggs, and the editOF hazards th>e 
conjecturo tiiat thtse naked spots may be found in many crthers 
pf ihe aquatic and wading tribes. 

'Tbetroe Oaes of these spots I shall now endeavour to unfold- 
Sirdsiseldom' phick aStheat feathers in order to lay them in (be 
nl3sti Thoeeirfnrii aremosti naked of alt dilring th6 breed- 
ing season,' dther build no nest, ot have no feathers in it. Only 

■Mem. of the'Drontheim Soc. L 198. , _ , ..,-. 

t Tranaict. of the itojal Acad, of Sciences of Sweden for 17511. 

t Fauna Groenlandica, p. 86. '. O Og I C 

^ U. Fiber on Ote Breeding SfMOi ^Birdi. 

the Jtuu aad Sola tear out thor featfaerg to liee thmr nesU.' 
Therefore, we do not find in the nest the feathers wUch have 
be«i taken off the body of the bird. It is nece»ary tbat a por- 
tion of the g^-eat taafs which covers .the abd&men be reeaoved, in 
order that the eg^ come into immediate contact with the epi- 
d«inii. Tfaisis the first use of the breeding spots. It cannot, 
however, be thrir only use, because they are wanting in many 
of the aquatic birds of the cunpound nKMM^ray, whose coat of 
feathers, as just mentioned, is no thinner, as in the Suta and 
Carbo. They must, therefoFe, be intended to envelope and fur- 
nish the eggs with warmth. 

I have found these breeding spots only in the boreal aquatic 
birds, and confined to those species which helof^ to the po'feot 
»r compound monogamy. It would be extremdy interesting if 
tb^r existwce could be established in the aquatic birds of other 
KHtes *. They are never found in the genera Cohfmbus and /V 
dkeps, which belong to the partial monc^anay. They are equally 
wantjog in those «mply mc»x>gatnooB, as the Mergtu, Anas, 
Anaer, C^gnus. But idi these birds have the habit of ptuckii^ 
out their feathers for the pui^xMe of limng their nests, which 
does not exist in those fMrde which behxig to the perfect nmaa- 
gamy, such as the Phaiarepus, Uria, Alca, Mormon^ Carbo, 
P»iffiMU3, Suia, Sterna, Lanta, Lettris, and Procellaria. Breed- 
ing ^wts are found in all th^se genera, with the exception of the 
Svla and Carbo. 

As both male and fem^ of ibece species share the labours of 
hatching, the breeding-spots are found in both sexes, with tbe 
remarkable exception, however, of the Phaiarepus, where they 
exist only in the nale f. Among the many hundred individuids 

' Since tbe sbove was written, ( have had an opportunitj of auertaiiiu^ 
the existence of these breediiif -Vt> '" ^^ Danish gullH and wa^wallowa, 
during a ztxtk^jical excursion in the sunnier of 1824. They exist both in 
the male and female of tbe Laras argenlattu, L. ndibwndvs, Stenui arctiea, ctu- 
pia, nigra, and tainuta. Their position and number is the same as in tbe 
northern Individuals of these species. In some wading tdrds, of botfc sexes, 
as tbe Charadriui hiatioula and altifiau, I foufid ■ spot in the middle of the 
•bdomen, besides ■ thinner cover at Atatbeis on the breast, which they have 
in common witb most land birds, and the other wading birds, at the breeding 

T M. Holbol has since assured me that, in Greenland, he bas not only 
found tbe breeding-spota solely in the male of the genus, but that he never 
saw a female at the breeding-place. But 1 have found bolb mates leather at 
the neat in Iceland, but the male only sitting oa the young- Can we infer 

M. Faber on tke Bneding SpoU (fBinU. 33 

of thcw ifwcics which I have ciKi n imed at the bvteiiag aeason, 
I fakve Bot seen a angle iaataiwe of these being Hsntii^, or of 
tlMT puyiBg in poeiuoR and Bumber in the iodividiuli of the 
ause «pecies. For they are not a coowquenoe of an ueutual 
deficieacy of fMthers in tfane birdt, bat tbey foJJov liie noet 
predK rules both m regard to pontjoa and nii«b», and ftirqish 
a ««re sftecifie cWaoter of the difEerent boreal ai)uatic bird*. 

Tbeir ntrnber is only tvo ; in my prodroinui (p. 90.) it is 
indeed stated that the Lamt tridaci^iut ha> frani thnce t9 four. 
But I had befcM^ me at tiie time spedmens wiiiidi were only com- 
mencing the prooeas of the recBoral of feathers from the heUy ; 
Md I do not doubt, but that, aa in the other aorthcm guUe, 
tbeie di&dCDt fwtdies would have uuited into aaiagle one in the 
oemtSB a£ ibe abdooien, when it had assumed its fini^ed fonn. 
The P/udaropiu, Uria gryHe and alie, Alca tarda. Mormon 
fratercula, LestrU, have two breeding ^ts. The Uria brun- 
rucbU and treile, Fi^nta ardiau, Stenta oreAx, Larttt iri- 
4actf/lua, giauatt, marinua, and the PioceUana glacialu, iutve 
font one spot. One of the mott imptstant distinctiona betneen 
die .dica tarda and Uria troile attctorum is, that the former has 
two and the latter but one breading spot. 

In regard to posUioH, the^ an always on the belly, jiever oh 
the breast ; and when one only is present, it is condantly in the 
middle of the belly ; when two exist, they are eymmetrically on 
each ade. Their^/grm is circular and proportioned to the size 
and number of the f^gs wbioh diey have to cover. A central 
spot is always lar^r than each of a pair. 

Their DHmber occasioBBily corresponds to ihat a£ the eggs, 
Iwt aoinetiniea tbene are more eggs ^an spots, as in the Lanm .- 
in the Alca torda, and Mlornonf rater aiia, the iipots exceed tJke 
e^s in number. When a bird has mare eggs than spots, theae 
are generally large, and capable of including more than a single 
e^. When the spots are more numerous than the eggs, these 
change their portion. 

from the deBciency of the breeding-apots in the Phataroput, a similar defect 
in the breeding impulse? This genus would then be a soHtar; exception, 
uf one iodividuxl lading the eggs, and another hatching them. It must, h«W' 
erer, lie observed in gi^neral, that we can always infer the breedin); impuise 
to be present when bFeedtng.8piit8 exist, but «ot ace neria i as, for exunple, 
neithei sex (tf tiM StiU or Carte his ibcecding ^pots, although toth hatch. 

34 M. Faber m the Breeding Spots. of Bmb. 

The Uria gryUe, Lettris caiarradet, pQmarma, and paroti- 
tica, have two eggs and two breedipg spots. Tbe Uria Awn- 
tKcAH and troile, Pt^nut arcticua, uid ProctSaria glackilvt 
have one e^ and one spot. The Uria (tile, AUa tordoy and 
Mormonjratercula, have but one egg aad,two breeding appta. 

The P/uUaroptu cinereta, and Pla^hmchus, la; four.fggl^ 
and have but two breeding spots. The Sterna arctita, Lanu 
glaucua, marmui, and tridachflua, have scwnetiioes tbreei some> 
tknes two e^a, but constantly only one breeding spot. 

These spots are not endrely meant to supply the place <4 a 
nest ; they are, there&re, not invariably in an invene ratio to 
the building impulse. Certainly, tbe species which want theae 
spots, as the S»la and Carbo, build a D^t ; most of those, also, 
which are provided with them build no nest, as tbe Phaiarcputt 
Urioy Aka, Morindu, Ptiffima, Sterna, Les£ria, ProceSaria ; 
but the genus Lotus have breeding spots and build nests. 

Their presence is therefore merely a proof of the development 
of the pairing impulse, but is not to be considered as synony- 
mous with the laying of ^[gs or hatching. Birds pluck out these 
feathers before oven they have jtuned their mates, and without 
bmng certain of breeding that year. Therefore I have found 
them in May, in individuals of the Lestria catarractet, and Pro- 
ceUaria glacial, which were so far out at sea, and removed 
from the breeding places of the species, that I had good cause 
for reckoning these barren birds, which pass the summer with- 
out breeding. They also eicist in the single individuals of the 
Lestrii parasitica, which flock about together. 

AfWr hatching is over, these bare spots are very quickly 
again covered with feathers. All traces, of them have disap- 
peared in August and September, when the young of some 
speaes are not yet fledged. 

Analysis <^the Stony Pericarp (^ the LUJtospermum officinale. 
By Captain Chakles Li Hbstk. (Communicated by the 

\I/iti8 may be considered one of the most remarkable substances 
in the vegetable kingdom, its properties, mechanical and chemi- 
cal, are those of a mineral, rather than that of a vegetable. Tbe 

Anali/sU qft)u Pericarp of the LiAoipetmttm offianak. SS 
seeds resemble small, pear<sbaped, pratxlain beads ; Ihe^ are 
yetj hard, difficult to bre^, and hare a high polish. When 
heated, they at (irst become black ; but diey do not ^rink, nor 
does a' white heat change their form, in the ali^tett degree ; it 
destroys, however, tbe^ lustre, and renders them, when the ve- 
getable matter has been consumed, whiter than they were ctfi^. 
bally. Before- the blowpipe, sbiall pointed fragments of die 
pericarp may be partially fosed ; but ibia requires a gtxpd beat 

To deteitBine the naturt and quantity of the earthy consti. 
tuents, the pericarps were care&lly separated from the enclosed 
seeds, and exposed to the action of dilute muriatic acid ; a 
>k>lent effervescence immediately commenced, which did not 
enlJTdy cease for upwards of two hours. At the end of twelve 
hours, the acid liquor was decanted, and the pericarps were well 
washed. Their appearance was not in the least changed ; when 
diied, at a moderate heat, they still retained their original lustre. 
The acid liquor was found to contain a grrat deal of hme, a very 
little phosphate of lime and oxide of iron, with traces of potash 
and magnesia, which were separated in the usual manner. 

The pericarps were then heated to destroy the v^elable mat- 
ter, which it is exceedingly difficult to effect ; but, notwithstand- 
ing the intense heat employed, the form of the fragments was 
not changed by it, they merely lost their lustre, and became 
very white. When the vegetable matter was entirely consumed, 
they were again treated with muriatic add, and Mt in a warm 
place for several hours. The acid took up a vety little phoo- 
phate of lime and oxide of iron. The matter insoluble in the 
add, was fused with carbonate of soda, and found to be pure 
siltca. The analysis was repeated, and the compoation of the 
substance appeared to be very uniform. The following - is the 
result : — 

Carbonate of lime, . . . . 4170 

SUict, 16.9 

Vefi^ble matter, small quantitj of idtoaphate oFlirae aod 
nxldeof lrui,witb traces of potaali and cc 

The ulica appears to form the polished surface of the seeds. 
As the acid acted upon the vegetable matter of the pericarps, 
and took up a little phosphate of lime and oxide of iron, that 

86 Bev. I^ BueklaBd on tie Vitality of 

could not be weighed accuralriy, it was Kiuieely powible to eati- 
mate the ^nsntity of carbonic acid that tbey contained, bam tlw 
loss of wciglM caused by the eServcaoaux. I found it a little 
greater tiian it might to have been, on tbe Hipfiostion that the 
wbole of the lime was in the tucte of carbonate ; and I did BOt 
tlank it neceBaarj to have tccoiwse to a vaore debeate mole of 
asoeitaiaiog its quanlttj, for I had no reason to suspect the pre* 
seaoe of any otter sak of lime, excepting a enatl quanlitj of tbe 
{i^Mi^ate. When the dilate miniatic acid was a[^ed to the 
pericarps, die efferTcsoenoe was bnslc ; but they appeoned to of- 
fer some leHstsBce to its action ; and when they were not allowed 
toreinaiD in contact with it, for at leaat twelve botifs, the aitiea 
•IwAjB coBtaued a little hme. Nitric acid, which Beted man 
pow^iiUy upon tJse vegetable Matter, disHolvBd the ^we speedi- 
ly, the fragcorats becaise very ibtn, and tbe oliceous ooatiag . 
alone was left ; but, io tka case, k was q uitc iiiipoMd^ to Taabe 
^ly calculation ftff the carbonic acid. 

' An exaauiuMion of a larger quantity ol' theee seeds might af- 
ford some interesting resulti ; and the whole plant » worthy c£ 
attention. I may remark, tliat they had been collected a year 
mhtiB tbe analyas was made. 

■On the VilalU^ of Toads enclosed in Stone and IVood. By tbe 
Rev. W. BocKtAND, F. R. 8., F. L. S.. F. G. S-, and Pro- 
lessor of Gedogy and Mineralogy in the Uoiverwty of Ox- 
ford. Communicated by the Author. 

In the moBtb of Nonember 1825, I commeuoed the fotlowing 
experiments with a view to expbun the frequent dieooveries of 
toads enclosed within blocks of stone and wood, in cavities that 
are said to have no communication with the external ^r. 

Ib one large block of coarse oolitic limestone, (the Oxford 
oolite from tbe quarries of tieddington) twelve- circular cells 
were prepared, each about one foot deep and five inches in dia- 
meter, and having a groove or shoulder at its upper margin fitted 
to rec»ve a circular plate of glass, and a drcular slate, to pro- 
tect the glass ; the margin of this double cover was closed round, 
. aHd rendered impenetrable to air and water by a lutit^ of soft 

TfNHb en^oted in Wood mud Stone. t? 

clay. Twelve ensller cdls, each six uches deep aad five inches 
io dianieter, were made in aootber block'of compact tilicaBua 
ssndshtne, vi>. die FcDnuit Grit of the Coal tottatlUan near 
Bintol ; these oeHs aho were covered widi niailar piatea «f 
^ass and «late ceaieated at the edge by eky. I^e al^ect of 
the glass coven was to allow the animals to be inapecCed, wtdw 
out (baturbing tbe clay so aa to admit external air or imeoto in- 
to the ceU. Tbe limestone is bo porous durt it is easily peme- 
aible by water, and probably also by air ; the sandstone u very 

On tbe !i6th of November 16SS, one live toad was phuied in 
each"of tbe idiove-ineationed twenty-four oella, and the double 
eoKT of glass and slate jdaced over each of them and cemented 
down by tbe luttog of clay ; the weij^ of each toad in gruns 
was ascertained and noted by Dr Daubeny and Mr Dillwyu, at 
die time of their being [daced in the oells ; that of the smallest 
was 115 grains, and of the largest 1185 grains. The large and 
small aimnalB were distributed in equal prc^Hntion between tbe 
4iinestone and the sandstone cells. 

These blocks of stone were buried tt^tber in my gardes 
beneath tlu^ee feet of earth, and remained unopened until tbe 
lOtfac^DecenberlSSd, on which day they wereexamined. Every 
toad in the smaller cells of the compact sandstone was dead, and 
the bodies of most ai them so much decayed, that they muA 
have been dead some months. The greater number of those 
in the larger oells of porous lunestooe were alive. No. 1, whose 
wei^t when immured was 924 grains, now weighed only 698 
gruas. No. S, whose weight when immured was 1165 grains, 
now weighed 1965 grains. The glass cover over this cdl was 
slightly cracked, so that minute insects might have entered ; 
none, howevo-, were discovered in l^is c^l ; but in another cell, 
whose glass was broken, and the animal within it dead, dieie 
was a lar^ assemblage of minute insects, and a simUar anem- 
hlage also on the outside of the fj^ass of a thisd o^ In tbe 
cell No. 9, a toad which, when put in, weighed 988 graaaa, bad 
increased to 1116 grains, and the glass over it was entice ; but 
as tbe luring of the c«U widiin which tlus toad had iocreaacd in 
weight was not pwtioularly examined, it is probable there was 
sMne aperture in it, by which small insect* found adminioa. 
No. 11 had decreased from 986 gndas to 6fi« grains. 

fS Rev. Dr BuckUnd m th€ VUaHt^ of 

When they.«eK first ezanuned in Deoonber 1SS6, not onty 
were all tbe bhioII toads deail, but the larger ones appeAred 
much emaciated, with the two exceptions above mentioned; We 
have already tUted that tbeae proboUy ow«d tfeeir indraaed 
weight to the insects which had found access to the ceRs asd 
become their fixxi. 

The death of every individual of every siae in tbe ximiMer 
cells of compact sandstooe, appears to have resisted from a dew 
ficieney in the supply of air, in consequence of the sm^htess of 
the cells, and the impermeable nature of the stone ; the larger 
volume of air ori^nally enclosed in the cells of tbe limestose, 
and the poraus nature of tins -stone itself (permeable as it is 
alonJy by water and prc^Ntbly also by air) seems to have-fhvoiir- 
ed the duration of life to the snimols enclosed in them withoift 

Jl should be noticed that there is a defect in these expert- 
nents, aiinng bom the treatmeat of tbe twenty-four toads be- 
fore they were enclosed in the blocks of stone. They were shut 
up and buried on the S6th of November, but the greater num- 
ber of them had been caught more than two months before that 
time, and had been imprisoned altogether in a cucumber frame 
|daoed on common garden earth, where the lupply of food to so 
many individuals was prohaUy scanty, and their confinement 
unnatural, so that they were in an unhealthy and somewhat 
meagre state at the iitae of tbeir imprisoDment. We can there- 
fore scarcely argue with certainty from the death of all these 
individuals within two years, as to the duraticm of life vHbh 
imght have been maintained had they retired spontaneously and 
&Ucn into the torpor of their natural hybernisation in good 
bodily condition. 

The results of our experiments amount to this ; il\ the toads 
both large and small inclosed tn sandstone, and the small toads 
in the limestone also, were dead at the end of thirteen mtinths. 
Before the expiration of the second year, all the Urge on^s alaO 
were dead ; these were examined several times during the second 
year tjirough the glass covers of the cells, but without retnoving 
them to admit air; they appeared always awake with their eyes 
open, and never in a state of torpor, their meagrenessincrgasiiig 
•t -each interval in which they were examihed, until at length 
they -wem found dead ; those two, also, vhidi had gained an ac- 

Toads enoioted in Sioiu and Wood. 9Q 

ceasibo oi weight at the «nd of the first year, and wen> Aen 
au%fu)ly closed up ogaia. w«re emaciattd and dead bdore the 
expiratioo of tlie iecosd yaer, 

. At the same time that tbeae loads vere cndosed in stsne, 
&HU Other Mads of micLdling uae vere enoioaed in three holes 
cut for this purpose, on the north »de of the trunk of an ap]^ 
ttoc ; two being pkced in the largest cell, and each oS the others 
in a single o^ ; thr cells were nearly circular, about five inches 
deepaad three incbea in diameter; they werecaiefully dosed vp 
with a plug of wood, so as to exchide asoess of insects, and 
apparently were aii-tight ; when racamined at the end <^ a yeu*, 
evary one of the toads was dead and their bodies were, decayed^ 

FnHD the fatal result of the ezperinunts made in the smalt 
cells cut in the apple tree, and the Uock of compact sandstone, 
it seemB to follow that toads cannot live a year excluded totally 
from atmospheric tur ; and from the Kxpaimeots in t^e larger 
cells within the block of oolite limestone, it bcqisb probable (hart 
they cannot survive two years entirely exduded froni food ; we 
may therefore conclude, that there is a waat of sufficiently mi- 
nutewd accurate observation in those so Irequ^tiy recorded 
cases^ where toads are said to be found alive within blocks ctf 
stone and wood, in cavities that bad DocoDimuitioation whate««c 
with the external air. The fact of my two toads having in- 
creased in weight at the end of a year, notwithstanding the care 
that was taken to eneloee th«n perfectly by a luting of i^y, 
shews how very anall an aperture will admit minute insects suffi- 
cient to munlain life. In the cell No. 5, where the glass was 
slightly cracked, the communication thovgb small waa obvious-; 
but, in the cell No. 9) where the glass co w mnaiiMd enlirei and 
where it appears certain, from the increased weight of lite endosd 
animal, that insects must h&ve found adisisuon, wt:hafv« an 'ex- 
ample of these minute animals 6DdiDg their way: into a cell, to 
which great care bad been tgkea to .prevent any |x)BsibiliCy of 
access. ., . 

Admitting, then, that toads are ^ccowmioUy found in cavities 
of wood and stone, with which: there is no communicatioa suffi- 
dently Urge to allow the iognew and egress of the animal en- 
closed in them, we may, I think, find a solution c^suoh phene- 
mena in the halnts of these r^tilei, aad of the insects .which 
form their food. The fir^t effort of the ywing toadj as soon as 

80 Bev. Dr Buckland on the Vitaii^ of 

k basleft it» tadpole state and emerged from the water, is to 
seek sbelter io bdbes «nd crences di rocks and tree*. Ad indi' 
vidua], which, when young, may have tJius entered a cavity by 
80ne very ntfrow aperture, woold find abundaBce of food by 
catching insects, whicb like ksdf seek shelter within such can- 
ties, and may bood hare increased so much in bulk aa to render 
it tmposable to go out f^ain, through the narrow ap«ture at 
which it eotwed. A small hole of this kind is very likely to be 
overlooked by common wt^kmen, wboare Ibeoidy people wbose 
(^leratioiM on stcon and wood disclose cavities in the interior of 
sudi subetaDces. In the case of toads, snakes, and lizards, that 
OGCasiaii^ly issue from stones that «k Int^en in a quarry, or in 
siniting wdls, and sometimes even from strata of coal at the bot- 
tom of a cool mine, the evidence is never perfect to shew that 
tbe reptiles w«e entirely enclosed in a solid rock ; no examina- 
uoo is flv^ made until the re|)tile is first discovered by the 
bret^ng of tbe mass in which it was contained, and then it is 
too late toascertain without carefully Tefdacing every fragment 
(and in no case that I have seen reported has this ever be«l' 
drnie) whether ix not there was any kcde or crevice by which 
tbe animal may have entered the cavity from which it was ex- 
ttacted. Without previous examination it is almost impossible 
to prove that there was no snch communieation. In the case of 
rocks near tbe surface of the earth, and in stone quarries, rep^ 
tilea find ready admission to hides and fissures. We have a no- 
torious example of this kind in tbe lizard found in a chalk pit, 
and brought alive to tlie late Cr Clarke. In the case also of 
wdls and coal pits, a reptile that bad fallen down the well or 
shaft, and survived its fall, would seek its natural retreat in 
tbe first hole or uevice it could find, and the miner dislodging 
it from this cavity to which his previous attention had not been 
called, might in ignorance conclude that the animal was coeval 
with the stone fromwhich he had extracted it. 

It remuns only to consider the case, (of which I know not 
any aathraticated example), of toads that have been sud to 
be found in cavities within blocks of limestone to which, on care- 
ful examination, no access whatever could be discovered, and 
where tbe animal was absolutely and entirely closed up with 
stone. Should any siiolv case ever harve existed, it is [MTobidile 
that the oommuniatlioD between this cavity fuid the external 

Toads meioted in. Stone and Wood. SI 

surfdce had beea closed up by stakctibc tncruBtetion after tb* 
animal had beeome too large to umk* ita tacapt. A simUar ex- 
planation loa; be oSered of the much more probaUe caae of a 
live toad haiag entirely surrounded with st^id wood. In each 
case the animal would have continued to mcreate ia bulk to 
long as the smallest aperture remained by which air and insecta 
could fifid admisMoa ; it would [H-ob^y beeome tn^ad as sooo 
as thie aperture was entirely closed by the accumulaUon of stal- 
actite or the growth of wcmd ; but it still remains to be ascertained 
how long this state of torpor may continue under total exdu- 
Hon from food, and from external air : and altbougfa the experi- 
ments above recorded shew that life did not esteod two years 
in the case of any one of the individuals which formed the ■ub> 
jec.t8 of them, yet, for reasons which have been specilied, they 
are not decisive to shew that a state of torpor, ot svepended ani- 
mation, may not be endured for a much longer time by toads 
that are healthy and well fed up, to the mom^t when they are 
finally cut off firom food, and from all direct accesa to atmcapbe- 

The common experiment of burying a toad in a flcmer-pot 
covered with a tile, is of no value, unless the cover be carefully 
luted to the pot, and the hole at tbe bottom of the pot ^so 
closed, so as to exclude all possible access of air, earthworms 
and insects. I have heard of two or three experiments of this 
kind, in which these precautions have not been taken, and in 
wlucb, at the end of a ytat, the toads have been found alive and 

Besides the toads enclosed in stone aiKl wood, four others 
were placed each in a small baun of plaster of Paris, four inches 
deep and live inches in diameter, having a cover of the same ma- 
terial carefully luted round with ctay ; these were buried at the 
same time and in the same place with the blocks of stone, and 
on bdng examined at tbe same time with them in December, 
18^, two of the toads were dead, the other two alive, but much 
emaciated. We can only collect from this experiment, that a 
thin plate of plaster of Paris is permeable to air in a suflvnent 
degree to maintain the life of a toad tor thirteen months. 

In the I9th Vol. No. 1, p. 167, of SillimWs American Jour- 
nd of Science and Artn, David Thomas, Esq. has published some 
observations on frogs and toade in- stone and soUd earth, enw- 

3« On the Vilalittf of Toadg mcloted in Stone a»d Wood. 
merating several authentic and well atte§ted cases; these, how 
ever, amount to bu siore dian a MpetitiaD of thv Cuts so^oFten 
■tatid and admitted to be true, vik, that torpid repdcE occat id 
cavities of stone, and at the depth of many feet in'sraldiid earth ; 
but, they state not soy thing to disprove the possibility of * 
small aperture, by which these cavities may have had communi- 
cation with the external surface, and insects have been admitted. 

The atteudon of the discoverer is always directed more to the 
toad thau to the minutiae of the state of the cavity in which it 
was contained. 

In the Literary Gazette of March IS. 1881, p. 169, there 
is a very interesting account of the habits of a tame male toad, 
that was domesticated and carefully observed during almost two 
years by Mr F. C Hueenbeth. During two winters, from. 
November to March, he ate no food, though he did not become 
torpid, but grew thin and moved mudi less than at other times. 
During tbe winter of 18X8, he gradually lost his appetite and 
gradutJIy .recovered it. He was well fed during two summers, 
and after the end of the second winter, on the 29th of March,' 
18S9, he was found dead. His death was apparently caused 
by an unusually long coiiliiniance of severe weather, which 
seemed to exhaust him before' his natural appetite returned. 
He could not have died from starvatbn, for the day before his 
death he refused a lively fly. 

])r Townson also, tn his tracts on Katural History, fLondon 
1799), records a series of observations which he made on tame 
frogs, and also on some toadS; these were directed chielly"_ 
to the very aHiorbent pftwer of the skin oT these reptiles, aifd ' 
£bow that they take in alnd r<ject' liqtiids, through their skm . 
alone, by a. rapid process of absorption and evaporation^ — a frc^ . 
absorUng sometimes tti h^f an' hour as much ashalf its own 
wMght, and in a few hours the whole of its oWn weight of wa- ' 
ter, and nearly as tafMly giving it off when plttbed in any posi- " 
tion that is warm and removed from moisture. Dr T. contends ' 
that as the fn^ tribe never drink water, this fluid niukt he sup- 
j^ed by tnemidof absorptiMi through the skm. Both frogs and " 
toads have a large bladder, >wlAch is flflen fontid full of water; 
" whatever this fluid may be, {hti says), it is as pure as distilled ' 
water and equally tasfetoBs; dilB i assert aswett of -that of tbe 
toad whidi I have often tasted, as that ctf frogs.*" 

On t/ie Chm^icai Conttiiuiion iff Haxmotomty or Cratsstone. 
By Akthdk Cornell, Esq., F.R.S.E. Communicated by 
the Author •. 

In examining Bome spedment of harmotome from Strontian, I 
observed some crystals which appeared to present a very dif- 
ferent aspect from the ordinary barmotume with which they 
were assodated. The usual crystals of this mineral from the 
above locality are welt known to be of considerable me, and to 
exhibit the form of a rectangular [xisni, Plate I. Fig. 1, tennina- 
ted by a pyramid, the faces of which are set on the lateral edges of 
the prism, two opposite edges of the pyramid being also replaced 
Ity planes. Un the other hand, the crystals to which I have r& 
ferred were a great deal unaller in size, usually not exceedinj[ 
one-tenth of an inch in length, and of greater transparency ; 
uid they presented the apparently very dissimilar form of a 
rhombic prism, Fig. 3, of considerable acuteness, having the 
acute angle more or less truncated by the face A, and termi- 
nated by a pyramid 0, ibe faces of which were set on the lat&- 
ral planes of the prism, and its apex truncated. . They were' 
spread over the surface of calcareous spar in considerable num^ 
bers, and were usually atUched to the matiix by one of the ex- 
tremities lyD. Farther consideration, however, showed that 
this latter form wqs in reality merely a modiBcation, although 
undoubtedly a very conaderable one, of the old form, and 
arose principally from the vertical contraction gf the crystal. 
Fig. 1, and its borizootal dongation in the directioi^ of the faces 
BB', the inclination of the several faces to one another remwit- 
ing always the same; as will be evidrat by comparing F^rea 
1, 3, and 3, Fig. 3 representinganotberformof thcicrystal, whicll 
may be r^arded as intermediate between Figs.'! aqd^, and the 
whole three being placed in- parallel position, with their eorret- 
ponding faces marked by the same tetters. In some rare in- 
stances, the pynamids C C, and the face A, Fig. 8, alnwst en- 
tirdy disappear, so that the crystal spears newly as a eimpla 
riiombic prism; and in others equally. rar^ the face D almost 
disappears, so as to leave the pyramid.nearly without truncation. 
> ■ Jtwd to the B«}ol Sodfltf of Bdinbtugk, Sd April IBSt 
VOL. xin. NO. XXV.-SIPLY. 18Sa *' Cooalc 

94 On the Cheptical CoTtttitution ofHarptetfim^ 

A few minor modifications of both forms also occur, vhich it fs 

unnecessarj to notice. 

I was farther confirmed in these views of* the conneipon be- 
tween the two forms, by the opportunity which the liberality 
of Mr Allan afforded me of consulting the interesting catalogue 
of his collectJon, drawn up by Mr Haidinger, in which I found 
a series of figures of hannotome crystals, presenting, in so far 
as I cbuld judge, a transition of the one form into the other, 
with some of those lesser modifications to which I have alluded. 

As the angle of the faces B, replacing the opposite edg;es if 
thepyraraidinFig.l, has been stated by Mr Phillips as 110° 86*, 
this will of course become the measure of the' rhombic prism. 
Fig. 3, if the foregoing views of the relation between the two 
finiDB are correct. ' 

Before the connexion of the two forms Tigi. 1 aad S had oc- 
curred to me, which was not until I had obsraved « crystal of 
^e form Fig. S, I camnienced an analysis of a portion of (he 
crystals of the rhombic form, Fig. 3, under the idea that they 
might present some modification of the usual constitution t^ 
this mineral ; and although they proved to be merely a baiytie 
barmotome, yet the analyus seems to throw some little addi- 
tional light on the connexion between the barytic and lime va- 
rieties of the mineral. The steps'of the analysts were as followa 

(a.) 7.87 •grains of the crystals in coarse powder Imt, by ig- 
nition, 1.1 grain, equivalent to a loss of 14.9!t5 pa* cent 

(6.) 16.07 gr^ns of the crystals whbli bad been previously 
treated with addulated water, to remove all adhering calcsreouft 
spar, were reduced to impalpable powder,' and then left for thiek 
or four days in contact with muriatic and, a moderate heat beitifj 
octssionally applied. Tile mass did not gelatinize ; but, as w9! 
afterwards appear, the action was quite sufficient fitr the purpose 
of analysis. The whole was evaporated to dtynesa. A littla 
muriatic acid was then poured over it, and left for some Hourtj 
when water was added, and heat applied. The silica was ibrtt 
eeparated by filtrtttim. After ignition, it wngfaed 7.fi5 gr^ns: 
It dissolved in boiling caustic pota^ ley, except b' residue df 
,47; whicb was rcsolv^ by fiinoo with cartxwated alkalies,' ann 
other necessary steps, into .4 of silica, and .01 of oxide <^ iron. 
The total siUca thus amounts to 7.48 grwns. 

L ,i,z<»i:,., Google 

On the Chemical Campoaittori of Hartnotonu. 35 

(c.) The liquid from which the silics had been oqiBratfd wm 
precipitsi^ by ammonia. The pRcipitate, afta: beiag collect' 
edoD a;£lter and duly washed, was dried and ignited. IttbeB 
Weighed 3.53 grwns. It was disaplved io muriatic add, and left 
«.re«dueof .03of silica. The muriatic solution was thra boiled 
with caustic potash. What remained undiasolved by the potash 
waa collected and wash^, and then treated with tnuiiatic acid. 
% residue pf. .OSi of silica was left by the add. The muriatic 
•cdutioD was boiled with nitric and, twutcaliKed by a^nmoiiia, 
rad precipitated l/y benzoatc of ammooiai The benzoate of 
iron was burned with a little nitric acid, and the peroxide of 
iron thus got v^hed .03. The readual fluid boiled with car>- 
bonate of potash gave an insi^ificant white prec^>itate, too 
■(laU to we^h pr examine. - There Uius rqiaauied of alununa, 
dissolved bj the caustic potash, S.45 grains. 

(d.) The liquid whidi bad been precipitated by ammoiua, 
tii^etherwith the washings of the [nrecipitate concentrated by 
^aporation, was beated,'Bn4 carbonate of ammonia added to it 
idiilat hot. The |H«cipitate which fei), w«ghed, after being 
washed, and ignited, 4.36 grains. It was dissdred in dilute 
muriatic add, and left .01 of silica. The solution by evapora. 
titm aflbrded tabular a-ystalsof .miiriatfiiof baryta^ 

(e.) The crystals of muriate of baryta were washed with al- 
ophoL- The alcohol was separated, mixed with' water, and eva- 
porated tp dryaessy when a little deliquescent matter was leA. 
'S^z vn re^lisBcdved in wats-, and the solution. precipitate by 
oxalate of ammonia. The precipitate by caloinatioa afforded 
,03 of carbonate of lime, equivalent to .0168 of lime. By sub- 
tracting from the amount of the predpitate by carbonatie of am> 
qnnia, the substances aftarwarda aepqrated fn»n it, re ,g«X 
4J£ of carbonate of baryta, equivalent to 3iSSJ7of baryta. . 

• (J^. The liquid which had been predpitated ^^carbpoat|e wf 
aj]iaioiUft,.in (d) waseyi^xinited ,todfyIlfSf^J^ld.tbe aipTpopiacal 
salt drives, off hy heat. Tbe-reddne, aftecignitit^h w^^ed •£• 
Dissolved' in watw it left .02 of siliw^-giving .48 fcu: the soluble 
ffsidue: The solu^on, bf eVRpwatiDD gfive. cvkbical crystals. 
Re^disaoLvecl, the li<q«id was .plentifully predjntated by muriate 

ui.iiiz,,!:,., Google 

36 -Qa^ Chenufol Co/npotitiatt ^ .^hrmofoiatf. 
c^ platinum, which was added in some excess, -. i}jbe whpIiFi^tras 
tbeU evaporated to dryness at a gentle heat ; the dry mass di- 
gested with alcohoU the alcoholic solution mixed wit^ xfi^r and 
sulphate of amtnonia, and evaporated to dryness. .Thejendue 
was then ignited, and treated with hot water. The soluAon by 
evaporation gave effloresecnt crystals of sulphate of soda. 

ig.) As in this aoaly^s the relative qnantitie* of pota^ and 
sods were not determined, a new analysis was iu>d«r«ijben foe 
that pwpose. IS.Sd grains of harmotome crystals t^ the same 
f(vm were decomposed by muriatic acid, as befm%, and afler 
evaporating m dryness and ee-^issidvitig, the wbqie «4r(bji .con- 
tents o( ihe jninerid vece thrown down at once by caibooale (^ 
woown ia . The resiiduaj, ^hltHidfls obtained, nftja the ^«c«^n>^ 
prQCfsa,. weighed .28. Tbeic solution was pre^pjt^tcd: byii^A- 
ciate of platiounii and the liquid left to- fipootaneotu «v«pQf»- 
tioa. Well characterised prisoiaUc eryatabof ^edofihleic^t}' 
rideof p|atit>um and sodium were fimned. Thew wecf talMPiup 
by dtgestiou ia alct^ol. The residual (^orid* nf pUtiaum an^ 
pgtassiuai, after being well washed with alcohol, and axeUii^ 
diied-,. wwghed .58, equivalent to .177^ of chloride of. potas^r 
urn. By subtra<^kn we get .S0274> for the cMoride of sodiufo. 
On distributing, in the sane proportioos, the .48 of soluble re^- 
due of the first atialysisy we get, ^"iSd of cbkride of potaa«i.u«a, 
and .3561 of chloride t^ sodium, equivalent to-.] 4163 of pofasW 
iutd.^l36l-7d'soda. I fwefsr taking tb«.tcMs9lubk ^twlue 
of the first analysis to that of the Koond, becwse the f;ig%\ti» 
afialy wd were bettec formed, and of greyer; pw^y. . .; 

■ We thus have la 16.07 grains of the mineral*. lexcl^S(ve pf 
water ■--.,- .-,-■ . .,.-; 

_,mmt<itjt(i) (di(j),...„,...^......, ....,,.„.,„ XM, 

Alumina, foj , ' 2-44 

Baryta, (e).....^:. '....[ : f...'.:.,.. S.SBI'j' ' ' 

Lime, ■{-<).:....;;...■.......■. ;.:...,:. : ..;.... JOIW ■ '' 

Potwh,rpJ , „ I4ie 

Sod»,fsj ,..^ 1301 

Peroxide of Iron,. „ «.,...„ i_, ........ .03 

'■'■ 1S.1TWS.' ' ■ ■ 


~' *^'^ci .^.;L....,'..'..,".. „.;..„; :. 47,04 

:..:,...:...i 10.24 

P9t«;sh,.^,..,.,.... ;..."••• ^ 

. _ ^ Soda,::., ..; _ 84 

"Peroiidebf Iron,....;; '.,......... .24 

'^- ■: ««»};......,„....■ „.,.„.; „ hab 

■;_._,;„ ,. ,. , ... 100.11 

-■ 'Aftrt f'hxd aScertAiBedlhcesirtenceof alltalies hitfee cryHtala 
itf tht'Mtr fotm, I mbmilted to diemical examisattoa by a ta- 
Aiibr^htcete apotliwi t^^ barytic barmotome of Strontianof 
-A«^onJiii»7'fbt-rn, ttnd ribbained cubical crystals, the solutioti of 
-4bltA,'%lieii lidfitid with muriBteo^ platinum, and evaporated at 
tl'gtetie beat, tifibtded on re-solutioD a small quantity of minute 
^Ihwrtcateb* ttdby lub^uetlt spcmtaneous eraporoHen, cryi. 
Uh«f^he'chldri(tec^K>diamandplBUnum were formed. I then 
^adaiued Wne smalt twin crystala of bary tie hannotome f rdtn An- 
-drcrabei^, in the Harta, whiab was, I believe, the locality of 
ibe Specimen analyzed by Klaproth, tuid ofetMned a like result. 
It Pectus, ^erefore, -extfenwJy probably that it will befoimd 
Mi'vtasulfy, ' that bary tic hannotome Contains am^ quantities of 
■pbta* and toAk *. ' 

- ■■ "Hie txjstence of poiash and Kme in'-the baryttc harmotoine 
*df Wrontiki, ' appears to afibrd an attdittcmal link of connexion 
between the two ^arirties into which harmotome has been di- 
Virfedljy fcreign chemfets, baryta in the one bting supposed lo 
be replaced by time and potash in the other. The constitutions 
of the two varieties have not yet, however, been accurately re- 
conaled to one another. The BerzeKan fdrmala of KS*+ 2 C 
S*+1(X A S*+1S Aq correctly represents the composition of the 
lime -harmotome, according to the analyses of Gmelin and 

' J ain not aware that potash has before been observed Id a proper barylic 
bBniiotoi9£> AfUr I had detected the two alialies In the strontian barmo. 
tome, I observed In derzelios' Jahres Bericht, 6th ;ear, p. 2S4, mi allusion, 
toBomeuilfinishedieseBicbeaof I. GmeUii, showinf{tbe])reseDceof sndalna 
baiyUc tiaimotome, but I have never seen any furUiei' account of these re- 

.L ,l,z<,i:,., Google 

38 Ont&t CheMkal-Campimtioa^Jamnitame. 

Wemdclnck. But when we sulMtitute bMrjrtbfaiilnutaitiiyatMT 
asb, the ftirmula will not exactly apfdj to any of the auiydift: 
of barytio harmotome wHfa which I am aoqpiwnted, .^tfaoagfa : 
it does not deviate very much, from soma c£ dum. -W* caK"t 
not, hdweven I thinki draweny m^ncnt agMoat-^be -ap^^ 
cation of the doctiine of replacement to these two-varietws, fron 
this want of perfect conformitj ; because thedi^rent analyNSnf 
baTyticfaannotcmie, Bcanxly vacy more from tboionauihitkiwtlwy 
do from -one another, and we mi^t si well ^pie-thct tibe difierowt 
spedmens of bary^ hiunotome which were - the sufa^ecte i»f ' 
these aDalyaes, were Bot the same mineral, aaddnj the otsumno* 
of replacement between the two varie^m, on. the ansgiwundt 
of this diseon&rmity. Od the iidm band, libe lalmiKCt peifcMt 
identity between theibrHaof thelwo varaatiea^idie-Hf^icgciaHff' 
tioa between their atomic cotmitutioB on subetituting; one.ttl of 
oxides for aoother, »id ibc oecumnce of -small quantitifli o£ 
potash and bmeia the barytic harmotameof &tI(NltMt^aOcLof'•' 
titt}e baryta in die line aed poteah barmotome of Abohi^AS 
appear aU to vender it extremely probable ^t-the twa wiltuU 
timately be found to admit of tJie application of tfafe prniia{^ 
of isomivplHnn, or at least of plesioCiorpbum. We may 'ha|)B 
that future and more extended aaalyses wiU yet ealablietblbit 
perfect conformity of the constitution of barytic bannotome with 
that of the other variety, on makii^ t^e requi^te substitution. 
If tins sb^ be the case, weeao bnHlj diriiht that thir ■ Maw a l. 
which has been in this country called ^illip»te^ ou^t also to^ 
b« OHuddered as a lime harmotome. The general form of itsi 
crystak, as described by 3dr Levi-f, is tjhe same as thEtf.iof .ItW-' 
rjtJc harmotome ; aad the Dieaaiu»|nentfl oi kq angles dt» -nod 
[^Bent greater discrepanciefi than betweai the earbonatvs «f} 
lipe, iron, manganese, and raagneua,' subetances whic*. if tbe| 
dpotrine of repUoement has my foundfftiop at al^ must ba Tie.w<| 
e^ as composed of plew>inorphou8 ^bodies. Neither would iti 
B^em that the variations of its cleavage can present any serious! 
obstacle J for cleavage aj^iears chiefly of importapo^. as b^pg jg-j 
d^cabve of ciystalline form; and as l<nigaB the cleavage of two} 

* See Weraakitick's analyns, afterwards giren. ' 

f Amrimf Vtiivmphj, Mere nib e i 1838; ■ ...— *j 

On-aieC*entkol Canpotkim^ Hormalim*, SS^ 

miooraUafibtds fi>nili which ore identical with seme of the oryk 
tittllB tens wliich an comnon to bodi niintralBv--«xl this is 
'thecaseJDr^xrdto philipsite and hamiotoaie,— *we can hardly 
mUDtain the divenity of tbe-ttrv •ubstanoeB, meaij bficailte 
tU«ief'clatTOg»£BnBs mii^ set be ideoiical with one aualhtT, if 
uthtif (STCusiBBuieeB tend io eBtabUrii the coBiicxion of ths two 

I thaU here, with tbeview of enablitig •every ona to draft his 
Dtra ctnuJunoo as to the fxobability of the ultimate reoonci- 
Uation i^ the comtitution d the two varieties, aubjoio TaUe; 
ctmt&tning ail the antdysea of the mineral with wbi^ I am 
acquainted, and shall ipnex the compoaition of ix>th varieties 
caleulMed by thei atomic wti^ts of BerzdiuB, according lo-tbfl 
chemical formula cwifiEpcm^Dg with £S* + S CS* + 10 AS^ 
^- 15 Aq for the lime variety, and S BS> + 10 AS* + IS Aq 
tor the bwytic vatiety. It will be ofaeerved that the StroDtina 
mineral approaohes nearer the theoretical compostion than any, 
of the other bar}' tic varieties, insofar as respects baryta and the 
other lej^Bini^ ooDBtittieoto, which is perhaps a step aet altOi 
getber witbont importance, towards a more pnfect acoomnMida- 
laaa of the two varieties, ahhou^, as respects Hlicaaad aluniuij 
Smne of die other analyses cnne nearer -the fotmuk. 






SUica, ... 



- 4a.3B 


Alumini, . . 





Uint, . . . 









Total Alkalieil 
and AUMKne J- 
Xsrth., . J 


W«te^ . . 

' 17.2S 



■ 12.78 

, 16.647 

IWd, . - 




- 99.905 

LocaUtf, . . 




:,, Google 

On the Chemical Compotiiion ^ Ilartnotome. 





■ fc«Mlf' 


.mcB4 . 


Lime, . 


8oaa, . 



Water, . 





. *7- 





2a 85 





24.627 ' 


Total, . 






LocaUtKi, . 




near Glenen. 


I may take thia opportunity of tnentioning, that after I bad 
detected alkalies in barytic harmptotne, i( occurred to me to ex- 
amine Brewat^te again for alkalies by tlie same process, wbich 
was applied to the foriper mineral ; my previous researdies for 
alkalies in Brewsterite bavipg been made by decomposing it by 
carbonate of baryta, and throwing down the baryta by carbon- 
ate of ammonia, a method which renders necessary the ultimate 
expulsion by heat of a very large quantity of ammoniacal Bait, 
which is apt to carry along with it small quantities of fixed chlo- 
. rides. I accordingly treated a small quantity of powdered Brew- 
sterite with muriatic acid, lea^ng them in contact for some dayi, 
and occa^onally applying heat. By the process already detaS- 
ed, I ultimately obt^ned a minute quantity of cubical crystals'; 
and, on examining those by muriate of platintitn, tfavj beeAed 
to be entirely chloride of sodium, at least operating with the 
small quantity of materials wbich I used, I could not detect 
potash. Tfae minute quantity of soda is of course in sdditiwi 
to fitrontia, baryta, and the other constituents whidi I formerly 
mentioned in Brewsterite, When my time permits, I tntendto 
execute another analysis of tlie mineral, lo ascertain the exaict 
proportion of alkali i( contains. -.;-- - 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

Remarks on some of Baron Cuvier's Lectwrei on the History 

^ ih€ Naiuxal Scimces, in refirence to the Sdetf^ Xnow- 

— iedg&<^ the Egt^aiaas i of the source from rehence Afoies 

■ derived hie GosmogfMy,.and the genervi agreement ^ that' 

Cosmogony with Modem Geology '". ■ 

Ik Bome of the Numbers of theEdinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal published in lUSO, are given Reports of Lectures an 
the History of the Natural Sciences hy Barou Cuvier ; aud in' 
psgps 342, No. XVI,, we find in them the following statement' 
respecting the Hebrew legislator : — '* His books shew us, that 
he had very perfect ideas respecting several of the highest ques-] 
.tioDS of. natural philosophy. Hia cosmogony especially, conu-, 
dered in a purely scientific view, is extremely remarkably inas-. 
.much as the order which it assigns to the different epochs of 
creation, is precisely the same as that which has been deduced 
'ft-bWgeOtogital conaiderations." This, then, is the issue, in the 
opinioD of Baron Cuvier, of that science, which has been held 
by many persons to teach conclusions at variance with' the 
Book of Genesis, — when at last more matured by a series of 
careful observations and legitimate induction, it teaches us pre. 
dsely what Mtwes had taught more than three thousand years ago. 
But at the same time that, the Baron makes this stateiiiehl, it 
is implied by him in the accompanying sentences, that the'He- 
brew legislator had acquired his knowledge of Ihe cosmogony 
from the Egyptians ; for lie says, " The leaders of the colonies 
which issued from. Egypt possessed, in general, but a small 
part of the knowledge of which the pnvileged caste (the priests) 
was the depositary. They carried with tliem only the practi- 
cal results. The case was different with the 'JHebrew legislator. 

■ " No epmiw 'K» W )iacet<G*l bu^ that wl^ch k afO, tru^ Trutb) c«n 
never war t^aat etch other. I a^rm, therefore^ that we have nothing to 
f^ar from the retiults of our inquiries,' provided ttiej be fiiUoved In the labo- 
lioiu but secure road of hoUettlnductinl. In'ttta wk;-, weM^tvett aswrad, 
we ihall never onivettiton^iuhiDi^ipiaedtara^tnilJi, M^mv^^^fi^vt 
.moni), fnon ^iaiMffv^t,pfiviaa that (iptb,iDpj Ik Uerived ; qaj, rattier that 
' new discoveries will ever lend support and illustration to things which are al- 
Teadj known, bj giving iiB & larger insight into the univenil haiinomes of 
Nature."— i>ro/<Ma^ S^gviiiXt Ailehem to Bit QMbfiMl StiU^ ABniM^tS. 
1830. •-■ .■ . - • 

L ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

4A Ettitnate ^tke Stitnt^ XnomU^ge 

He bad bem. brought ap by dte Egyptkn prieito, and knew aot 

Ml)/ thtiFiait^'bnt rito Uwir pk^osopUul doctriBCk" - • 

Ib Attaniptiiig ta disctm the -merits of the -ofutioA bece im* 
pU«d, we iratild ^>e»k ia txnas of h^ rAi^pBat ofdK iUaattMOf 
iDd^ndual li4io bu .|nHnulgid^ ib; £» snch nesfMct u do^Jta 
OM who, vidwMt quection, 'has, is ibe field *f natural «ci^Bce^ 
wected a iM^ler monument to bia own fame than any odwp 
vbo b«8 ai^wared since the days t^ Newton. 

The preausGB from which it is inferred that the Egyptiab 
priests may have possessed such a knowledge of geology as 
would f urviBh a foundation for the cosnu^ny of Moses, are liy 
much too meagre to warrant such a concluaon. The chief of 
them u indeed found in what Herodotus states regarding the 
land of the Delta, by depositions from the waters of the Nile. 
It is said in page 340, " The Egyptians I»d very conwct ideas 
on several pomtg in geology ; they had well (^nerved the laws 
o( alluvial deposition, and at the present day we account t<x the 
^Jnoatioor of the Delta m no other nuuiner than that in winch It 
WW accounted ior in the days <^ Herodotus." 

In turning to Herodotus, reelecting wbtan many modem dis- 
oovenes have pro¥ed that be Was a futhful chronicler of what' 
he satr, although often absurdly credulous of the reports of 
ofbsrs, we fiad no {Roof in bis relotioa, tfiat the Egyptians had 
weU dxcrved the &mr of idluviol depotdtiog. With respect to- 
the prjesta, be st^et, in the passage referred to by fhe Barotr, 
4}l^y that th^ informed Ihbi of two faCts ; one, that the greater' 
pwrtt^AcDUDtcy, of wluch he describes the limits was an sddi- 
tHHi of land to the Egyptkasby the depositions of the Nile; 
the other, that in the rdgn t£ Myris, about nine hundred years 
before the time of the liistorian, the land was so low, that if the 
rivet rose to the hdght of eight cubits, it was sufficiently wa^ 
t»ed ; whereas at tlie time he vinted Egypt, tinless tHe river 
r^K fifteen or sixteen cubits the land was not sufficiently w«-' 
Ured. Thifl i> not scuoee, but faiatatyi Ifo reasoning of did 
priests is addol wMi regard' to ^esK sim^eftetst andtheevi^ 
^nce appears ctMiclusive, that 'he'h'Ad heard no' reaching dP 
H^an, in this circumstance, tlwt he himself proceeds to reasoD 
ngardmg^tfaiBiD .with o aaaJe r a b le ingenuity, and to prove riior 
high, probability fh»n a variety of conriderations, mid cotilff 

■MaiwifJumtmlttfi tbraz^medtB df ifae |mart« had )m Matd 
rayrnsD diopj -As&r Aangatds tht'saMee'doHlnuMl indite 
pMBageidE Uetodotosi it •» ppei^ps «g "truly phitoHOfMcd'-as 
•ayOlbor to bc' fonad io kis - vritiBp ; but - die filHlosophy ig 
tnitHindytl>at<of>tlM QreekhiniB^. Tte£utt:9,'WtiIdi 'retted 
.W>tli&«tlthotityof tfafl' ptieeti, vnte t^Atintrnt^l/batifm- 
qHiMdno eciedee«riiluhivated undentanding » MceitaJn; bo 
more, indeed, than .it'Tee(Ui»eB io the pmeM mhabitimts Jif 
Ciuioto'disoernvdieD tfap NileiiBeiliiuflMently touotweia pro- 
ductive ch^. 

■-'Bat -we are iafonnedalso, pc^ 840, that " the prnpeMlei'^ 
miDcmls were tokiably v^ emmiaed. The coootrj- offered 
«vt)rjr'iiicQity-far:Hiis; Ae nutilntains whiofa form the rides 6£ 
thb'xaAej *f tkc'Nile eslnlRted, nadin all their ntativi lustra, 
mious speeies-of rbdkfi ; is 'the liDwc^ port limestme, farther up 
tandetotte, and fowards "Sjp^ae, porphyry and gramte. Egypt 
-was m fieme measure a great miRefalogieal cabinet. The aeces 
flity (tf paaui^ along- t}ie small VaSeys which run' towards (bi 
Ked Sea, led to the discovwry of othfer flunerali, which d« Mt 
oGoir in BO great maasels. It waatn Mie'cf them dut die nine 
<^ema'ald» was disdoVefed, wbi^ suj^itied all' tbose kiunmfft 
antiqioty." ■ ' ■• 

' The discovery and wofkwg of the emerald nfiBc*. dio ob^ 
fact stated here, fromwbicb'ahy ttingcmi bt inferred' afl^tin# 
die present sufcgect, do6A not necessaiily,tn)}dy that' the pnme^ 
tie* of imnerals were tolerably well esannned. V«y barbaiOos 
tiations, anMig whom not a traii6 <g Kgttiinkte sdaus Itss bben 
diKQireTed, have yet the propen^ty a&d die i^l to dig biit ttlit 
oniamaDt thei7 perscws with die natural gunai and it itJntiK^ 
tiff mow fcnawledge of taioei^ogy, mudh leas of ga^ogy,' ki fte 
ancient EgyptiflOB, tod^miBea fw theemeralc^ thatf it does 
in the ii*al>itw»t«of P^ tosesrebfijrdieiruhresrfthdrOTtiit 
iry, OS in those of Siam few the siqi^ire. It msy bft ^dwedj^ 
yet. widiin certain limits, tbat die propartJeB of raiBenth weie itt' 
BOwe d^ree exa^aod. It appean to haw been taown m 
diem dwt their granites and j^enites were more dur^de &iaii 
dieir sandstonea and lUneabuies, as tl^y hare oftm earned tffe 
fonn« from great diriaaoes to execute their more impart*at*ti 
chitectursl works, wljen they bad the btbeiii nearti « haadj 

faub'tluB inqiliei <ni> msga Ihir rhn liilrrrliilgir[Tnmiwil hytmj 
.wMkin^.muoB, and from jtn^ thing <annptnrfoMad witb dat. 
tnntyirigardBg then, wean not .eallMloii to.oUaibs t»t)kBlti 

IDOKi ■..'.:■■■<■-. 

- Egypt wn DO doabt, eveninths lUwt'MaMit'tine^ M4t4a 
Dcw« a gnat minerak^iiml seUuet, JMt sa tfe Fnis bqsia wm. 
Ttie minonds were [daoed Uiarp faytfae hand of ' the AutlMir (^ 
MatBK ; ' but wb hwre na more reuou to beliere thatthe OMletit 
Sg^tuns flouki deraoa^lKate and explaki the Mdcr of the>miM>- 
nJa in their country, Cban the RtnaiJ, in the time otJutiutGiK 
■or, oould illodiBte the FdUBotheria and AMpkAhooa of Mont. 

Bat, in tfap lecture on the adean.of Egji^tt^the nunt lusa. 
tw&utory argnBMt is tliat which nlatei> to aaatamj'. i ' Ispa^ 
SS6, after slating that thne weK coostant^^i^rtiiqitiesafiKid. 
edof (diurving the extemal f csna md habits .of< BiunulB,a( 
many were brought up in tbe tonplcs oftha gods^ eithfraftida. 
dicBtal to llK>n* oc nceino^ divine hoooun tbemielye^ it is 
added, ** then 'were eren oeoanoos of obwrviag their iotainal 
Mnictuie, as it waacustoiBaFy to emhabn diemi after death ;T 
and, " in £gn>t the aame btHrw towards 'dead bodies was nAt 
aatertained aa in Xnifia ; not oaly wn« the bo^es of aaorfd mw 
laals embakied, ' but thoae ' of men also. Naw, this praatitte 
could not fail t9 give them who wem duxgadwoh itakiwwk; 
ledge of theibrm and position of die ocgans. . It was ua^bt. 
a^y in Bgypt that aoatpmy originatad ; it vaa to thait.GDmtEy 
Uut'thsGixdunKjrtsd toatudf it; and thi^wr &aieti ttade» 
jouney-espie^f fis th^-putpose of aeaing ^le^refKesentntioiiHi 
bronze of a human skeleton." 

. Now, .with regaidto tins mattjet, whai wcnfirct oa the pur- 
pose for whi(^ the dead bodiea wov emhainiad in Egypt* aa^ 
ifhat the metirBainiust have been, which ted tothepnetiosi-WA 
ntiBt immediately ccndnde, that, instead of afEbrdiag.&alideK 
for acquning a Juiewladge <i analoaj, nothing, could hava pn^ 
aentad a greater inpadiaent to k. Tbe puqxiae,of iinbaimag 
wm to prenrve tbe.bodies as- n)iioh as poasibh ia tbe- farmrt 
Widi boloDgtd to them idies alive, nlmik was allogi)tber mi 
ooa^pstUile with that-distectioD-of ihe^iarUwbiah wdigUslhai 
structure to the anatomist ; the motiTe to the practice could be 

.... .qfiha-jMeitiiU-^gjiptiaiuy 46 

holered,' vdoebhaaABm' comiiKm lo hU disinatiimsn^the drMl^ 
WKlr.{lM effcctsofr vAuahji Mbedievisinwiig'^cnMitwia'ara^ 
balming them, in depoaiUog them in splendid catacomfaa -or 
ni9uwji%«r;ui EunpfyjiDtonniigr them' iagwuDdatap pf opiMled 
to ihfft pat^KMC, wBiablw-held-BBitiK.mrtiuil and) bsoonikigvs* 
IirwtOD it}f' tliose fnailycatferdanrwhi^.^form iriie iMsb'of <rU 
huWMtMKKtty.: Ilf.'m tJ>ei(q»BtiiiiroE>emlMlnRng, llhe^nKen 
alructura t^jlhese ofgans, leit Air- BubjectiDg-tbcw laora pcrulfe 
Me^^ kb awMitkmal. ppcpaftion jfcr- praBecrBiMO.-- ib 
fact, there is no evidence whatever that anatomy was a kmms 
at all tHidsrstood iby the aKsetrt'Egyplmiu;' and, with ragud 
tii..CDmpara|ne MHtcWif, tho bfrnneh wiiidi. fan in . latv tinws 
ilkHttmtEdgeolt^yi'WG'bmc'tlieatatomaatof tbe Bnm.tamt^ 
tbat.DeiiKicrkuB'ofiAbdeEa'waB'the'fiiBt^opmtised it. £vea i 
miKregard t9 tbe Knaoee of iiiedicaiie,'wbich nuall codBtricaws 
find, Hi'SCHiie ibapoor other, preceding-' ai]atomjr,'we have tfab 
lestiBKinj of Hcrodatiu that it nuab have been at a lo* ehb im 
Egypt, when hetdn9>ii3, tbat'endi «f tboKmhoprafitiaed it Kpn 
plied hiaiaetf'tixdu6iveIy>tacuve*aQCl diaoee,- or titedheases of 
auBOTgaa, If Oalen <*£aits Egypt :to. aeiei tbe. KpteKOtation 
oE S'skeletcn v^h^nzt^'-ne must renen^iei'lhat tbis coouitsdl 
long a£Eer ibt Alenudrim scfadot '^ tnttoasy,; under Cfae'po* 
tfOd^of'ai Macedouitt nteeofi kings bod .bien cnaUed td 
tl^umv'aoBHi lighly t>ut stHlioBly a ^ammBtiag.'aaAvery partU 
one, on that aCttMe, 'wbioti it h^ been neaemd for Ctwier hioii 
■dftobniig^ff'laiti^ Bi"att hivri^iiqta^iinM tl» iuU blaea of 
day. '■' .. ■■ ■■ ■■. . -'. 

) Whalm.nflnt'bait ^Hdiutaly tibe .deiensinalioii, in the 
JtaBeDt«g«^ of dwTektivepdBkiniioEinaKy'ofi.'^ttrau oftlifl 
earth, tns 'difieiided od that ' beautiM campandTCi anatomjc 
which, under tlie bands of' BanmCuvlerjJxufaBanne oBsof^ 
bnt founded and aUat spfem^ moiK^neots of tbe ioductiTi} 
jh i i ai e ph jt cqwdly returkabk fi>r te i»ppT eluadation of 
bodi.plqnieal and final eatues; we mtutat the ome time ao^ 
koDwkdgff . bow inpcMnUe >it was .that Mobcl- ooiiild dcrire bi» 
bawledge </ tbe order of tbe ^podts of. craatliHE' £r«b a. peo|rie 

...,-,- ■ ■ ■. «:,■:,■.-•-■ ..V, . ■ 

L,.,i,z<,d ../Google 

46 m»m»tt»nl'if»e-SAe»ce(f 

4a^ute inF tbe iw^icM gemU'^ Ae sctmce, tfeflitl petfecUbii 
vf trhiob alo«e wmM- Aect unsod^ reaaon totbat: ktioWledgd. ^' 
, I&jdMCttMny the -praacBC qMMwti', wt! need sciarcely rtfW, ' aa 
tbe Baron ha* don^ to some arts which the' EgyptianB possested 
in « cauiAuiblir aAwiioed state, aa dle^Btia of malmg enatOela 
md 'pontduDB, of api^iogaone'excelt^ and durable colourk 
ia'.paintin^^ aOd ibeaM of -repMGUitmg'Ae'flwtnB of atdiaal^ 
and-naohioiailfi in boA tfadr paintings an^ scutptnirea. Th« 
yoB8*HHn Af'tfaesa artannat Heceasatfly connected 'vith an^^ 
great: pragreu in- scienee, aais evideat by- the existence of some 
«^ er otfaerof ll)e)n,.in'mndt'greafer |)erfection, among severtd 
athor natiODB, who yet «n soenel; be said to cultrrate what is 
pK^icdy tsnued Bctence, asttte Chinese and modem Mindobs. 
■ .lBpageS41, after a'tletaU'flif thebrani^ies of nattirat scienft^ 
«ai arti, -in "vhiflh the EgypdamaAsopposedtobavemad^ltfo- 
pHai, faM the etidenoe &r which' we find thus unsatidfttctOry, U 
icaddad r ** It eaniWit be iiBagiaed that a natiota which devoted 
itacdf. atkh scmuchperaevinmee and success to the obseivation 
of nabin, aboold have ciHifined itself to thb ni«re (X)IlectiAg dt 
tmeU, without attempting to connect them by theories, and ia 
aaocnd to prindptea.- It mint, therefbre, be supposed diat ther^ 
«as, UL a eertuD epodi, in die cdl^es of the priests, the know- 
ladgej notonly of ^)«aafArictd and r^^pous doctrines, but also 
of pNTticnlar scieMific theories. ' Tiiese Aeories doul>tle3s have 
hna lost ia flomeqoaiGe of the oppresnon to which the sacer- 
4ataL«aale waa auligeGted at the rime of the conquer of Cam-' 

iTlwse co^§eetarea,'witbout proof, utd in ibe avowieJ admig-' 
noa that aU proof of them is wanting, are those which iimUe-* 
diMely precede dw iutimaticm that Moses had derived hb &nOw- 
Mgieofthe canneigaDy from the Egyptiaii pri^t& Re»^ th^^' 
if a stngular serin of mere snpposirions. We irixifX,finl, sup- 
fsm that all reoord aad. kamriedge of the jAilosofAical s^ence 
fl£ .tbe pri«as was coarpletely destroyed by the persecution of 
Camli^Bes, fw no trace -orit remains in any profane author ; se~ 
cmdbfr ThaX the prieats did certnnTy possess a thily phTl6>~ 
aa^ical sciamiaof' geology, inperfklibn at least equal tothat 
■wv attained by the- joint hbours and careful inductions of 
EtlHpean geoli^^; Mird^, That Moses transcribed the re- 

9ults vf t|qt exact aasasfa iaCtf the l«t ctupter cf Qc Ae w* 'An^ 
fimrtli^^ T|i8t, aq we shall afiawRrda see, while be trancrilMd 
the accurate resi^U, he. carefully UoUed- out all tncm of' the 
Recessive Btefis by which they were atUuoed. 

But the evidence n^ar^iog ^oe pettectitkia of Caabyan, and 
its effects, does not wanaiit the orawliwm thet the acieoce of 
the {wiesta was dest^yed by it. The nost authentic endcnce 
is U> be tppnd iD.Hetodotus^i tuid the qcoouot wtuofa he girea of 
it hews on i^ face, so much of v^^amtlitud^ that those of dte 
after bistoriant, where they differ from, his, are extrerady bus^ 
ERoous ; espeditUy when w^ coosidw that, by a r^ereoee to tbs 
preceding and accompanying tuid foUowiag drcuiSBtattces, rw 
lated by both,hini and them, ii becomes tibvioDa that Ins nar- 
ration formed their chief authority. Heiodotut, who visited 
Egypt cnily frooi. n^y to ^ghty years aftex the timeof Cnnu 
bysea, and who takes oaro to iofocm us, that, with regard to the 
Egyptian histpry, after the time Psammatichus, he had the tesi 
timony not only of the Egyptians, but also of ^e Canan and 
Ionian colonies in tb^ country, tells us that the persecution ht* 
gan (Hily after the return of Cambyaes from his dtSBBtrous ex- 
pedition ag^ostthe MacrpbianK Nothing can be more natural 
than the account which he gives of its cause. Gwnl^BeB, «t 
his retqrua found a uniy^rsal rejcu<3Dg afo^g the Egyptiaai^' 
on account of the diacovery-of their gt)d,A[ns by the pnesffe: 
Suspicipus that the rejcnciiig cf the reosptly subdued natioK 
arose out of the caLumti^ of hi> own army, he inquired iota 
the cause of it, and, being told what that was, ordered the uewl^ 
found gpd, led by a .priest, to be brought befiHe Inm. The de- 
rision of the Persian $re-worshipper. being excited ht^ 4be ajx- 
peanuce of a god in the sbppe of a calf, he wounded ihe ani' 
mal wiib his own hand, but- took so little interest in its Airdfet' 
^te, that.he never knew whether it died of the wound or not;- 
but the rejoicing of the Egyptians, in the moment of hiBomt' 
qBjamity,.e]^ted.DOt,hi> d^i^, but htSxVntlk - V,He wdetw. 
e^)* says the hittorian, " the priest to be wbii^ed -by lna'oA-< 
cers, and all those' who were making pubhc ftyaiaa^ C6 be 
sfeujD, whe^yver, thpy w/5^. iiB^ipd,"! .",,Xty8,radd»i be^-*" UpK 
priestwas puiusbed^**^ 9iep>d(^R4tf'twvip^tcjhiu^<thU'CaM>i 
bywB.entwucI- the x.txa!^.x£ Vule^iiy (ppd nwdked-atth*iHiage> 

48 Was all Record of d^e Scitnff of 

of the god ; and that be also entered the temple of the C«bimn 
gods, aod having in like manner mocked st th« images, ,ordere<i^ 
them to be burnt. This^is the sum of, the detail ^ven by the 
histonap nearest the time gf that oppression to which the ^ 
oerdatol caite was subjected by Cambyses. Had it been of tha^ 
terrible and exterminating character that would liave^ involveil, 
the loss of their science, we should certainly have had from that 
historian a more full account of it ; for he expresses great dis-> 
approbation of the Persian king for deriding religious institu- 
tions, and has given a very detailed and graphic account of th^ 
king's madness, and of his murders of many of his own Per. 
aisDs and relations. 

The time that Cambysea remained' in Egypt after the mti- 
dent of the god A^ns, was too short to admit of any extenave 
extennination of the priests and their science; for his whole 
rdga was only seven years and five .months, moet of .which nutsi 
bare beeo coosumed ia the negoctationsaod |ff«parations that 
preceded Ins Egyptian wu-, and the carApaigns he made, in- 
cluding the delay occasioned by his embassy to the M aerobians 

Accordingly, Herodotus himself Soda tha priests still in full 
po^aeasioa of their sacerdotal authority, and all l»«Dches at the ' 
EgypUoo- superstition flourishing in full v^ur. He describes 
many of their temples as seen by himself still standing, and the . 
scene of the same degrading rites to which ihey were origtnaUy 
deeped ; -and, the priests could y«t. shew bintho.spaciouB 
buildti^«hidi contaifled tha iifti^es of all the high priests, from 
father to son, and could repeat their genealogies. Besides this, 
the priests were yet in possesion of an accurate outline account , 
of ^opie part of the Egyptian history preceding the ika* e£ ■ 
Cambyses, as is evident from the gdod agreement, h) pcnntc^ " 
time at least, between the narrative which Herodotus recaved 
from them regarding Sennacherib and Necho and Apries, ^d , 
the statements regarding thest: kings iu the Jewish bit^my *. - ' • ' 

* It iib^bfy probable thtt wednllsRiveDttimatel^st the roncIusirni,tbat' J. 
theSetMtiuof HerodotuBlfl the mat »a the Shtahak of the Mcred writing. 
We ue enabled, «e lee, hy the bfftorie* of tbe Jews, to authendcati: the out- 
line of Herodotus' Egyptitn hiitorj to about two hundred and dxt j or Beven tjr, 
yeai€ beftre' bti ttata, vaA we flod ilo sotA' change or break in tbe cluracter 
or aniiitgemMt of Mb nanMive upwH^ii to Bcaoatris, u,}irtnia/ac{^ td tbrow^ 
anj more rai^doa on the correctnen of the general bcarta^ of tbe 'early 

the Priesie destroyed by Cambytet. 49 

'It is'alMgether.incre(lil>le, that, while their superstition and 
IristorjT thus ^grvived the persecution of CvnbyEes, th^r scieoce 
shoultl have been utterly lost. There can be do question that 
it'toO. survived,. such as it vtfls; and, r^ardingits true quality, 
the ^tuQe inquisitive historian has furnished us with very con^- 
derable'5l)formation. Thus, for instance, at his enteripg on tb« 
subject of Egypt, he puts us in possession of the true merits of 
their experimental philosophy, in the story, of the two infante 
p«rt, tban an that of the latter part Now, in reckoning bsckwiirds&oiD Sethcm 
of Egjpt and He^kiah of Judah, who were both contemporary with Saailn^ 
cherib, «e find eleven Ungg of £gjpt ioduBirelj to SesosCria, and twelve 
lunga of Judah to Reboboam, who was contemporary with Shisbak. 

la estimating the merits of the pgsitJsn that Sesoatiia and SMshil (ui the 
iqituagint Sgus^im) are the same, it is a matter of no small moflient that 
tke first s^llBbles of the respective names aiecomposedof letter* of the same 
origin, espe<:iall/ as we find a similar circumBtaDce taking place n^rding the 
name of another Egyptian king, mentioned both by Herodotus and the Jew- 
ish hlstcirians ; Ibe Sethon of Herodotus being evidently no other than So 
(or, independently of the lUCasoretic points, Sua), hi, 3d Knge, xvii 4, whii^ 
■ibe sepbia^l has changed to Segor. 

There &re several cbcumstances In Which, there are ah|igul*r agreemente 
between the details 'regarding Sesostria and Shishak. Herodotus tells ui, 
that wEen Sesostrii met with a brave reristance on the part of any nation, 
he erected honorary coIuouib to commemorate their leaohitloD, and whea he 
was - opposed by any people ia a cowaidly manna', hp ereotod cotarnDs with 
marks of inftmy upon them. He tells us, also, that he himself saw aome of 
these colitmos of the latter sort in the Syrian Palestine, of which country we 
elsewhere learn from him tte city Hadytis, or Jerusalem, was the capital ; 
-and on referring to the luatDT; of Shishak, im find that be was permitted to 
■^under Jeiinsalem without resistance, 

. The oonquetta <rf Sesostcia and Sbishak agree also Im reified, of their tem- 
jwiary character. Neither of them ia described as attempting to keep per- 
maatntpoaieiElon of the countries he subdued,.^^ very remarkable drcum- 
Rt^K^ almost unexampled in the history of cunqu^ors. 

The people named as fbrmitiig the acmies oC Slushak i^ree weU vitti what - 
ii wid by Herodotus regarding the order of the coaquesU of Seaostris. We 
find among them the Cushiip, by which name, it as well known, the early 
fiebrewb dMoted a people wlio dwelt in Arabia, near the Bed Sea. Now, 
"Herodotus states that Se^stris mad^ his firvt expedili<ui wilh a fleet on the' 
Sed Sea, subduing the nations who dwelt on Its shores* Hence^ when be 
^turned his arma to the nmh, hewauld bam, aaeoi!ifotgt»the-pnwti«eof 
tonguervr^ J^qiWiti ia h^ajgiBic^ flioiaf^» m ^) Wio i i .Ci|»ltliB. 

The*e. r^m^ti.Bo ^ U>. prove tb^ Hewdatut bti xaetivtd frcM .Um, 
Egyptim prifBt the .true outline of the biatory of » pwied wch earliw -th« 

VBl. XIII. SO. XXV. — 30LY 1882. O 


fiB Character qfjiar^ j^pptkm Sciettce. 

*feo were ordered by the KiBg • P«ainm«ticliuB- t6 be' Utoajhl 
Up Bdoong tbe goatf^ witbout cmy one being permitted to speall 
to' them, that it might be osceruined,' by th« lrord9'«be|f 
should fintt utter, which nRtkm wra the mAab aneientJ - -Wbiti 
tfaejr were thus inquidtrre on this point, and took' iVh hoptfol 
method to settle it, they were utterly incurious' i«gtirdilE^ the 
mo8t wonderful natural pbenome&oB of ^eir country, the oiror: 
flowing of the Nile. Regmling th* omsfes of' this, HffodoC^ 
tells us he oould not get *o much m a, cn^ec<tir& aitber fron 
the priests or any other Egyptian, ^though - he expreued to 
Ihem a very earnest de^re to learn 'somelhing about them. He 
puts us, in another place, in posaession of the accuracy of thoir 
conceptions regarding other natural pbenomenB, by-telbBgua 
that tbe priests informed him, during tbe rogit of &mr 'moctAl 
kings, the sun had dtered his course four times, had risen 
twice in the east and twice in the west; and, in foil accordance 
widi this eingular specimen of their soaice, be teUs us thdr 
astronomy was not their own, but that diey bad g6t it, mai: tbe 
UM «f ^e gnomon, and (he ditisioB of ttie Say, from the Chal- 
deans. It ia unnecessary to go on to quote from the aaine 
source their opinion that fire is a fierce animal, eating up every 
thm^ and dien dying whea it has w> more-ta «tt; er tbor 
sage conjectures, like thOse of the inhabitant of Laput* re- 
garding the health of Ibe sun, that the other nations mtist some 
time or other perish, as they depended on rain for rmdering 
their soii productive, while that of their own .country was r«t 
dered fertile by their river. Ih the fiace of' diis positive testi- 
mony of the utter irorthtessness and ineptitude of tTirir waenct 
and theories, furnished us by one so inquisitive, and who bad 
the amplest means of acquiiing the proper infunnadon on the 
spot, it would be quite unwarrbiitable to conjecture th«t: thwjr 
had any thing among tbeth at alt equivalent to- our IHodAn 

But independently of the testimony of Herodotus, after the 
time of Cambyses, we have siHoe ios^fat into the worlMcAsBais 
of the Egyptian soieiwe, diiAvgb Tbalee Ahd Pyth^tttfB,'trtto 
■both visited 'Egypt before Uie tio»e of that Awajfter. Sefore 
making a few observations on what we iedfn through them, we 
must enter a protest against what is slated in No. 17. of the 

Ckaraeler ^.£«n^. Egyptian Seitfue. 51 

Bfotbia:^ Nev FhikeifihieBl Jouriid, p. 43, that, " it the 
Ibse iriieta.Thctks went: to study iniEgypt, tbe pnests-ofi- that 
ooaottji bed alnadji fatgctten^ in a. great dsgree,. the naetApfc^t' 
siosl/doctrines. vldeb in fonacr tttaea were lupb np in ■ their col^ 
kgn.": Wberab duproof^-tliiBtoteftiuiid?. Had tbe peir 
MBuljon. of. K fBemw Oambjnes obliterated all trace. of tbes^ 
and left to uBiB.olnr' field to- suppeee- they poc«efeed thtm,i 
Or ii it; fynni u tbe aasuwptioo that Mates. bad boP- 
nwttdhnitnetapbynce &on the Egyptian 'tnlleges? Or M-B«t 
thil, atncUy» reaaooing in a circle, aad beting a qoesdoa at 
each extremity of the diameterF We^all afleBwaids.s«e,.tb«t 
tbe conjeotme that.&bises bocrowed his metaphjcncs. fcom- tjie 
S)gj|)riaii9. i* altogathpo groutidless; and we ahall oov Fotumta 
Xfaales fmd Pytbagoraa 

- > W« Bball Bcadilj gram, ^ iadoiog sa we pay no tribute«f 
raqieot to the tciaioe of £^ypt, that botb these individuals 
leomt thdr. peculiar dogmaaiD the. oolites <^ tbe EgypUan 
priestK. " Thales thought he bad found in water apnacipttj 
that. 10 to cajt, a ehang pce-exirtent to every thin^ Aecordng 
ta^him^ watee h the original matter Seam which, the worklia 
finmed.^ .,E]iftdisaijd«fl were ungrateful adidars, fiae tme Ibuad 
dkefirst principle ift infinity,. aBotbcr. in wr, aiid.a thiid in £n, 
P. 18.— Fytbagwas waf-eren inoc«.>efiiiad: '■*. He tried to dia- 
cover tbe pdndf^ of thinga. in. tbe power of numb^B.'' " He 
extoided the language of arithm^ even to moiql^^ and sud 
justice was alwaytidtviuble by. twiot^ '* AeotHrding to him, the 
mtTerse was a hornMuous wbble, md on this account the 
number of the planeta was equal to that of the notes of the 
gamut. In the centre of this harmony was tbe sun, the sout.of 
the world, and the prindple of motion. , The. souls of men aftd 
^- animals pscticipeted ia the nature <^ the celeftud fire,, and 
oho those oC tlw gods, who werethemselves^onlj aaimabctf a 
'Superior order." — Pp. 44, 45. So, then, if Pythagoras got 
these notions in the Egyptian collf^;ea, in which,. according to 
tba. be0t ascounts of him^.he remained twe^ty-fiv^ year% we 
hme.9. piopf; that their met^qihyaicp was. again rocovered' after 
.Ae time of Thaler; for bc9<e arises to our astemshBd view a 
complete ByateBi, not only qf [^ysics, but of metagliyBCs also. 


SS. ChracUr of Earbf Egyptian S&ience. . 

comprAeDdihg tbe souls of men, and of gods,and6f tneV^nd; 
but as it differs greatly from that of Moses, we sHall notovt^" 
rigorously insist that it was learot in Egypt, biit allow tbat it: 
may have been the fruit of the Samian's own fertile inveDtioh. "■ 
The fact 'is, that io all this we find nothing that has relation 
m sioiiritude to true sdence in any one department. It is ac- 
knowledg^l (p. 43), " that tfae experimental method was en- ■ 
tirely unknown in these days." Equally wanting was everi? 
species of rational theory, which is in all cases the fruit 'oiily of 
experiment and observation. ' The dogmas of Thales and Py- 
thagoras, whether iiiijigenous of Greece or bwrowed from 
Egypt, are only a small portion of that painful picture of hii- 
man ignorance, weakness, and self-conceit, which the history of 
(rrecian philosophy unfolds to us. The wildest hypotheses 
were assumed as the foundations of sdence, and the progress of 
(rue'knbwiedge'impeded by it ftx* ages. Out of the abundant 
stores of his own genius and science. Baron Cuvier, as he has 
doiie in these lectures, may fumi^ a veil to cover the ragged.: 
Dess and squalor of its professors, aiid may make a subject 
amusing by his resources and eloquence, whose intrinsic merits 
taxi never render it interesting; but thar capricious and fantas- 
tical haliudnalions were lotig »Dce better judged (£ by one of 
the most learned of our countrymen : — 

" These are false, oi little else but dreamt, . . 

CoDJectares, bncies, built on nothing firm. 

Alas t what cm the; teadi, and not mitlea^ 
<_' • Ignwant <rf4baDaetves, 0f Ood mucb iBDiv, 

.,;, And bow the warid begu '•'' < - : . i- 

' There are obIj two exceptiana to the inaguifictiit.snd wo^blen cht(-. 
racter of the science of the early Greeks. One 'a their geometry, which 
1^11 always remain a very beautiful end intereating monuinenl uf butnan 
g«alu9. Thct geotMtrr vm Toventeil in £g7pt^ b ■ co^JisetaN of-ittiTdlAU' 
tiu> ^vcd »a entirely fail ovib Utke GiMlu^it.aHe,itlCaEt lMv»-t«lt' 
w^ile it was yet quite in ita lofaDcy i for wbMe)rer cradi^ w« allwih to 1^ 
account that Pjthagoraa fint deraonatrated the theorem which forms the 
(Jth -propositlonof Euclid, as referred to by the fiaron Cuvier, we have 
much eoidmce that geometry wa*iiot much advanced t^l tbs ppdod^of Mv^. 
Alexandrian school Tbe j^eometry of solids nust haTe^been.ofil^iqtute^ 
its infancy till tlje time of Archimedes, tor we lutve the most complete Jjiis- 
lorical evidence, that he first demonstrated the ratios of the, ^ne, .spher^ 

Di^ Sfiefux origiiuite in India f 58' 

.'There ii wt^ther eerie« of conjectures, founded on an ybscure 
qpd .UQgupported.hint of an Egyptian writer, and a few not well 
Refined coincidences of aits and institutions of some ancient ntt', 
tioDs, aod some acknowledged agreeipentg in their languages, to 
Yfbich we shall now. direct our attention. 

. JnJ4q. .16, p. 9^1, we are informed: " It is in India, accord-; 
ii^g to. all appearance, that we are to look for the origiit of thc^ 
t^^ces, Jt is in tiiat Gountiy,infBct, that the raen who escaped 
Crom the dduge. must have established themseWes. The loftiest 
nxwnf ni.ns . of the gjolpe, the cb^D» of .Himalaya and Thibet, 
wouH afford them an asylum, and the bases of these mountain^ 
«(out^ present thnn with the first cultivable land. * * Th9 
Itriority of the Indians, is ftu-lher shewn by a tradition to which 
ao atteoticHi seem^ bitbqito to have been paid. It is, in fact, in 
Ihe Gxtracte which have been preserved of the works of Mane-_ 
tho, that, in tbe teigo <of Anient^his, a king of the l6th dynasty, 
a colony came, from India to settle- in Ethiopia. , Now Diodorua 
Siculus, and all those who have written on the religion of Egypt^ 
derive that religion from Ethiopia, or Upper Nubia. Thebes 
itself was but an island, a colony of Meroe, which was the sacer-t 
dptal.rity of the Ethiopians. Thus, then, civilization came from 
India 'vat» Nubia, and from Nubia into l^gypt.'" We ace then 
inftx-med, that among the Indians themselves we find no account^ 
of the progress of sci«ice, which is conjectured to be owing to 
tbe doctrinal point of the Brahmins, that hbtory should not be 
written, although, in the case of Egypt, the conjecture had 
been, that science had been uttjerly Itwt^ while we found hiatory 
in some measure preserved. We then have a notice of the In- 
dian monuments, which are acknowledged not to be very an- 
d^rit; and of'lheir most andent books, the Vedas and Oupa- 
yedas, both of the date of ISOO years befwe Christ, the former 
QRntaiivi)g'Ati,espo4ti(Hi of the religious philosophy of the In- 
dtttUKi'tfaelatter vmious »imti£c treatises, on music, medicine,; 
iwiri ardtitectdrt, and the mechanical arts; asA it is added,' 
" these two works afe written in Sanscrit — a language which al 

abd ejrliii^er, inscribed In one anotber. The other exception Is Aristotle's 
Iftttii'al History' of An itnafg; & which haturaliats recognise not a liltfc'thai' 
i»TrtfliMlBWyim^-ttt! rthialitepalrts are obiHouaiythe work rf his own mind;' 
mS ifgi'liDizoKd fhuuEg^pl 01 any' otiier quarts. 

L iiizcd^vGoogk' 

5i Did Science originate «i ^diu f 

not at present spoken — a language Uie most Tegftlar ' thttt^'iB 
known, and which is especially remarkiible fof the ArtmUfliUlce, 
that it contains the roots of the varidus latiguligM of Eoropc, 
of the Greek, Latin, German, Sclavonic; so ttaf to -find etcn 
the 6rst instrument of soence, namely language, h would seefd 
we must go to the tndiiins'in search tif it * We have, tben, an 
acknowledgment that the aetronoftiy of the'I-fldiantf Is nof^ery 
Wcient, and that they had no knowledge of anatomy; so "dm, 
** in short,* it is said, " all'that thb ImKaos ooAM conintfinicate 
to the Egyptians was their metaphywcs, their 'Hiythbk^y, 'md 
their constitution." ' 

But if we admit the intvodoction of 'these branches into Egfpc 
by the Iitdian colony, why most-we exclude thei^ other sdfencea, 
since they had music, medicine, war, and othen. Is it iebl we 
should be compelled to admit, along' with these, 'their mftlnown 
^surd cosmogonies, and so depiive ourselves of the right ib^b- 
rive the cosmogony of Moses ont of liie ntter dmkResH of 
Egypt i But let us briefly investigate the merits of 'Sett tnuHtkm 
preserved by Manetho, and how tax it agrees witii'tbe true 
light of history. 

The inquintive Herodotus tells us, tiuU he himself p«Minrted 
into Egypt as far as Elepfaaotis, and there inquired pttticukr- 
ly into the state and history of the countries faigbet- up, Bod 
{^ves, as some of the results of his inquiries that 1^ Btfak^itans 
of Meroe had no other gods but JupitEiT and Btcbhus, -whtHn 
they worshipped with great pomp. Here, then, we'6iid neithw 
the mythology of India nor the fetishism of Egypt ^'flnd^tn eoa- 
dstenejr with this, he telb ns in another ' place, that -ttie<'tSr9oo- 
dile, an object of adbrafion to the lower EgyptikM, iMifti»»'Ar 
from being held saci«d, even Do higher up than KJepbAntis, that 
the inhabitants wereint^e practice ofeattoghkn/'Wffl -these 
fects perontus to derive the religion of Egypt from Mefoef I He 
gives us another fnece txf history, -drrowing much' lighf -os'tint 
qf Meroe, and which he asagns to tiie Telgn of' ^ammetMMs, 
from whose time, he says, the affairs of Egvpt, throngit means 
of the Ionian and Carian militai^ colonies, were neatly as Well 
known to the Greeks as those of tiieir own country. It isj-tfiat 
alargebody of Uoops revolted from that kii^,attd"weBt ttt'Me- 
roe, where they were well received, and that through their 

Zmd. Seience, originate m Ipclaa. f £S 

A>eMlR'tiw,fltliiofWuiB were somewhat dvilijied, sod karot the 
.8Mino«t:«.o££gypt Ou^ we to admit a vague traditioD, com- 
'^mUted-ttn^fi^iogcnly at ajsucb later' penod, io e^qxtaition to 
ifjuft qnutmatantial ertdcaice t£ the ^iragress of dvilfzatipn &Qm 
JWoH) lap words, instead of its coming. in the oont^a^ diijectiim^ 
iQr even enbtlod Id set in oppoHtioD to it the. opinion 
j^J3u)6oTva, Sieulua, who lived 400 yean after the .tigie pi ,lle- 

'.'^Xbf^utfaer pcoofs of axknvati(HLfDoia India will tttpd us in 
«a bsttec stead £ar aup^xnting its reality, or ev^n .tbafr ofr th^ 
tdenvatioa of the Egyptian retigioD from Meroe-. ' Grantiitg 
Ahat; n^acb of.tba Lwr part of-^^^pt waa a gift of the Nile, 
|ii> S31, «id. that; the. land which i3..iiaw the.I)eltA ^fV M a« 
-oarlji {NDBd odieF a mai;^ or a lakcy we must still remember, 
^tilbi^ainpl^ xeferEsce to.lhe order of .iiature> ia aiich cases, 
iiads to thejcortala conclusion, that on, die margins of these 
Jkhere must always hspe .existed a stripe, of lich land, tutwever 
Banow, .wfltcivd yeariy by a fred^walcr river, and admitting a 
eoaUodotwfxipqlatiaa <lown to the n^g^IyimlKiod.of Pale^e. 
<We have thus a road always open for the introduction of the 
'Utft from ithat side, and are not reduced to. .the neeessity of 
' IndBgng t^^.down ^roi^h Meroe. . Let us see the amount of 
^MDhafaility .diat tba accbitecture of Ijgypt, aa which much stress 
is hud asJboBg nmiho- tothatxf. India and Cbalcleii, was intro- 
fluoed thio^gfa the, lo)nr or upper TOad.i The, Baron hipiself 
.allows -that^the mqaumsats of India^ of ^pgantjc proportions, 
jnay.he judged t» beppstenor to the age o£ Alexamler and the 
FlA^DUas, p. 2&%. Thia at pntae cuts. off. all derivatiijn of the 
£gyi|4W) fonoE, f rtn*^ InfCa, and we {(re Meroe itself 
■^ tJtmtiOijgm^.M Miejr auoe ;&<Wi- the south. But the flr«t 
4iRW ^rt the^anhitwtUB? of :£g^t is {^reseqted to qur notiije, 
e^ba^jain tlw,tiiBe.ofi *I<j8es,,we find the. huildings composed 
\o6briclw^eyideo%.iin|d)rifg4hatit bad ita.origin in the clay 
lfwd*4l'tlwPetea«irAtss£9^bouthood> . ' 
.....if, ia.aU<,>|ipnd BJtpby^«he.Be(!;on,.p. 338», that most of the edi- 
.^i;*B,o*<i;ga:pt,,«hi(^,we know, miKt have been built.from the 
,3»a5-K»»tfttbpy«*5-5® before ChtisV ButfiOO yearseariier 
'Abrn tlM,.^ find ^ iaV^iSunf?, of ;Falsst#ft possessing aa ar- 


56 piid Siitfu:^fn^imti i>*-Md»t 

chitectUR of;Stapa8,.Bqd-(ntws.4«wnbB|l u ««lMtip)Ml fa 
(Numb. xiv. 40.Deiit> S8>). IntbcticM 4^'S 
columnar foROB Amoiig,the PhilistiDet at Gaw.^J.iidgt»^m.'8fr) 
Above all, ju^ at the peiind of ihe coB)B)eoCeve««f tboE^jipi' 
tiau buildings, we find .the Tynant ia p o aaMawP 4tf'>«clBMiiiA 
fonns,.«saiHiilated in tb^ prqftartioBs. to time vd Sffrift i^d 
skilful enough to caat them in the ewtXj mtctial>oC- biMB. 
Hiram, the Tjrrion, employed by Sdanwrn ia the cODatenatBK 
of his temple, cast. two noble' coluauia of baws,> hamgiifaighi- 
ly ornamenied capitals, hi the ttijle cpfnoaa tmtmg 'th»> •■- 
Uons-to whose architecture' Uie Barontrefera. (l -Ki&^ viL AS.) 
. We find LuciflD also siting that the Pbeawttoand^Sgyjltia* 
architectures resembled each other; and WAuld. it ant then be 
wrong in point, not only of prob^lity, but«i«nof;slattcCa^;o- 
ment, after this clearly detemuaed aoone SoeMi.:iamtKBfk^Soe 
the origin of the latter in Meroe. We.Bh«Ufin(iJiUle diffioiil^ 
in accounting for tbe appearance sf tbe MacfomM ia-OMUeat 
when we reflect that Nebuohiidwzaar cviiad the iwhab i tW i-iif 
Palestine to SabyloD ; little, too, for thw beiag Jpmui at Fm» 
polis and in India, -when we furtbar vtOmA that AeF^fdaoi 
had such constant rule in Palcadne, from tbe bi^iHiiagiC^ tbmr 
monarchy ; and that tbe Seleuodie affaat to bavs poMQssedfbr 
some time the Indian. conquestB-'Of. Alexander. . AJEter «11,..|]m 
fact with regard to the cdumnar farn» nay be,,. that, Utom a 
different natioiifi are not of one ^ijligle oqgin, b«t.K«ie,aatWHl^ 
derived in more nations than one, according to the npnian of 
eminent architects,, frcan the wood^ p9«ta of .th« h^MatlDBG 
which men fint oonstrui;ted. ., 

The diviaon into casts,, which we iipfl iB.aiua9it£ggrpt*'aBrf 
again in .India, peaa^ torbe^fi^prapf oico|i)npf>n.orig)f^«ad.iiM^ 
cates even the contrary, whett we fiiid .that thwovcaat* doiWt 
correspond with each other in the two countiiea. i .W^ 6o^iw\f 
four casts in I()dia; aod, scoording to. He^odetiw,, tbrtrq.wifff 
sevep in Egypt, three only of which , are knowAiin Kndia.: • .. .1 

After all, the languagesof Dati(HU.8re the.moQumettta^wtwli 
most cert^nly demonstrate either their diyei:ait^rOi!>ccii(imuBit7.«f 
origin. We readily allow, not that in the Sonscnt axe to be foiw^ 
(he roots .of tbe {^vv^Ran langw^fts, byt. that « SHgi,B 


ctf-TCOttf BflieDtmitoli tethft'firffnei'U^tlwIsftfa-. Ha^a colony 
faidte^fnw^IacUR to Bg^pn^ -^ shtiAiA findroots'bf ^H the Eu- 
ra^d«niJaogtjitg«lB Intfae Cbptte aa iietfaBittihe SanscHt; but 
Apne-bra fdDDd in di« fiMWer,- «x'ee^hig' sneb as are obviously 
dniBed'fnAB th«Ore«ll aJbire.and'for'dif^intibducfiAil'of which 
bus ^^gfTpty the IsD^ pas9EidtMA 'df Wat tobilti^'by tKe Macedo- 
BMtn sotGoiBiitly'acGotinte. " Vhh probt, thtr^re,- uf any coIo- 
■icfttioa-of 'BgyprffttA'KwKa'nDt dblj'flSls, 'but the' K^ults of 
^Uir inqiiii^}' iii'H»^ iff iUfhraacheii, Irad'to-lfie cobtTu^im that 
iMstidh ealioB(«atiiM'16ok pibce. i' ' ■ 

• Sutfi^ig tVti proof of the derivation of Bcienceftoni Tiidia, 
avtbe^tetein tMrt-oftheaid Continent thft^^ the road of 
Sigfpii another fnttk' iB-poihted'outby whVcH ?t inayliaTc come 
U-ns ftuRi' diat'eitbiltry. ' Wd ha«e Urekdy cjuofe'd tjie passage 
ftattt^ that' the 6'anbcrit contatm the roots of the European lau. 
gillies; and that 'it would s^em we must go to TndJa to find the 
8rst instruMMit of science language. ' We'find, ina somewhat 
MAihlr tPtrafa", at jwge «4ff, *^ The P^lasgi were originally from 
india-j of which the SanscHt roots that oecur abundantly in fheir 
Iniguf^, do not permit us to doubt.** But why should thb bt 
predicated of the Pelas^ alone hete, when we fi^nd the Greek, 
Latin, -German, and Sblavontt;, having Sanscrit roots ? We are 
happily enabled, on sure grounds, td give a more satisfactory 
ilCcOuiit of the or^;in Of the rdlation between the Sanscrit and 
Eiiropeso tongues, than by conjecturing the arrival of a colony 
tiC IltdlMs in Europe. 

- The " History rf'the European"Languages,'' by the late Dr 
Alexander Murray, and the discovery of the Zend-avesta in the 
iMnds of- the Farseesi have placed' the whole' question in a very 
rinpTe mi Matural poiht of ^i^n'.' DrMttrray'^ boO^ is, tatien as a 
-Whot^, unfbrf.aiuttely imperfect, not having been completed or 
atmiged at the time of the author's death; and the learned 
editbi* ha*»g 'judiciously determined td present! ir as much as 
possible in Ae form in which it was left by so great a metier of 
jtrngtif^esas the author,' th^ more' valuable parts of it consist of 
«bly t^tnnted n<M^sj aiid it haanot tbei^fore attracted that no- 
tice which it 'deserves. Another cii*cumstahce which has proved 
itfiTiAv^MMl toi'a' jilripahtiij edtimate of it is, thai the author 
has attempted to establish a theory of the origin of the Euro- 

good. But ttiia atn b^ ^a% .a^fncstwl £rPV)>.^ tvi^^ 
^lil^ jp})p^y to olfKurfv. t)ie ^QP^-^ ljj^^,whic^ b^>h|ut ^leeD 

UBelf. The rooU opd ftr^ctu)^ . p£. tb^ ,«e«^n)> |iid,H^uf})^ 
ElKopMJi l ^ ng i m g ps tl«(Qi^ Latw»„Wel^.S(4ftVftftic,(are 
tiir^iwd upto.ths .Teub)i)ic, of ^Uch aD.ol<^[8iQd/MftiKV>iUc.;Ggf>- 

fourth ceoCury, for the Masso-Goth^, a, p^ogle, .it^b^^tii^ n^if 
the iboT^Hof the Black ^e^ sod, i^it, lenwta front the TJ^raqao 
Bptf>boi*>u-. Roots, uivilaF to those ivund in, the Xoitwiiii are 
[)fHn¥4oi)t^pi^.{'<pV,i¥KipvffeDt8 iff the, Median apcl Petsupi 
Utfigufve?, i^^AchhaTeliesOjveserTedby tbe':^8ni^d4{]Fiw% 
]e]Mtii^.,qo douttt that t}^ Tei^brpc #ad these,laBgt}i)f)u n^ ' 
^feryckoidyxeUFed toefp^otfier. T^.2Rad:fTesta,.^ ft^c^t 

, Af^wfactB J^hat , we can .glean out of ancient history, confirm 
the ifxffib^appfs ^ofei f iwn th/^ numiiai^i^, qf f^tckot.lai)- 
gUBgas. Tbusin tbe.AnBbaqis, wefind jS^Dophoi^'s ipterpreter, 
epeaSa^ ^ the Aimfn^fips io t)ie Inpguage.of t|ie Per^s ; an4 
in ^rodotus* Recount of the. army of,^erx^,we find hini ii|:a- 
t)Dg th»t the A;^E;iii^n4 4nd Fhry^ami w^re; the. s^e ^ariqp^, 
fpd that the foipaer, of the*^ were a :Colpi)y of the lat^r; anjd 
also that the ^^hry^itw^ l^d formerly inhabit]^ in thefoiiptry 
of the Maeedonians. All this implies at least a common origia, 
and £ln^Wtn,I9IIg^w^ of the Pi^rsan^ ^menisnVjiPhrjypans, 
and some early iohabitants of Aiaicec^iiia- ... 

, W^ 4p,Dot,p^,.th^p,,^Gall.acc^i)i^ (^M^ of Jndia tpptant 
tihe.Sapst^tropts in {li^rope. , We fi^d th^^,at.^9, fflrly ^gf, 
?(,fe|ichipft filing the ea«;prp #ide (rf the Xifff'% I¥"itH;W m<9^ 
^mnd, towards Eyrope,^t}iro«gh Asja filinor,, anij by th|»,^.^F^ 
9f th^ Blaf:l(.S^,. and on the pthec tQw^rfla Iiu^i).,Uiroji^ 

P;ai;tbia. , , .;.\.,, 

^..We,,^B ^^eOYet, '}}i,y.ery, rein(^,liin^ tw9.j^at f|Ufii^s,pf 
ljtPg1lflffp*j very^nIik$; t^e^r structures, and, root^ q^ely, 
the famijj having theJ(Ii4|tq)^(^,(i;Dd !£an£cryrr9|(ris,,.on.tbe i^qe 
hand>|;^t,n;hich i^^des tlie^geQi^tic toqgu^ ^^ Qh^d^, 
Axabic, Helwew, Sic on the other, marcfaing with each other by 

Wat the Mosaic Starnggor^iUnowdyhm Mr ^j^Hama f ffi 
ttSiiE -tiiiSiSi passes very vioAf tfahwgh 'dfe paint oMigtied' 1^ 
Moifee-fiw'tlie 'scene of t&e cboflUQon €]f langnageK 
'^^fae SeinhJc huaginges,' AopecuIiRr ib' dieir nrutture Md 
roote, baTii^^wen thna Knrfted, from early tin»eB,'to the Oe sM Wi 
>lde of ibe tSgroj Anns an imunaoDauble objeedoe to Ae 
conjectliM tfcat buiguageiiadnts origiit in Xndia. 

'ttf ii6 eridence, therefore, eStraneoug to his Awtfitrili^Sg'iB 
there nny |trodf wfaotevtr that Moan derived Ms nftt^ral sdfnee 
ttotO Bgypt tar India. ' When we leftr to his own Writltigi, we 
Ssiovee there 'highly «atiahcti»y internal evidences that he dM 
Hot, and to some of these ire shall mw direct our attention. 

"Th^ 'first chapter of Oenens is Written in a- pure Hebrew. 
This' wa6 ffaef tatigoage spoken, and afterwards extetisirely mit- 
ten, bjr the people whomMoHea conducted to Falestiaefrot^ die 
land of^Odshen. That ft d(fl^*«^ gnMiy from the labgu^ of 
ttefe'EgyptlanB, we have full probf in tlie Coptic ifemains of 'the 
tatter, in the Egypti^ ^pet nata^ preserved in the Hebrew 
writings, and also in'the circumstance that Joseph, when pre- 
teiiding to "be an Egyptian, conversed with his brethren by means 
of an interpreter. Yet, in the chapter tn qu^tion, ve ifind do 
ibreign terms, no appearance of its being translated from ai^ 
other tongue ; but, on the cotitrary, it bears every internal mark 
of being purely original, for the style is condensed' and idioma- 
lical in the very hi^esi degree. Bad Moses derived hisscience 
from' Egypt) either by' oral commuQicadon, or the study of 
Egyptian writlogs, it is Inconceivable that some of his terms, or . 
tbie 8^1e of his com[)osition, should not, in some point or oth^, 
betn^ the plagiary or copyist. ' 

' But the cbnjcicture that MoseS borrowed his cosAiogony from 
tfiS Egj'j>tiUis, mdst'test, moreover, on a supposition that the 
(trdei* which ' he aasigna fbr the diSerent epochs of creation had 
bet^ deteriiiined by a course of observation and induction, ai^ 
Ae ooirect application of niahy other highly pei;ftcted sciences 
to the iUostration of the subject, equal at least in their accuracy 
dlid' 'pfitlbsophiCa'I precision to those by which our prefent geo- 
logical knbi^leijge has been obtained. Nothing less than tWs 
can account for Moses' teaching us pirecisely what the modem 
geJibtgy te8ch«i,1f we' allow his knowledge'to be merely hubidn. 

L.,l,z<»i:,., Google 

Hpw coQies it,p4SB, jben, that while he has g^ven us iJie p^ect. 
and satisfactory results, be baa Jtteeo enabled so totaU; to e:(clud«.. 
fro(n his record every, trace of the «eps hj which they were .-ob- . 
tained ? The suppoEititqi of such perfection of geological k^ov-v 
Ifudge in aDcient £gypt, implies a Jong series of observation, by, 
many individuals having thi^. same. object in view. Jt implies of. 
necessity, also, the iavention and use of many defined terq)B, i^f 
Bi^euce, without which there could have beenjio mutual jiodtf- 
standing among the ditTerent observers, and of course no pro?^ 
gr«BB in their pursuit. These terms have all totally disappeared 
in th.e hands of Moses. He has tiynslated, with precision, jthe 
whole sfuence of getdogy into the language of i^epberds and 
hu^jandoien, leaving no trace wha^ver of any .one.<^ its pecu- 
liar tprms any. mcs'e than of the curious steps in its- progress. ^ 

But there is a phenomenon in his record sullmore uDacc«un.t-, 
«l)lfl upop any supposition, that his sdence is mer^y, humap.) 
His geology, acknowledged by the highest authority in this ag^. 
of scientific improrcment to he thus accurate, dn^adl(;s down in, 
his hands to be a merely inddenlal appendage to^ ^ enunciatioi^ 
of, the most rational and sublime theology. This l^t^. he ^id. 
not learn in Egypt, forit was in possession, of hia,a^ces,tor^ y^laile: 
they were yet inhabitants of Canaap ; and w« find F^tisl^i^ 
established in Egypt in his^ge, ^d ev^ as early fis thjf tfin,^. 
of Joseph. Joseph's .steward addresses his brethren as if.thfir 
God were different from thp, gods of i^gypt (fiiep.,xlitv^.),- 
and we find him afterwards stating (Gen. xlvi, SjJ.), th^t.i^veiy,, 
shepherd is an abominatioj^, to the Egypl^aiw. , . |ier;9!dq(u8 ,1)^%-' 
^yen us a pece of information, iwlijch. furms a peri^t OBtfif, • 
mentary on this last passage, and puts us in possesion of all 
)t» JmpoTL. HetetU u* ihatwffS) whet^r young or oMi, W^rt,. 
by the Egyptiansi til h»ld saom)<to Ids, and were forbidden' 
to be sacrificed; and that on this Account,, they more veiie-"* 
ra,ted that animal than any other ; a^d, he. add? :alm9;t a .f^' 
r^pl)rase,offJ)e, words of, Joseph, ".thw^bw, noraan.wwoii^, 
of , them wiU kiss a Grqoian, or uw his knile, or pot, or spir, o» 
eat the flesh of animals cut with his knife." The Greeks were' 
thus ail abomination to the Egyptians, b^cajise they sacri^c^, 
tlip foum^ sasiei to Isis. Now, the fl*bre«[8 wCTe ia tlw {Bmn ' 


' ' — '- Mfotaic Costiiogomy tatt-cf^g^p^oii origin. (St 

tlceof SacritiHDgtheBanieatihDal, for we find a hafer ainong the 
sactiffces of Abraham (Gen. xv.' 9-) The proofs of the existence 
of Fetishism io Bgypt in the time of Moses, and. that the 
Ejgyptians knew not the God of the Hebrews, arc complete. 
fa Exodus viii. 26., we find Moses saying to Pbaraoh, " shall 
ve sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, 
and will they not stone us ?" In Exodus xii. \9, we find the beasts 
called the gods of Egypt; and in Exodus xxxii., we find 
Abron, in consistency with the idolatry which be bad witnessed 
ib Egypt, making a golden calf, and saying to the Hebrews, this 
iis thy God. Also, when Moses first presents himself before 
Pharaoh jo' Exodus v., we find the latter denying all know- 
ledge of the God of the Hebrews. 

Shall we, then, conjecture that Moses borrowed theology from 
the Hebrews on the one hand, and geological science frbm tlie 
E^ptians on the other, to compound out of them tTiat brief but 
uBique and perfect system ofboth, which is presented to us in the 
1st chapter of Geneus; or, is it possible that we could adopt 
tiny conjecture more absurd, and this, too, in utter destitution of 
all -proai that the Egyptians possessed any knowledge of geology 
in the tense in'which we use the term ? 

'' The result of our inquiry is, that the geology of Moses baa 
cbme down to us out of a' period of remote antiquity before the 
light of human science arose; for, to suppose that it was bw- 
rowed from, or possessed by, any other people than the remdrk- 
able raccf to which Moses'htmself belonged, involves us on all 
bands in the most inextricable difficulties and palpable absurdi- 
ties*. Of' that race, it has been long since justly remarked, 

, * , We bdieve tbtli the action nf Calmet miy be mktnttrined bj rerj ex> 
tfudye an^higbl/ satiafactor;; inttrtvd evidence, thtt lUaKS, in tbe book vf 
Genesis, haa transmitted [a ua the successive vritin)^ of tbe earlier PatriATcli^ 
jvist ai the Prophets, wbo succeeded hitit, have transmitted to us that book 
■uaiiit own wrltihgs. We bellev^ likewise, with Biabop Gleig, tbat tbe 
(4dBton|{eiienll7-eBWrt«itted 6f tkeUteiDVeDtiaa of -alphabetical writing, ia 
Ml other t>WP a l<^lB>r enw; and thW.JUi^ wntiog must bava been practiied 
before the flood of Noah. 

Kr William Jones, when be hazardeil the conjecture, or rather opinlOD, 
tfast tile language of Tfoah ii probabt; entireljr losl^ must have quite over, 
b^ieia: tbe internal e^'Aeatti, nnt the ori^nal langiitegE^ df Qefteaek can 'be tio 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

61 Am»^ Mnitifi^CouHcgoiijf' 

diat'iriiBeiBrcKg^.tbey-mm hwr, iv hutnM-lautug'aod 
neuccdiey were childceH; add -if wfrflndialbi^ ncMdtsnjp 
pnffltl ^tam of «a cxtMnreind difficult uietice, we toiwr 
Arrfaare aot obtuacd it by tbe regukr prooeMes <^"ob*rv«. 
lion and iaduetionf whicfat intliB bends of Etirapeaa pMlosoi* 
]dien, bwe ledto a higb-degMC of perfeetkia in'man^ BneHon 
' Let us now, thee, inquire into the truevidm and' titcenaf 
icailt of Bnon Cuvi«'*> *taXement,'"theitA&'vaMnogoay at 
Komi anignfi to tha epodis of «re«(i(m preciaet^'flw sanle ofdtf 
as that whidl bat been deduoH horn geoh^ctl coneidemaom.* 
' Before we prdceedr-to tlut detanl and ooiffpanson of poriteui- 
l«n which are ageeamey ia the due ;ftfoM«naoa «f the iuquiryj 
we purpose to shew that a r^t undentaodbg of thb temis 
cnployed by iiata wiH lead us to aemflri more ^reeffients be- 
tween his 'statanenta and the results, of the Modem geology, 
tban are udicsted by oar commcin En^iah - ttwAslation. Tliii 
wiU lead wi into a critical eEamibatiai of serevri of these termst 
We do not mean to hiage nifchiof ^«80 oriticiBms on gratotnA- 
tical nwetaefs-buttorestlhemchitfif on antisaniinatiota ofotbtf 
pushes of the Hebrew<9cripeaiw^ whaeatbc^terttis'ttfe rimiem^ 
ployed, and where the coMest tlicows wch^ligbt' oit ttiem^ m 
puts an end to all dodrt about threk ttue-mpOrt. ' Tbt« ia a 
jMcees of critloiun whieh is aaiTer«aUy aHowectiobtf quite s»> 
liultctsFy, wh«re we have raeoorcee lot* einplayiog' h, ai happens 
to be ttie case i» the preAenidnstanc^i' 

To tMke oM critienniB inCelligi^^j •without the'lriknif oF 
tumitigtoittiepaes^iee'qADtei^'we^ali quoib thk t6rararm'EBg~ 
li^lniMl&tloo to Mcb an eiitdbCaH Dny be tteeessaty. 

The term, the mining of which we shall first investigate, Is 
"da^"' O" tl>* Hebrew, yom): Th* interprksltibn rf this, in 
ijie sense "epoek" or 'f period,'^ has been a subject of animad- 
verskm, of an onaeeeaBary s^erity in- aotne caaee. A ettr^A 
«imniiHatkni of the first dwpter of 6«Ae«i{^ itself leads •tmavcM- 
ablytolheeonchisionv that Onr nstui'al Bay of one ttfoIfidoA 
of the sun cannot be here meant by it, for we find that no fewer 
than three c^ the aut dajw had passed befon tfae meaauFe ef our 

other than the language of both Noah and Adam. But tbeu^uestioqa are 
too important and ettenrive to tie more than thus briefljr alluded to In • 

ep«ch «E the oKRtipo^ " tbtti&Dd madotww ^a* li^Mvtodu 
riAf theday iitm tbe,nigfat^ mkI to be fi»r mgiB, snd'ibr tcanaif 
apd-for-dtyai and fiwycom." The -very finrt. titae 'l^at.^e term 
qpours in the Hebnir text, after the history .of llwi sisi dajV 
work, «nd (tf tlie vmt'of t^ 9W«Blt9iaiif'l)a funrah us with de- 
fi^jto iaipimtfioA wgwrding iti) true- import, vefiod it naj^ed 
ip d Bumttv mvADor to'thst w which we inuai:uaderatnd:iit 
b^re; fpiviq^li,)ir.4,.ve'h«w» " Thwe awthe - g e pwalw i <rf 
ti>e b^iiiveitt.^d.Uie mrthj in 4A».i2(^(lM^am).thsl the Loid 
God load^ tbe-«aitb ood b«aT«Q8.'' Tbeuaeofthe termiB-thia 
isd^fiajta cenfw ia m> wnwoa; in tfie^ Udwsr, wntbgn^ dnit>it 
3f9u)d bttsi^rewt'lftbeur to quote «U m 
i«Ba44 fi^d iteidisll wtiafy oacwlT«s.'byiat|Heatntrefeni]lgi-to 
J[ab,xviii. liiOk.whexe it.i»put fortlie nhde-penadof ft nn't 
Jifej " They tbtit come sftei btm ^U ba astonifld at Ait dnyf 
(^ptuu^; ^d l^aiab XXX.' 8, vbnre-it is .pot &r aU fiatare tima^ 
V^Wr^o.wiite itiioa-book, tbei:il ntMfy be&r-the- latur da^ 
■O0«iai')>Jw vmiiOad.vra.'" > Itaqvit^ehvioaa^ 
WplM* that ti» Hebmws uHd.the-t«Rn (yoot) Id expraasiIoBg 
fw^d* oil Um*- .Tbfl.yefywnditiaMiQf tfaahial^Hkthisi^Bp- 
ler pwfft tbatat wi|t^:fae )mk« al^v■ld«lMo«d. > ,, . i 
.; .Tt4j;,i«hq,«^i««t.t4 tbi8.iM:^i|vetatjoA4jf thMosm bmcviw- 
^jiK^wtflyi-quliteii^if^ift it^w.-s^MfiA •dd«)te>th*'i'ouith,c«nK 
mandment, " For io six Atw/i tb#)I««i wad^ivwwn' wtd caTt)^ 
UwMm.aiid all dxit.intbem^m8t«d Uw acTftath.^ay, 
iirhEr9fa|p,lJiQ W4'J>:da>a«dtiKStUM(M»y-awl MMlified.ibT 
This is, h(}Tev«FyBo«of«.tb»qr.a,bne£,r«£weiH¥iii)nd;tbe.teieu 
^ it aiWBfctiieie^iB,.be atficUji Mmr p wft td .atcaadanatf irith 
«>(Me laf tbe-d^MWl to mUctit tM r^BWOftJa-w*^ 

It hef)be«a:wd tlM'SUiA a^' iat«rfrM«tioti,goei toaullify 
ibfrffeasMi aaiienaed ffm the ainatificatiaa-or cveryfevactk rtxa- 
Mtti<w<<' d)«:sMB3'btitthisd»eanf)tfoljk»«- - In. point -of.Saot, 
i^imt^om the. work «^ <arMti«» (w« iue.tbi» iGwm ttf apeaeh 
ftmt tbe «int*pW bafoi* ui). did aok aadarc only &r one .aawh- 
Miwof.tbAiWW^^bHthflBifioativued mm ^ Kttataoa^<^umai 
SDd we bare no grounds aa which to establish even a conjectim 
,of. the .time of its coming to a close ;, so that if we were urged to 
ad<^ a period c^ twmty-four hours aa the tneaaing of yom 

9t Boeg. d« Ma$mic'Cifi m o g om f 

duttbenxdftyaofcrmlRKi Might lilerdlyccmwpMidwiAib*^ 
six working dRjn, we diould liien £nd tlie-apparetit' disagree^ 
ment, (rfnch, by tfaiB prooess, we would aidBaTour to avmd; 
tnmt&nied to oarwmkljr period of rest, and (he rest fromtbe 
wvvk of, cTMtion. 

It wflltMirely be really' dtowed, diat the eancafication oT the 
Srtbsth bw Kipact to maa and his duties ; and Bince hia Cfea^ 
tW'has'been Tnad&^noWn to bin, Bn<itfa6 order of 'thfl-«ixifeuO^' 
caMh>e'Bp«rbsUi.whiclFtheeHrth «M.Mnde««d 'fit 'flsr'Ms htfhii- 
tatioD ; if we a^e to'sllDK, 'what^BOFClj Do redecdng mind will 
evtf Oeny, that it is his duty to^'raBect with gratitude ontbe 
blesiAig he has rec^ved, sxiA to nwintain in: bib bean a etmse of 
his d«p«>deiict: upon, and responnbilTty to him, who madeUie 
heavens and the ^rrir, and sJi that they contain, tio method 
could hdvetboien devised'bdttBr <uiculat«l for preserving these 
TeditigsitTooiMtant' activity than sppotating some definite por- 
lidn'ctf time, returning at short intervals, tO'he devstH to th« 
cotitemplfittaDsitbBt awafcen then), nor any interral tooPe appro* 
priate thiDi' that irhiHr bo directly reealls'tba order of the crentK 
of the ereatiffli: . . : ■■■ ■ .^ 

^ce we' httvt here introduced the sub^eM of themeasure-d' 
our present' day, we would oi^r an tAtservdt^ regarding the 
work of the' fourth day, which includes the Bun, idoon, and 
start. ' Hwpecting the period of their oreBticHi, getAogy, from itii 
nature^' gnes'uS'no'pMciBdy defin^td indications. Hiebtator^ 
re^rding thetW is from the 14lb'to'the tSth T^^es, aad'Wfr 
would bbierre ofvt/thait'the tettMeoipk^edttre ButdinS do not 
nhsolutelyimpty that' these bodie»wet« at 'thit^ epoch Brtt'creft- 
ted,- tnit adnnt'oF'^ iMefpretatibn that tbM^ nHMioitfl Were thAt 
first thaile thcareamirCB «f olir p^fesent dhys and' seasonfl. 'We 
bad -found it ■alrettdj' -statedi fn'the Ist *erse, that (he -hwlven« 
and the eOih "wne createdin Ifubeginnkig, airteoedeMly ivthe 
work of ihe'Eui days, by whirit th^ i»eK redoced to their prau 
sent order, -arid the earth was peopled with' organrzed beii^s. 
It would seem antnwarntntable' Tftierpretation'to>ext^ud«''the 
sun, rnoon, and stars firom anon^ the ol^eets expressed by-tbe 
general terms,, the heavens and the earth:" It is the niosl'^ohvii- 
ous interpretation, that they were then created, and were )lghted 
up on the fiist day, but that it wrn oidy diiiang tbe'fourlh epoeh 

agrtf mA Msdtm Oeahgyf 65 

tWth^'Wei»QMide, the greater lig^ to rale over tb« pmcatdtf^, 
«tu) ihe lesKt light lo rule ovei; tbs pKMDl n>gbt^ and to be for 
ngns, and focseaaoas, and for days, «nd for jeari, aocoeding to 
the OMBsure* of timewhic^ trs now find established bf thfrn.. 
This part of the history, then, when interpreted in cvnustensj 
wilii the Ist verse, ami without any rietenoe. to tlie tertni, itn- 
pUeSv in tbe eommon language «f men, which, in «ll natioos^ r*^ ' 
ftn the diurnal and annual Kvdutioaa of the heavfoly bodies 
to Um motioits of these bodies tbemselres, that the earth was* 
durini; thifl epoch, fieally lx^^;ht into iu present oihit. 

The walk of the thad epoch was the appeanuoce of the dry 
land, and tl» creation o£ the v^etdble kbgdom. . Theituilory! 
of the latter, in our comaian traoflation, is, v. 11, " God.Li^d, 
Ijet the earth bring fovth grtats (in the mas^n tender grass), . 
the herb yielding seed, and the CruiMtCe yieldii^ fruit, afier . 
his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth : and it wa? 
sol" V. is, '■ Aad the earth txought fortlirgraiB, koA iher)) 
yieMing seed aft^ hit kind,, wd the teas yielding fruLt,. wbosa 
seed was in ite^ftafter his kind.'? The taroasgvasEliin.iiebctW, 
deshc), herb (Hebrew, oeseb), and tree (Hebrew, et£),.ai« iMre . 
aU put tli«junc4ii!vc4y in. the Hebrew; there .bang only one. oos- 
juacttoa in the twelfth versa hetiin«en herb and tre%nh>^. 
n&tafleet ihe disjunetive <harai(it« of., the three'temui,'as;it ip», 
ccntmoR prftcuiee,iii UieHebrpw wntiags,tp wuple«in Uw ntaor - 
nw^.the uifolastof a senes of.cU^inctlveterflEiBM'B'* 'w.fXainfiJf, 
thenknes of thcfour k>Qg8.)n;0aieasxi«..l.' In the two.liKt 
of thew t«niis, herb and tree,.w«i)iid s rociegiiiilioii t^fi,xemM^.. 
^e natural dixiiKtion: a^noBg .(b«i v«gR^b)^itfi4w^ and thi». 
very circumetalKe woutd-lesd^ut, to, iofi»,.,«.^£t tfm* > 
whM) baa oUviomAy {Httweted'^difiiGvLty; to.,0|ir,«raq«)stPtS) ' 
nocethey bavegiven.Lwa.inttvpiHtKtiQOai of>,il„i^ iptegrj^ ^ 
es|Vre»«oH)«elssBior tribe of the. v«ge|LahIe /kingdoni] naturally 
dietinguithed'from. Iwb* and trees, as they are fixm) nns.anor. 
thsf. The tes{''que«tiaa.(deabe) is a .nown fnom «, y^rj^ 
wbiohtfnMa-JoeUi.'SS, weJearajbe iqeaautg IP io .apriitg^ ,fo 
-sJ*iM,4o wgttatpt" 'Be. not .afrai4, }ifi b^SAts of the ii^ld,, fo.T the 
partHres o£>thg "^Hemetiiido-.tprii^ {da/iiw).'^. In jh« Hth 
yQreeutlder..eDA9idenitiony we. find .both thfsvfrb.^md th? i^^j 
Ton. xmj-Hoi«XTi«-^piirMiail8.- - •- ■ ■'■ .-*■ 

L ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

"OtS Dots tfie Moiaic Cosmagonjf 

for th« words translated " Let the earih bringjbr^ "" are (ta- 
deshe hsaretz), which, in accordance with the obvious sense in 
Joel, would be better rendered " Let the earth shoot out."" . Froia 
this meaning of the verb, then, the noun would signify the 
tprii^ing or shooting plant, and as used here in contradistinc- 
tion to both herbs and trees bearing seeds, it is surely not recomr 
mjending any forced interpretation to suggest that it is meant to 
express that class of vegetables, which all botanists recognise aa 
being naturally distinguished by the obscurity af their means of 

It tends to support this interpretation, that the Hebrew ha^ 
a different term for grass, the common food of cattle (chatzir), 
which the lexicographers have shewn is derived from its tubular 
structure. Thus, in Job xl. 15, we have " he eateth ^rtuf 
(chatzir) as an ox;" and, Psalm civ. 14, " He CBXix\hgrai$ 
^chat^r) to grow for the catde," 

In several passages besides this of Genesis, we find deslK 
oontradistinguished from both oeseb and chaisnr, as in Deutero- 
nomy XXX. S. " As the small rain upon the tender lierb (deshe), 
and as the showers upon the grass (oeseb) i" and Psalm xxxvii. 
2, " They shall soon be cut down hke the grass (chatzir), and 
wither hke the green herbe (deshe) ;" and Sd Kings xix. S6, 
" They were as the herb (oeseb) of the field, as the green herb 
(deshe), as the grass (chatzir) on the house tops." These quor 
tations shew the want of uniformity with which the EngUslf 
translators have raidered these terms, and go to support ihe 
sense we would assign, to deshe.. 

But we must not conceal that there are thi:ee,, passages, iq 
which this word occurs, that might seem to imply, untiP closely 
examined, that we should not be warranted to restrict the sense 
of it in the manner proposed. One is in the 23d Psalm, " .Tb^ 
LmxI is my shepherd, I ^all not want He maketh me to lie 
down in the pastures of tender grass " (deshe)." On this we 
have to observe, thirt the word rendered here in the pastures^ 
has been rendered by the Vulgate, in various places where if, oct 
curs, and by the Septua^nt in some instances, desirable of beavr: 
tgfiilplaceSf and their accuracy in dcnng this seepis confirmed, by 

. the (drcumstance, that the Hebrew has another term for ,p^ 
« TlwiiMq|^nal.lnui^tion,'wU(iiii ABlttenLiM-,'-" l- , 

agree with Modem Geology t 67 

fare ; and. if tbts interpretation of that vord be admitted, then 
deshe might signify here plants ratlier fitted for lying down on, 
ia the moases and ferns, than for pasture, which would make 
out a consistent image expreesed in this clause or sentence, in 
opposition to the one derived from tlie abundance of pasture, 
which is evidently already sufficiently completed in the terms, 
" The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want." This passage, 
then, when rightly understood, rather serves to confirm the 
meaning which we have suggested for desks. Another passage 
is Job vi. 5, " Both the wild ass bray when he hath grass 
(deshe), or loweth the ox over his fodder F" but no stress can be 
laid upon this, when we consider that both the ass and the 
horse eat, of choice, various species of ferns and equiseta, a fact 
which it is not unreasonable to suppose might be known to the 
author of a book which contains so mudi accurate and interest- 
ing natural history as this of Job. The plants, whatever they 
might be, which formed a supply for the wild ass, are at least 
obviously set in contradistinction to those which formed the fod- 
der of the ox. The third passage is Jeremiah 1. 11, " because ye 
are grown fat as the heifer at grass (deshe).'" But there is In a 
great number of manuscripts a various reading for eUahe here, 
by which the meaning becomes, " ye are grown fat, like a hei- 
fer thrashing, or treading, out the corn ;" and several circnm- 
stances shew the latter reading to be the more probably correct 
one. ^ 

It remains, then, very highly probable, upon the whole, that 
deshe., in the llth and ISth verses, is intended to express the 
cryptogamous vegetation. 

In our observations on the terms employed in the history of 
the creation of the animals, we shall arrive at some important 
conclusions that are more absolutely certain. 

The first thing that we would observe in regard to this, is, 
that there are two distinct Words, of very different origin, which 
the Enghsh translators have rendered, promiscuously, creeping 
creaivret or ^ivga, and also moving creatures, following, no 
doubt, the authority of the Septuagint, which baa given i^mr* 
fer'lKtth; thus occasioning a great confusioa instead of a clear 
and perfidious order of creations exhibited in the Hebrew 
■ 2 

68 'Does ihe Mosaic Coimogony 

text The Grst of these worcia isshxretx, as io v&rm ftOtfa,'^- 
the history of the fifth day's work, " God said, Let the waters 
bring forth ahundantly the moving creature (sheretz),'' in the 
margin the creeping aeature.' This word is from a verb, which 
dgnifies to bring firik or to htcrease, or to mvUipl^ abandmtt- 
^, being the very verb which is rendered bring Jbtih abtmSant- 
h/ in the 20th verse, " Let the waters bring forth abundantly,'"' 
(is heretzu hamaim). We find the vet-b obviously having this 
meaning in other passages, of which we shall quote examples : 
Gen. viii. 17, " 7%U they mm/ breed tAundatithf (vesharetEu) 
in the earth, and be fruitful and multiply in the earth ;^ Exod. 
i. 7, " And the children of Israel were fruitful, ortrf increased 
abatidanlly (vaisberelzu), and multipried, and waxed exceeding 
mighty, and the land was filled with them;" ]£xod. viii. 3, 
" And the river ghaU bring forth fr(^ abundanth/ (vesharata), 
* " * and the frogs shall come up both on thee and on thy 
people, and upon all thy servants.'* 

From all this it appears that the proper translation of the 
noun sberetz is not the creeping, but the rapidlt/ multiplying 
creature. The creatures expressed by this nouD w£re part of 
those which were created during the fifth epoch. 

The other word translated creeping thing is (remes), and the 
creatures expressed by the noun were created during the HXth 
epoch. We shall afterwards shew that it hds a very'difierent 
meaning from sheretz. 

In the history of the fifth day's work the translators have 
rendered the Hebrew word (oph), by fowl. This limits its mean- 
ing so as to include only the birds. But the term includes also 
the winged insects, as is evident from Leviticus xi. 90, " All 
jifwls (haoph) that creep, going upon four." — rXhe proper trans- 
lation of the term is nol Jbwl hat Jlyifng thing, including die 
tribes of all kinds that can raise themselves up into the air ; as 
is indeed rendered obviously by the expression in the Bl'st verse 
of the'lst chapter of Genesis itself (cal oph canaph), "every 
fiying thing that hath wings." 

' Intbe Slut: is saidy *f Grod created (hatbanaoinv ha- 
gedolim)," which Hebnw wonb, our tronsiators, fiillo<wii^ ihe 
Septua^nt, which has given for them *« Ktntn fu^t^M, Have' 
rendered great whales. We have abundant resource^^to sh'ew 

agree with Modern GeeJogy t 69 

UiatvthtktMfislation is erroneous. . In fact* nndvr U)e Greek 
DOT the English translators have been con^steiit with them- 

' selves in translating the Hebrew wonJ (ttian) or (thanin), for it 
occurs in both these forms. We ^nd them in other places 
translating it severally by the terms ^mumj, and dragon. It 

. would , he tedious .to quote the passages where they have thus 

. varied, from themselves. We shall refer to Ezekiel xxix. 3, for 
the latter sense, " I am against thee, Pharaoh, King of Egypt, 
the greai dragon (hathanim hagadol) that lieth in the midst of 
his rivers,^ where the Septuogint has n> }fiuun» m fuyat. The 
figure in this passage is evidently borrowed from the crocodile 

' of the. Nile, and tl)is circumstance of itself would shew that 
dragon, in plaee of whale, would be a better translation in 
GeneMs. But (thanin) has a still mpre comprehensive meaning. 
We find two words formed from it, one of which (Leviathan) 
is the specific name of the crocodile, as is obvious from descrip- 
tions of Job chap. xli. and of Isaiah chap, xxvii. 1, in which 
last passage (thanin) is also used, — and the other (Fethan) is 

. the specific name of some serpent, as is obvious from the refe- its poison, in Job xx. J4, and Deuteronomy xxxii. 33. 
In this last passage we also find poison ascribed to the thanin ; 
" Their wine is the poison of dragons (thaninim), and the cruel 
vraom of asps (pethanim) ;" so that here it is evidently meant 
to express a serpeit, as in Ezekiel and Isaiah, as we have seeti 
above, it signifies one of the lacertine species. 

These references, which we could have greatly extended, 
were it necessary, are sufficient to prove that (than) or (thanin) 

, was a sort of generic, pr rather clasacal, name, to designate the 
serpent and lizard tribes ; and that instead of great whales in 
the, 21 St verse, the translators should have given the words 
great reptiles*. 

, . The result of pur criticisili is, that the work of the fifth epoch, 
as described in Genesis, was the creatiun of the inhabitants of 
the waters; of the birds, winged insecl^, and reptiles ; in fact, 

;0f the oviparous races named in detail,^ with some omissiops, 

''Thet'eis onlj one p^sage In wlik-h (Ihan) Mmmt. with certainty, any 
"ttiliDretaeltbdnsierpenbOT reptile, *liiik i» LwDentiitlaM iv. S, wliiire. [tro. 
; UUy "a -^ 'a oteuit t but tjie iMsaage 49 highly ppetiwnll, .end , pq ;autb,grU; 
,.Qin be.Kiven to it to superude the uoifotpi, meaning Cii the term in all the 
earlier writers, which we have eBtablislied io the leit, ' ' ' 

70 Doet the Motaic Comogtmy 

idiich are to be Accounted for by the uniformly ocmdeBBed aad 

brief form of the whole narration. 

We proceed to the wotk <^ the sixth epoch, whidi concluded 
vith the creation of man. 

In the Engli^ trandation we find crteping tkmgg again in- 
cluded among the b^ngs vhich were created during tliis period, 
and these Engli^ terms, in their most commonly received ac- 
ceptation, imply some of the insect or reptile tribes. We hate 
seen that the Sepluagint countenances the interpretation creep- 
ing things; but the Hebrew term (remes) does not. Thiais 
derived firom a verb which signifies to move, and which is to 
far from being limited in its application to the insects or the 
reptiles, that, in Psalm av. 30, SEl, we find it appbed to tbe 
beasts of the forest and the young lions: " Thou makest dark- 
ness and it is liight, wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep 
(tiremos). The young lions roar ofler their prey.^ In the 
24th and Sfith verses, (remes) is grouped with cattle (behemach), 
and beast of the earth (baith haaretz). Proofs are abundant, 
and too tedious to be all referred to, that by (behem^) the 
Hebrews generally expressed the larger herbivorous animals, 
and by (hdth haaretz) the larger beasts of pi^y. (Pot the tot- 
mer see Genesis xxxiv. S3, and for the latter Leviticus xxvi. 22). 
Thus we find races of mammalia expressed by these terms, and 
to comprehend the whole class we must understand (remes) as 
referring to its other tribes. It is at least no race of insects 
that can be meant by the term, for, in point of fact, where any 

'of these are obviously meant in other Hebrew passages, either 
the name (sheretz) is given to them as in Leviticus xi. 42, 

" " Whatsoever doth multiply feet among all cret^>ing things,^ 
(hasheretz), or the name (oph), as we have already seen. 

It. is true that remes is applied to the oviparous tribes, bi^t 
not as a noun or name, but as a verb to expren their motion, 

ijust as in some passages above quoted, we have seen sberetz ap< 

'plied as a verb, but not a name to mammalia. ' . 

Previously to setting down the following table of cmnddencw 

.between the Ist chapter of Genesis and the results of gedogical 

observation, it is necessary to make a remark on me passage in 
Humboldt's t^e of geological formations, which possesses a 

claaucal celetHity over Europe. Id that table, folbwing an 

agf-ee with Modem Geology f 71 

earliw authority, be has placed tbe fonoatioos of Iraasition, in 
the iimestonea of which are found several epectes of shells, inter- 
mediately between the primitive formalions and those contadning 
bitumiDous coal \ and his table would thus indicate that an anU 
.mal creation had preceded any v^etable one. We shall not 
need to discuss the quesUon, wb^er the formations named 
Transition are conridered in a right point of view, when they 
are placed between the primitive and pit-coal strata, since it is 
sufficient for our present purpose to remark, that several oBser- 
vations, among which we may particularly refer to those of 
Thomas Weaver, Esq, F. R. S. on the gecdo^cal relations of 
;the south of Ireland, have proved that the anthracite or glaac«- 
coal.of tb^ tranution, fqnpations, wiih some of its accompanyif^ 
strata, are full of impre^ons of. various plants; lo that in tJie 
transition strata a vegetable creation is discovered as well as an 

In the following table we have taken the geolf^^al facts 
from various authorities. The passages quoted are selected 
chieBy on account of their brevity. In the quotation from and 
reference to Genesis, the events on which geology can throw no 
certain light are in italics. 

TABLE c^ Coiacidencet between the Order tf Eveati as deacribed 
IN Gmena, and AtU w^tlded ty Geoioffical Invettigatkm. 

DiKOTcrcd br <:«>lam ' 

Oen-L 1, S, In the 
glniliil); God created tlie 
heavetia and the etrth. 
And the earth was with- 
out form end void ; and 
^^efaiess Tig upon the 
&i;e of the deep i and the 
Spirit ofGod moved upon 

3,4, S. Creation lifBght. 
6, 7, 8. CraHitn af Hie 
expaoAtn or atmMphere. 
0,I6l Appa«aniteaftht 


It 1b impossible to deny, that the waten of 
Ule sea hsye formerlf, and ibr a long lime, 
covered those masses of matter whidi now 
constitute our highest mountaini ; 

further, that these wat^ during a long time 


J)oa the Mtaaie Cotfooganff 




11, 18, 13. Creation ot 


I. Cm>t(WBmbiu plant! is th4 001^ StntK 
Mwivob»eSe«0 , . , 

period of the secondary formations, and the 
5tst traces of them can be shewn In the oW- 
Mt BtraU of the leconlaiy fbrmatlon; while- 
they uninlernipledlj increase in the succes- 
avt ftmnaUoBs. (ProfessOT JamMon'e re.- 
nwks on the Ancient Flora of the Earth,) 

UW18. Su^tmmtand 
itari made to be /or tiffin, 
wadfot >«Mnt. md ft, 


20. CreatioD of the in- 

(Hiimholdfs tableaO 

Fish in Jura limestone. (Eft) 

Teeth and scales of fish in Tilgat« suid. 
stone. (Mr Mantel) 

CreaUon of fljing things. 

Bones ofbirds in Tilgale sandstone. (Mr 
Mantel, Gedo^cal Tranactiens, 188S.) 

Kljt™ of winged insecls in calcareous slat^ 
at Stimeaficld. (Mr Mantel) 

2t. The cr««bon of 


It will be imposMble not to acknowledge as 
a certain truth, the nnmber, the laMeness, 
and the variety of the reptiles, which inha, 
bited the seas or the land at the epoch in 
which the strata of Jura were d^MMited. 
(Cuvler-B Ossem. Fosa.) . 

There was a period when the earth was 

appalling magnitude. Reptiles were the lords 
of tiie creation. (Mr Mantel) 

Sif-an. Cieaiitm of th« 

found only when we c«me up to tb* fon»u 

above the chaUt*. (Cuvie^sTheor.aect.CT.) 

t6,i7. CreBtumofmiui. 

No human remains among extraneous fos- 
rih. tCuvier^ Theor. sect. 32.) 

But found cohered with niud.jn .caves ijf 
Biee. (Journal) . , 

GencsiBVII. The flood 
of Noah 4200 yems ago. 


The crust of the globe has been subjected 
to a great and sudden revolution, which can-' 
not be dated much iarlhpr back th^ five- qt-. 
sii thousand years ago. (Cuvier's Theory, 

DUuv.) . , 


agree iej«4' Modern Oeolog^ t 78 

Id the above Table, we have not taken, advantoge of tJie di*. 
iinction which, we conceive, we have gone far to prove, is ex- 
'pressed in the Hebrew text between the cryptogamous and the 
Other classes of plants, but have set down the whole vegetable 
kingdom as forming only one element in the table. We shaH 
also allow tbin the 4th, 5th, and 6th Nas. may be hable to be 
interchanged among themselves, in respect of place, and shall 
hinge no .argument upon thetn, farther than what arises froia 
the drcumstance that they are all placed in one group. Yet, 
after these abatements from the number of particulars, the 
coincidences here shewn between the order of the epochs of 
creation assigned in Genesis, and that discovered by get^ogy, 
are calculated to excite the deepest attention. Human science, 
in the probahihty of chances, as illustrated by La Place, has put 
us in possession of an instrument for estimating their value ; aqd 
we feellamply entitled to take advantage of it for Uiat purpose, 
for no case could well be pointed out, where it would be more 
correctly applicable than in this, where the coincidettces assume 
a definitely successive numerical form. We are entitled to 
adopt even the very language of Laplace, and to say, ** By 
subjecting the proliabitity of these coincidences to computation, 
U !s found that there is more than sixty thousand to one against 
the hypothesis that they are the effect of chance *." 

It is thus, then, that the discoveries of geology, when more 
matured, instead of throwing suspicton on the truths of revela. 
tion, as the first steps in them led some persons to mfuntain, 
have furnished the most overpowering evidence in behalf of 
one branch of these truths. The result of these discoveries hae 
been in this re^)ect similar to those of the Chinese and Egypi- 
itian histories, and the Indian astronomy, but much more strik- 
;ing. Eminant men liad fJedged their fame in setting, up tjl^esfi 
iHSstories, and that astronomy,' in' opposition to "the chronology 
iof Geneas ; but fuMher- and more careful inquiry into their 
'true characters, discovered that, when rightly understood, they 
'only tend to confirm it. 

We are not afraid ihatwe sht^ have here quoted against us the 
"words of fiacoD, " Tanto magis hsc vanitSB inhibenda venit, et 

■ ■ ■ S/st. Am Monde, book v. chap. *- 

L ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

74 Does Sh Mosaic Cotmoffom/ 

ooercoida, quia ex divinoruiii et humanorudu, m^e sana adnax- 
tkoie, non solum educitur, philoso{^iB phantastica, sed etiMm 
religio hteretica." We have only eodeavoured to iltuatrate and 
poiat out the consequences of the statement of Baron CuTiei\ 
** that the order which the coamc^ny of Moses asiig^s to tb* 
Afferent epochs of creation, is precisely the same as that which 
has been deduced from geological ccHisiderations.'' We have 
been guilty of no improper mixing up of divine and humaa 
things. We have examined the meaning of the tertos in the 
first chapter o{ Genesis, in consistency with the acknowledged 
rules of criticism, and only by the light contained within itself 
tar that thrown upon it by the other bookst in the hdm slan- 
guage with which it is associated. The human science we hnet 
not extracted from any part of the Holy Scriptures ; we have 
taken it simply as we find it in the works of emii>ent geologists 
As the latter is not a philosophia pbantastica, but a deeply in- 
teresung science, constructed by that method of careful i^)ser- 
vation and cautious induction, which Bacon was himself the first 
to recommend ; so neither can the sense of the Scriptures present 
to us a religio hieretica. If our science, thus construeted, mi 
■ our religion speak eo obviously the same language, as we have 
seen they do on one important point, what else, is the strictest 
application of Bacon's philosophy, can we deduce from the cii> 
cumstance, but that both are certainly true ? 

It does not come under our present subject to discuss the his- 
torical and moral evidences of the divine revelation of the Scrip- 
tures ; but both are so full, even to overflowing, and impise 
upon as so many insuperable difficulties, in the way of our be- 
ing able to account for the quality and conustency of these ^ 
markable books, excepting on the ground which has been lill 
along assumed by themselves, that they are of more than hu^ 
man origin, that in estimating the accuracy of any part of the 
matters contained in them, the fastidiousness of human science . 
appears to be carried to an unreasonable extent, imt to take 
these evidences into calculation. In this country, where for a 
long period we havehad the Scriptures in our hands as a popu- 
lar book, tbey among us who have been ttie most eminent for 
human learning and science, and whose fame has been in erety 
view the most unsullied, have been so conviriced by the fbrce (rf 

. .o;.|c 

agree teitk Methm Geology. IS 

tbcaeerideiicei, that they. have in geaeral been the most streou- 
Mu defenderB at revelatioa. 

Will Dot humaB aoience, then, condescend to borrow smne 
Jigfat, to direct tbe tttps of its own ioquiiieB, from a record, thp 
■ccuraey of which it ba» itself proved, and which is supported 
by other proofs of the highest order F or, what should we say to 
the illustrator of the relies of Pompeii and Herculaneum, who 
should reject the light thrown on them by the Letters of Pliny, 
■ntbenticated as these are by tbe existing remains of the buried 
cities, as well as the historical evidence which is proper to them- 

^Among the qnastiafM which geology is at present attempting 
to solve, is that of a different tempCTature of stHne r^ions of the 
earth at a remote age. The discoveries of Pallas and Adams, 
of a rhinoceros and elephant in Siberia, having coverings of hair 
fit to protect them from the cold of the northern regions, would 
seem to decide the questkm, so far at least,«s to shew, that there 
has been no change of temperature since the creation of animals. 
But the question does not seem yet so satisfactorily answered, so 
far back as to the age of the creation of vegetables. Does not 
the statement in Genesis, that the establisbment of our present 
days and seasons was intermediate between the aeation of v^^ 
tables aod that of animals, ^ve us a clew to direct our path in 
the inquiry p 

On ffte Fundamentai Types of OrgamxatioH. By G. B- Tas- 

The doctrine of organization is founded on comparative anato- 
my, or the systematic distribution of living bodies, and on or- 
jisnic chemistry. It is not to be expected that we are to give 
here any thing but a mere outline of these sciences ; a few land- 
marks, which I think have some pretensions to novelty, and are 
^nocc correct then those which have been hitherto most general- 
ly tidmitted. 

We can arrive at no mutual und,erstanding in biology until 
acuirate definitions ,aie given of the classes, families, genera, 
spd species of living bnngs. Ever since natural history has 

76 DrTrevi 

'been aoniethmg more tlian a, mere crude digest lof MBCOBOeoted 
facts and observations, philosophers have oonstantly endeavout^ 
ed aflerthe discovery of an airai^eiocBt in which. theofajecU 
of their inquiries should belinlced after tkeir natural -afEnities ; 
while, at the same time, the characters of its subdivisicHia sbculd 
possess the utmost simplicity, by being derived fnwi a sin^e 
BjEtetn of organs. It may, in & maniiM'i be compared with itfae 
'philoBopber^s stone, whether be ma«ly resort to 99ch aa bm~ 
rangeraent for the purpose uf discovering the name of an un- 
known animal or plant, or whether, with hi^er views, his r». 
searches enter deep into the pliilosophy of nature. With the 
first object onlyin view, external chantotersslon^niay si^ce,aQd 
ihe more easy these are of detection, the bett» arathey.fitttd 
for their purpose. The ^nd of natural atSnitics is quite fub- 
ctfdinate to this primary object. But if his object be of tlie 
other description, the characters may lie deep, and be of the ut- 
most difficulty to discover. His arrangement will be the more 
perfect the mure completely it expresses the sum of all the ex- 
ternal and internal structural diffovnces, and the more uniform 
the parts are from which the characters are taken. 

Of late years systems have been constructed upcm the last 
of these principles. But their bases have been always such 
as I cannot admit. One of these is the principle, That all 
higher fttfmationn include those lower in the scale ; the most 
perfect organs in the former having already existed in the latter, 
but in their undeveloped state -, that there is one universal type, 
only modified in the degree of its development. There is muob, 
bolhoT truth and of error, in all this. It is true that every or- 
ganised being advances from the umpkr to the more conipoijQ^ 
. ia its progressive growth, and that the early stages of the life of 
an animal high in the scale present many points of similarity with 
the perfect state of another lower in the series. But these r&. 
semUances hold merely in .external relations, and the .numerous 
points of dilTerence can by no means he overlooked. 

The foetus of the inammaliaand of Wrds is an 'aquatic adion^l, 
which respires not by means of lungs, aiid as such bas a simpTe 
circulation like a fish. But in all other respect^ its x;ire«l.ating 
system is constructed upon a totdly different princ^e' ftom.a 
fish. The apparent anaTogy vanishes upon a close* inspection. 

FundanunttU Typea'ofOrg&mxation. ft 

The turain of the- fetus of the malnmi^iB ^)parcnt]y nw^blft 
that of the other three TtrtebrAted claBses, as the tuhercuU quft- 
drigenina of the fonner^ like the posterior hemispheres in the 
latter, exceed in volume all the other parts. But these posteiior 
bef^spheres ood^d parts which have oothing. id coinnioti with 
the hibercula Quadrigeaiiaa. Id the early Btatea of mamaialia 
and fi^es th«re are Setut^ ia the ndes of the Deok which 
are somewhat Bimihur to the exteroal bran<^ial orifioes of the 
larvaof the fnog, tod, and salamandw. BDt the rQKiDblaiwe 
is merely eKternal. The fissures coDduct to no true gills, but 
to certain small vacuitira possessed hy the embryo o£ fish ia its 
early states. There is fherdbre nothiog but a mere generf^ 
analogy in the derdc^ioeBt of the Tertebrota. All aaalogy 
cesBes whenever we attempt a comporiBOD between the foetus o£ 
the latter with the perfect avertri>rau, They have do raage *d 
ganglia along the abdcMninal aspect of the body, but have a 
spinal cord. The drcolation is, from the very commoicenieDt, 
totally differeDt from that of the moUusca, Crustacea, &c ; and 
ibe wgaii^ of sense are, from their first beg^nings, quite diisU 

But some have gone farther, and maiotaiD, that the higher 
CH-gans are nothing else than repetitions of the lower oi^ans of 
the same organism. From whibh has arisen the doctrine of the 
" Relative Importance ot Equivalents,"" &c., which have aiKird. 
ed scope enough to the imagination, but have contributed byt 
little to the exbenuoD of our acquaintance with the essence of 

In my ofnnion, the followidg principles must be laid down as 
the base of every inquiry into the relatioDa between difitmnt li)[- 
ing bodies, with reapect ^ther to tbe whole of tfaea* ca^jaaiaaiiaD 
or their individual oi^ns. 

1. The rank of a living being is bigbec the- mere mineraus 
are its points of contact with the . estmial wvrld, the more di- 

* Manj other biauper^le nl^ections a^nst the doctiine irf the develop- 
ment of organic b:)die9 upon one prototype bave been bruugbt forward bj 
fi«r, In bis Bnirag*n m» TtnalnlM itr ■*iedirn Thltre (TeiliiiDdL der Kaberi 
Aca<L der Naturibraeh. xiil. Abth. 8. p. 73Ss &^)> aad in Ui BMriAOu^t 
gtMtMte tltr Thivt, Xh.i. p. 199. Webtr hu alw) yer; clearlj e](pi:es««d 
himself on the poinliQ hia editioQ tti Bildtbrandfi ffandiiuchderjtrtatomieJa 
■ Mmuhen (}. ISO). 

78 Dr IVevinmuB on tite 

vernfied its exntobility. The number of then poiiits of con- 
tact iDcreaBe with the advaocement of the inteUigcnce, which 
necessitates a proportiooate iocreaK in the rwiety and perfectidD 
f^ the several orgaD& The intellectual faculty is more perfiKt 
in man than in any other terrestrial eiistenoe. He, therefere^ 
merely in an organic point of view, stands at the head of the 
scale of animals. . But this does not oblige us to suppose tlwi 
in him every organ has reached the maximum of its devel<^ 
ment. An important line of distincbcMi must here be drawn 
between the organic sphere of the senntive and of the amply 
organic life. With respect to the former class of u-gans nun 
is decidedly at the head of- all animals, but by no means in tO' 
^lect to the latter. His alimentaiy appn-atus, for instance, It 
not nearly so complicated as in many other animals. - Betweot 
him and the lowest existences there are many members, of whioh 
one cannot be said to occupy a higher place than another. One 
being is best adapted for one purpose, and another for a diSa* 
rent purpose. They can only be placed in a linear series, by 
arranging them according to the type of some one oi their or- 

3. An original form may be very easily supposed, out of which 
all living things are developed. This development is not in one 
but in several directicms. Each of these principal directions 
again give nse to new subdivi^oas, so that the whole assumes 
somewhat of an arborescent form. Difierent twigs, however, of 
one of the branches i^len unite those of another higher or low- 
er in llie scale. In the midst of all these diversities, a general 
similarity persists between the various organisns and' tbmi se- 
veral parts, whiqh enables us to trace them up to a common 
fundamental, fbmi. No cooelu^enh- lioweyef, can be ditami 
from the nqiilarity of two ft^ms regarding their respective 
superiority or inferiority in point of development. Suoh simi- 
larity may result from the lateral concurrence of two forms de-i 
rived from totally dijferent twigs. Insects, for example, resem- 
ble the vertebrata in some of their organs, but are otherwise so 
diffenent from them in all ihar parts, that this partial exc^ptjoa 
cannot be considered to result from a higb^ development of 
the form peculiar to insects. As in the higher animsls, ao wft 
can likewise disUn^ish in tbe aUmentary ciod.t£.iiaeota,»,^ 

_ Cocwlc 

Fufidamtnt^ Ti/pet of Organixalion. 79 

paration into ceeophagus, straiiRcli and intestiiie. The latter, 
iiuM«over, is not as in the former attached to a liver. Its poft- 
ttrior extreimty certainly opens as in them above the generative 
cu^sBs. But their proper bHigue is not atuated bdow but 
above the entrance of the pharynx. When, however, we apeak 
^ development (rom a common primitive form, and the combi- 
BBtion of one form with another, it is not to be understood that 
these developments and combinations follow the same rules as 
pairing and generation in the presently existing nature. 

a. Noconduaon can be drawn from the absence of an or- 
gan, regarding its pm^se, nor vice versa. An example of 
dris is furnished by the auditory ossicula of 6sh, discovered by 
Weber, which are evidently parts of the vertebral column, aU 
Plough attached to the organ of bearing, which in other ani- 
mals is quite unconnected with the column. Another instance 
is in the mandibules of the Crustacea and insects. These organs 
have the same function as the maxillK of the vertebrata. But 
they do not like the latter move in a pkne parallel to the axis 
of the body, but in one at right angles to this axis. In many 
Crustacea, moreover, they perform the function of legs. Oa 
the contrary, the organs of these two classes which move in a 
plane umilar to that of the jaws of the higher animals, viz. the 
upper and under lips, have a totally different funcdon. 

To return to our proper subject, the distribution of living ex- 
istences ; according to our principle of considering life and the 
intellectual faculties as one and the same, we may be allowed to 
consider the organs through the medium of which the activity 
of the living printnpie passes ta the other bodies in the animal 
kihgdoiii, as those with whose perfection ' the. sbntcturs pf dM 
othw parts must stand in oonnection. Atid the aiaM'~inilmaie 
the connection the higher the gradatjim of life. These organs 
are the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. 

The presence or absence of these organs, as chareeteris'mg 
the existence or non-existence of voluntary motion, has always 
been conndered as the basis of the two grand divisions of living 
nature into animals and plants. No nerves, it is true, can bft 
detected in' the simpler animals ; but a» they have been di|«»: 
vered in some to which they were formerly refbsed, and a^ thes^ 
species iire iutiRntely conttected with thbsein whleh- tltey have' 

80 ' Dr TrevinmuG on the 

not ^et beeti discovered, it is doI improbable that thej are an 
^tribute of all aniDials, even the lowest. It ia quite otherwiae 
vith plants. Their tissues are so transparent, that if a nervous 
matter at all analogous to that of the nervoua animals existed, it 
would long ago have been observed. 

Here is, therefore, a negative character of [^ants ; and in 
their classification some other system than the nervous must be 
made the basis of division. Their positive character consists in 
the compo^tioo of their whole internal substance of solid cells 
and uobranched vessels. Their celts are separated bj intcrvBla, 
and are connected together in a. reticulated form. These inteV> 
vtds' have no proper coats. Globules and not cells are the ele- 
mentary parts of the animal tissues, and their vessels are rf- 
ways branched. When we approach the confines of the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms, — whenever the vegetable tissues are 
destitute of solid cells and of vessels, it is always difficult to de- 
termine to which of the two kingdoms they ought to be referred, 
from their want of the distinctive characters of the imimal and 
vegetable tissues. 

It might be supposed that the embryo, with its envelopes, 
was the miniature enpression,— the microcosm of the perfectly 
developed animal, and that the complexity of each were directly 
proportioned to each other, so that tlie degree of alfinity between 
organic existences might be concluded from the similarity of their . 
ova and embryos. The appreciation of these resemUJances has 
great or even insurmountable difficulties in animals, but is much 
easier in plants. The characters deduced from the formation 
of the embryo and its envelopes, have Iteen found the fittest for 
the natural arrangement of plants. They are the bases of the 
JuBsieuan System, which I must suppose to be well known to all. 

Rudolplii wa^ the first who attempted to arrange animals aci- 
cordlng to the structure of their nervous system*. He divided 
them into those with, and those without, a visible nervous sys- 
tem ; but such a division is of no value for tacAogy. Our au- 
thor has only given the most general distinctions of the classes 
provided with a nervous system. I have ajso occupied myself 
.mut:h with this Ruhject ; but my contributions are still merely 
fragments; but I doubt not that avery splendid superstructure 
• Beitr'ige zur Anthmpologie und AUgemeinen Naturgc9«hicht«. 

Fundanunial Typet o^ Organization. 81 

might be raned, if the principles were af^ied to the fiUJBg up 
of all the gapB- 

' AccordiDg to mj view, there are two great divinoos of the 
■aimal kingdom. The one connsts of thoce provided with a 
true spinal cord, inclosed within a shut vertebral column, which 
is always wanting in the other. In the fcHmer, the whole brain 
k situated above the pharynx, and inclosed in an osseous capsule, 
the skull. In the other there is either a single cerebriform mass, 
or several nervous knots united tc^ether by cords of nervoua 
substance Enirrounding. the cesophagus. The mass analogoua 
to the brun is eomeUmes above, sometimes below this canal, 
and is developed in an osseous or homy captule, whidi separtfes 
it from the other parts of the head ; and its posterior part ^ves 
«nt DO proloogaUon ctMnparable with the spinal cord of the other 
animals. This dividoD, therefore, coincides with that of La- 
marck into Pertebrota and Avertebrata. They might also be 
called Cnmta2 and ^crontoZanimalsL We shall, however, adhere 
to the old epithets of Lamarck, to avcud overloading biology hy 
the introduction of new names. 

In all the vertebrata, the anterior extremity of the sfunal cord 
inctosed in Uie cranium, possesses the same form that it does in 
nan, and in ^ undergoes a consderable augmentation both in 
toass and volume, compared with the rest of the cord. Even 
from the numerical differences aiE this {Hxjportion, four classes 
can be distinguished in these animals. I found the limits of the 
proportional weights of the spinal cord to the brain to be, — 

In the first da^lrom - 

1 > 85 to 1 I 6.S 

eecond, - - 

. 1 : B4.3 to 1 ! 6.7 

third, . . - 

1: 3.6 to 1 : 33 

fourth, . 

It 3.5 to 1 1 1.0 

The relation </ the greatest breadth of the cOTd to the- great- 
Mt breadth of the brain nuiges,— ^ 

IatheflrBtelu»,fMm • . 1 1 S.8fita 1 i ).»> 

t^cond, - . . . . 1: 4.42 to 1 I MS 

third, . . - 1 1 2.55 to 1 : 1.36 

fourth, . - - 1 : 1.43 to 1 : \-2» 

vot. xiii. WO. XXV. — jntY 1832. t 

:,, Google 

83 Dr Treviranus on the 

The first class- cotnprehendB the mammalia, including man ; the 

second, birds; the third, reptiles ; the fourth, fish. 

The following are the most impc^ant of the other neurolo^ 
cal difierences of these classes : 

In the mamrnalia, the portions from which the (^factory and 
optic nerves take their origin, coalesce with the rest of the cere- 
brum, no limits being distinguishable between them. In all the 
other Tertebrata, the cerebrum is distinguished into anterior and 
posterior hemispheres, from the former of which arise the olfae- 
toiy, and from the latter the optic nerves. The posterior bemift- 
pheres may be either separate or united together in the me^al 
line. They are separate in birds, united io reptiles and fi^es. 
Moreover, these posterior hemispheres may be smaller or larger 
than the anterior, — smaller in birds, reptiles, raya, and sharks; 
larger in other fishes. 

' The mammalia possess a cerebellum, cousisting of a middte 
portion (the vermiform process) and two hemispheres, imd its 
vertical section displays an arborescent prolongation of the Oord 
(arbor vitse). In birds the hemispheres of the cerebellum are 
merely rudimentary ; the vermiform process, however, still con- 
tains a distinct arbor vitee. This hist is entirely wanting in rep- 
tiles and fishes, and the cerebellum consists of a simple sack, 
formed by a thin layer of the cord. 

The mammalia alone possess the pons varolii (or great cere- 
bral ganglion). 

In fishes, there are found at the base of the brain, behind the 
optic tracts, two symmetrical eminences, of such extent that they 
form the greater part of the basoj and do not much yield in faze 
to the posterior hemispheres. 

The avertebrata, in the same way, fall under two great divi- 
sions, according to differences in the structure of their nervous 
system. In the one, there is extended along the abdomen, in 
two rows, or in the mesial line, a series of ganglia united to one 
another, and to the middle of the under half of the cerebriform 
ring by nn^ous filaments, and the upper part of the ring con- 
sists of two hemispheres, immediately united together. In the 
other division, there is no series trf ganglia extending in regular 
order the whole length of the animal, and the two lateral tube- 
rosities of the ring are not immediately united, but by means of 


Fundamental Types ^Organization. 88 

bands chE pervoas BUbdapc^. To tbe first division belgog tbo«e 
animals whose bodies crni^t of articulated rings, compriuDg the, 
cru^acea,insects,and wc»iBs; to the second, the molluscous ani- 
Boals and zoophytes. 

The distinguishing neurological mark between the Crustacea 
and insects, and the wonns, is th^ inequality in the several pqr- 
tions of the abdominal ganglia. This is obyious in the higher 
insects at the first glance. Their thoracic ganglia always di^r- 
in form and size from the abdominal. The differeni^ is not, so, 
marked i& the genera nearest to the worms, — the MiUipes, St^ 
iope^drum, and JuliiS. But even here the ganglia, from which 
arise the nerves supplying the organs of generation, are differ- 
en( in size frcan the others ; whereas in the worms, no other 
distinctiira is observably between the ganglia than a general de- 
crease in size and relative distance towards the posterior end of 
the animal. They have, in common with most cruatacea and 
insects, the possesion of but one series of ganglia situated in the 
middle line of the abdomen, and composed of a symmetrical 
right and left half. A deviation ^m this structure exists in 
the phalangiffi which possess ganglia on both sides of the abdo- 
men, but united with one another only by simple filaments. 

This first division passes into the second by the cirrhipedes, 
which, in the articulated posterior part of their bodies, possess a 
series of ganglia, as in the former animals, but in the upper por- 
tion of their cerebral ring, no hemispheres immediately connected 
together. Among the mollusca, there are families distinguished 
from all other animals by the want of symmetry of their brain. 
In those where the cerebral ring is symmetric, it has no central 
mass. Nothing certun is known of the nervous system of the 
zoophytes. But from the general radiated structure of this class 
of animals, it is probable that it is merely a simple cord, sur- 
rounding the orifice of the alimentary canal, or an aggregate of 
gangha united in the form of a ring, and which give off nerves 
in a radiated manner. 

Much is still wanting to carry out this neurological classifica- 
tion in all its details ; and even did we possess an adequate mass 
of observations, a more uniform division could hardly be pro- 
posed. ]t will, however, be by no means out of place to trace 
the concordance of the characters deduced from the nervous 


Dr TreviranuB on the 

system, with the natural characters of the faimlies fw tbe clan 
of maminalia. 

The proportion of the spiaal cord to tbe encejrfialon wliich 
we have already found of such value in the primary divisions of 
tbe vertebrata, is no less impwtant in their further subdivtEdoD., 
I have found ittocorrespond with, and to follow, anak^ous gra-- 
daUons, with the natural characters io the genera and species. 
Of these dimensions, themost important are the greatest breadths, 
of the two organs, which agrees with thar relative weights, and 
very nearly with the transverse diameters, of the cranial cavities, 
and of the occn|ntal foramen. In the fcJlowing table, I have 
brought together several of these relations, and have ranged the 
^)ecies according to thdr natural affinities. Those marked with 
an asterisk are taken iircHn TiedemamCt Iconet. Cerebri Simia- 
rum et quorundam Mammediwn Rariortim ; ihe others are 
from my own observation. Most of these last depend ou im- 
mediate measurements of the brain and cord. Those marked 
with a cross, are tbe relative breadths of the occipital foramen 
and of the cranial cavity. 

The greatest breadth of the spinal cord immediately behind 
the pons is to the greatest breadth of the cerebrum, 

InMu,B> ... 100 


SimiB sphinx, . - 


' ■ tST: : 



B^ . . 


' CTnomolgus, • 

363 ti 



■ Lemur MongDZ, 



CanUvulpes, . , - 
MuateU f^ . . 


37010 308 

• Felis Leo, 


• Nbsui. nmicm, - - 



• Lotor Tulgalis, . . 



Talpa eurap^a, - - 



VespCTtmo myotic, ■ 


Didelphis viigintana, . 


■ Mil* djdniiB, - - 




Cricetiu, - 


* B jitrlx crlstaU, • 


■ Cartor Fiber, - . 


• Cavia Agouti, . 
LepuB t&nidui, - 



Capm o™, - . 


Su9 Scrofa rinemia, . 


• PhoM vituliM, - 


t Monodgn Narwhal, . 



:,, Google 

Fundamental Types ^ Organixatioa. 85 

We have heie a double Bsnea, eia iocreaaiiig and a decreaung. 
The first ranges &om man to the VirgiDian Opasaum ; the 'second 
continues from the Opossum to the Cetacea. The intermediate 
monbers of the Srst series are, first, the apes, then the makis 
^Lemur), then the plantigrade or digidgrade carnivora, and, 
lastly, the insectivorous genera of Erinaceus, Talpa, and Ve&> 
pertilio. In the second series, the links are filled up by the Ho- 
dentia, <^ which the hare fmns the passage to the Ruminantia ; 
to vhicb follows the Fachydermata, which pass through the 
1%'oCK'intai the Cetacea. Thus the rdations of the spinal cord 
to thb brain in these animals, entirely coincide with th^r other 
ndtiirkl affinities. Sonie writers, it is tttie, have regarded th»r 
affinities diflferently, making the bat succeed to the makis, and 
the phoca to the plantigrades. But, in the determination c^ 
these oFBnitiee, we must not be swayed by a few of the more 
obvious external marks, but by the whole internal as well as ex- 
ternal conformation. Upon such a basis these animals will as- 
sume the order that we have ^veu them above. The only ana^ 
l<^y of the bets wiUi the makis is in the pectoral mnimnjn ; and 
the phocic ere intimately unconnected with the cetacea throu^ 
the geuus Maoatus. 

By this, however, I am far from assarting the mammalia can 
be ranged in an uninterrujKed series, according to the propor- 
tions of the brain to the c(»d. Even in the above list, deviations 
are found from such an order. This is owing partly to the re- 
lative breadths of these two organs not being exactly indicative 
of their relaUve masses ; and to the circumstance of the number 
of individuals in which die masses are determined with precision 
b^g still too small tn justify the formation of an exact series. 
Only, if these defects were supplied, it might be expected that, 
in cn-der to preserve the scale of natural affinities, the vacuities 
of the ascending and descending series should be filled up. It 
cannot be doubted, for example, that, in the sloths (bradypus), 
the brain, compared with the cord, is smaller than in the makis 
and (he uppermost of the carnivora. They are, however, im- 
metfiately conuected with the makis, and must be placed in the 
series between the lemur and ursus. Ifthe proportional breadths 
of (he organs were as 100 to 300, the descending scries from 
man to the opossum would chanee into two others, one from man 

86 On the Fundamental Types of OrgamxaHon. 

to the sktdi, the other froin the besr to the opossum. Faiilier 
mquuies would likeilrue disclose otherintenaetUate series. Sudi 
iMemiptions of the principal seties are, however, quite corres> 
pondent to the laws of natural afiinitj. They would only 
transgress these if interposed members gave rise to recuireDt 
«eries in one of the two principal ; if, for instance, an animal 
which, according to its natural affinities, succeeds to the sloth, 
should, from the proportion of its brain and spinal cord, stand 
^wve it. But I do not believe that such a genus can be found. 
As every genus and spedes, not only of the manunalio, bat 
also of the other vertebrated animals, hsa a certain proportion 
between its brmn and spinal cord, in the same manner each part 
of the brain, especially the cerebdium, bears a definite propor- 
tion to the other parts. Hence we might deduce fuither spedh 
"Rc BaA generic marks; and one day we may be able to distin- 
guish the whole of the vertebrata by the numerical masses and 
^mensions of the parts of the encephalon, and range them from 
this character according to their natural afSniti^. The relation, 
it is true, varies in diSerent individuali; of eacli qiedes, biit there 
are limits which it nevw exceeds. 

Anahfsis tf the Lairadorite Felspar Jmmd in ike Trap-Bockt 
of Scotland. By Captain Le Hunte. Communicated by 
the Author. 

Silica, . • . . . 5i.674. 

Aliimhia, 27>869 

lime, IftWJO 

Soda, 5^60 

Potaab, 0.490 

Mtgnesia, 0.181 

Protoz. of Iron, .... 0.309 

The specimen analyzed was found near Can^u^ io a, por- 
.phyritic greenstone. It was in the form of long narrow crys- 
tals, nearly transparent and colourless, of a foliated structure, 
and vitreous lustre. Its specific gravity was 3,(i$9. The larger 
(arystals frequently present a flat conchoidal fracture, which first 

Jna^tit ofLobradoriie Felspar. 87 

induced me to suspect that it was not f^l^iar. From the great 
AfficuUy that I experienced in procuring the mineral in a puie 
state, the analysis was made upon a small scale ; hut it was re- 
peated with nearly the same result. It appears, then, that this 
mineral is labradorite, with the best analysifi of which the fore- 
going nearly n^r^es. The large crystals of labradorite that are 
imbedded in trap-rocks are very much cracked, and so impure 
(hat they cannot be employed for analysis. 

About two miles to the west of the village cS Milngavie, near 
^e road between Glasgow and Strathhiane, there is a.very re- 
markohle brown porphyiitic trap, that contains large, and beau- 
tiful -crystals of yellow labradorite. These crystals are ^racked, 
-and when heated, present numerous brown spots, which show 
that they are not pure. The following is their compoution :-~ 

Silica, 62.341 

AIumitiR, .... !i9.068 

Ijnte, . .... 12.103 

Sod^ 3.97* 

PotMh, 0.301 

Perox. of Iron, . . . 0.886 

All the analyses of Ubradoiite that have hitiierto been made 
differ a little &om each other ; some agree with my first analysis, 
while one of Ehtproth's differs but little from the last. It is 
probable, that, owing to its structure, labradorite has seldom 
been examined in a pure state. 

The cjiemical dtaracters of h^radorite enable us to distia- 
guish it from ielspar, even when the quanUty for examination 
does not exceed a grain. For this purpose the mineral, in the 
state of an impalpable powder, is treated with weak muriatic 
atnd in a watcb glass, and gently heated for an hour. The so- 
lution is then evaporated to dryness, and the saline re»due is 
heated until the excess of acid be expelled when it is redissidved 
in water. To the clear solution, when warm, a . few drops of 
- oxalate of ammc»iia are added, which produces a precipiute of 
oxalate of lime if the mineral he labradorite, but does not pro- 
duce a predpitate if it be pure felspar. 
Dr Macculloch mentions, that the glassy felspar whicb he fouod 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

88 ' Jniahftii ^Labradorite Ftltpar 

at Sky' frequeDtly reaeUibled lalnwloiite. I have se«i msny 
i^)eciniens from that idaod to vhtch the latter name must 
be applied. The miDerol, which givea a porpbyritic aspect to 
Bome oF the pitchstone of Arran, appears to be glassy felspar ; 
as far, at least, as I can judge, from having examined a very 
smfdl fragment of it. -The porphynndal Craps, on the western 
boundary of the Scotch coal distnct, more frequently owe their 
structure to the presence of lahradorite than to that of felspar. 
Thb last mineral, with its usual -characters, very rarely occurs 
in them. We frequently indeed find a white, opaque, fdiated 
mineral, destitute of lustre, which has generally been called 
felspar; but I have procured both lime and soda from this 
substance ; therefore it has, in some cases at least, been impro- 
perly named. The trap-rocks appear to conttun other minerals 
which resemble felspar in many of th^r characters, but differ from 
it in composition. One of these, which I found in the nei^bpur- 
bgod of Stirling, is of a red bright colour, opaque, foliated, and has 
a silky lustre ; from the small quantityofit which I could procure 
I could only determine, that it contmned a good deal of perox- 
ide of iron, and a little lime. The analysis of another was pub- 
lished some time ago by Dr Thomson, who called it Momite. 
It is very remarkable ^st the composition of mornite is precise- 
ly the same as that of the first specimen of Isbradorite that I 
examined, excepting that it does not contain ah alkali, but it . 
contains a quantity of protoxide of iron, exactly equivalent to 
the soda in lahradorite. The external characters of momite and 
lahradorite must also be very amilar, for the inineral dealer from 
whom Dr Thomson procured the former, when I showed him my 
specimens of the latter, immediately called them momite. I bate 
not seen this tnitieral, which was found in a trap-rock in the north 
bf Ireland. The granitmdal traps of ihe Scotch coal district, 
on the contrary, very freqilenOy present wdl characterised crys- 
tals of felspar, and rarely lahradorite. They often, however, 
contain a white mineral, which, through a great extent of rock, 
does not present any of the characters of fejapu, but rather re- 
sembles a zeolite ; and these difitr very much, in all their cha^ 
racters, from those which contain felspar. It wonld be easy to 
arrange the granitoids, from th«r external characters, into three 

_: Cocwlc 

found m th* Trap-Rockt qfScotiaad. 89 

classes, and to give tbem very expressive names, if the miqerals 
which they contain were well known. The unicoloured crystAl- 
Une traps occaaon&Uy contain labradorite, and the presence of 
tbi$ tnineral may account for the soda that has generally been 
found in tbem, as well as in basalt, to which they are closdy al- 
lied ; but it does not, in some cases, acqgunt fw the wholv of the 
soda, so that they probably contwn other minerals, of which tbja 
alkah forms a constituent part. I have analyzed two of these 
rocks, that contained labradorite, and the analyus differed but 
little from those of some basalts. The neighbourhood of Glas- 
gow affords some very fine specimens of columnar trap, which 
all contain labradorite. The range of large and regular cdumns 
that stands on the ude of a wooded hill, a little to the south <^ 
Strathblan^ is well known. It is composed at a dark green trap 
or greenstone, contwning crystals of that mineral. The same 
may be said of the black basalt, that fonn^ the remarkable hori- 
zontal columns, near Ahmarry turn^nke, on the road from GIas> 
gow to Drymen ; and also of the columns that are found in more 
than one place on the Eilpatrick and Cathkin Hills. So that 
iabradorile is probably one of the minerals of which basalt is 
often composed. 

I have made these remarks upon the atuations in which I 
have found labradorite, because I believe that we cannot at- 
tempt to arrange the trap-rocks, or give them expressive names, 
until we are better acquainted with their composition. The pre- 
sent nomenclature of these rocks is very defective, and, not be- 
ing formed upon any fixed principle, it cannot be impro'^. 
The names must either be multiplied to such an extent as to 
render them very burdensome to the memory, or be applied so 
,)oosely, as always to require a. definition. The short <u>d simple 
terms now in use have not the flexibility which names, applied 
to pVgects that are constantly varying in thar characters, shoHid 
possess. It would be better to employ iu geology, as often as 
possible, compound descriptive names, that would indicate the 
structure and -compoution of rocks. Such names would, in many 
cases, be shorter than those now employed, as they never would 
require a definition ; and, when formed upon a fixed principle, 
they might be multiplied without loading the memory. As &r 

I ,-™:..C00^lc 

90 Mr Didton's Pf^sialogical Invetiiffations on 

as the trap-mcks are concenied, they can be accurately aamed 
in this manner only ; for we frequently find among them rod» 
of the sane conipositaon, but diffeiiog ia structure ; and, on the 
oontrary, th«r structure is often the same, when their compoei- 
Iton is diS£Tent. They are easily arranged in a few classes, by 
their external characters ; and the class to which the rock be- 
l(»gs may be expressed in a single word, while its compoaitioa 
may be denoted by two or three. There are some coses in 
which we should still be obliged to use arbitrary terms; but 
this should not induce un to reject the only painciple upon 
which an expressive and convenient nomenclature can be formed 
for the greater number of these rocks. I hare long been in the 
habit of using those compound terms in a district which presents 
trap under a great. variety of forms; and I should menUon the 
mode that I have adopTed, to render them as short and expres- 
^ve as posfflble, but that my observations and experiments on 
the subject are far from b«ng completed. 

Physiotogical Investigations arising Jram the Mecfianical 
Effects <^ Atmospherical Presgure on the Animal Frame. By 
JOHM Dalton, F. B. S. 

A- PBBIOD of a century and a half has elapsed since the inven- 
tions of the barometer and the ur-pump. In this time the weight 
of the atmosphere, its elasticity, its specific gravity, and many 
other properties, have been ascertained experimentaUy with aU 
most mathematical precision. The weight of the atmosphere, that 
quality we have more particularly to consider in the present 
essay, is not constantly the same, as is proved by the rising and 
fallingof the barometer. It varies in this part of the earth from 
^*|tb tOi';;thofthe whole weight at certain times; but those varia- 
iioDB are gradual, so that it requires some days or weeks before 
the w^gfat passes from oqe extreme to the other. On an average 
the weight or pressure of the atmosphere amounts to 14^ lb. on 
.eexii square inch of surface of the earth ; and, as fluids press 
.equally in all directions, every square inch of surface, whatever 
may be its position, must be subject to the same pressure. The 
surface of the human body, as well as that of animals in general, 


the AtmupherietU Prature on ^ Animal Frame. 91 
has to sustajn this pressure ; and it will be fennd by calcuktioo, 
that die whole surface of a middle-rized person, irill have to lup- 
port fhim 15 to SO tbos of pressure all acting inwards, and hav- 
ing no other mechanical tendency than that of squeezing or com- 
inressing the matenals of which the body is composed into a leaa- 

The above is a statement of &cts, alt of which I believe to be 
incontrovertible. But a very cfifficult question arises out of them, 
How is it that the animal frame is utterly insensble <^ the whole, 
«r of any part of this enormous pressure upon it ? In ordJoary- 
we feel no pressure on the surface of our bodies, either extenud 
Or internal ; neither when the barometer is Btationary nor whea 
it is in a most fluctuating state. I have never met with a Bat»- 
factOTy answer to this question, and I doubt whether such a mie 
has ever been given ; yet it must be allowed to be one of imports 
mce, both as it affects the phyaok^ of the animal and vegeta- 
ble kingdoms. Having had occa^n for a few weeks past to 
rumiaate on this subject, some new views have occurred to me ; 
and it is the oti^ect of the present essay to unfold them, in 
order to elucidate die phencHnena arinng from serial pressoieon 
the animal economy more especially. 

It is pretty well known that the specific gravity of living men 
in general, is less than that of water. Mr Robertson, frnmerly 
librarian to the Royal Soraety, procured an apparatus for the 
purpose of determimng the ^Mcific gravity of the human body. 
He chose ten men promiscuously for the purpose. Of these, 
three were found very nearly of the same weight as water, one 
being a little heavier, and the other two a little lighter than wa- 
ter; two others were found only about .8 the weight of .water; 
but the other five were of intermediate specific gravities. The 
average of the ten was, height 5 feet 6g inches; weight, 146 lbs. ; 
specific gravity, 891 ; bulk, 2.618 cubic feet. From this I think 
we may safely infer that the body of a full grown living man, 
when plunged over head in water, will be found upiH) the average 
to be nearly .9, the wright of an equal bulk of water. 

It is remarkable that all the component parts of the animal 
frame, at least of the human subject, are severally specificaUy 
heavier than the whde body, with the exception of aur. B<Hie, 
muscular flesh, blood, membrane, &c. are all heavier than water ; 

9R Mr Dtltoo'i Phynological Invet^a^otu on 

anbml fiit is perhaps the lightest of the componenta, but even 
this is heavier specifically than the whole man upon the aiverage. 
Bone from the 1^ of a calf I found to be i.S4 specific gnTit;'. 
The lean of beef (raw) I fbuod 1.045 specific gravity. Blood 
is from l.OS to 1.06 specific gravity according to circumstaDces. 
On the whole, the solid and liquid parts of the body, examined 
after life is extinct, would appear on an aversge to be aoraewhere 
about 5 per cent, heavter than water. 

That part of the volume of man which is exclunvely occupied 
by air, and which may therefore be considered as adding naAing 
matmslly to the weight of the bfidy, oonsists of the lur^tabes 
and air-cells of the lungs, the trachea or windpipe, the mouth 
and othn appendages. It is not easy to ascertwn the n»diunaf 
volume of ur in the lungs of any individual. Messrs Allen and 
Pepys found the air remaining in the lungs of a man after death 
MMnewhat exceeded 100 cubic inchcR. I found fwmerly that 
after a full inspiration 1 could blow out SOO cubic inches of air 
firom my lungs, but was then quite exhausted. My ordinary in- 
spirations and exfnralioits amounted each to about 30 cubic 
inches *. 

Judging from the above facta and considovtions, I diould 
be disposed to condude that the medium vtdume of air in the 
lungu of a middle-aized person would not be less, hut rather 
moro, than 100 cubic inches. Be^des the lungs there are no 
other receptacles for mr, I believe, in the body except the sto- 
mach and bowels, which are occa»oDally more or less inflated 
with portions of air either from the atmosphere or other sourcesi. 
If we allow 150 cubic inches for the volume of air ootitiuned in 
the wlWe man when entirely immersed in water, it will be as 
&ir an estimate, perhaps, as can be made. But it may be ima- 
^ned by some that the whole substance of the body is pervi* 
ooa to wr; that the skin, the flesh, the blood and even the 
bones, may be imbued with air, somewhat in the same manner 
that water is, and yet have no cavities or ce^ls in which the ur 
is collected into a visible volume. Whether such an idea has 
ever been ^itertained or discussed I am not aware ; but I pre- 
sume no one has succeeded in determining either the nature or 
the quantity of the air so enveloped in the system. We shaH 
* Memoirs, voL iL (New Series, p. S6.) 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

the Atmoapktrieal Pretaure on M« AnimaJ Frame. 93 
now examine how far such a ootion ib countenanced by the pre- 
ceding statraiait of facts. 

.According to tiie preceding table of Robertson, the arerige 
bulk of the ten men was S.618 cubic feet, 4.600 cubic int^ies 
nearly ; but of this vt^ume ISO inches according to the above 
cBtimate were air, and the remunder 4860 inches were solid and 
liquid parts of the body. Now the average specific gravity of 
those parts of the body has been estimated above at 1^ whan 
examined as dead matter : this would make thor weight equal 
to 4567 cuIhc inches of water ; whereas it was found by actual 
weighing, to be \46 lbs. as per table, = 4044 cubki inches : hence 
the obsrared wei^t was less than the calculated wagfat, a pw. 
tim equal to the w»ght of 523 cubic inches of wato*, <ur more 
than one-ninth of the whole weight c^ the body. 

Here is a disarepance that demands an investigatiiMi. Can 
Robertson^B table of the specific gravides of men give too low 
an estimate!* This is not likely; every one Imows that the 
human subject generally floats in water till the lungs become 
filled with that element, — a proof that the body is lighter than 
water ; and many persons are observed to swim with the whole 
liead constantly above the surface of the water. 

Have we overrated the specific gn^dtlee of the component 
parts of the body P I think not : bones, and flesh, and blood 
are certainly all heavier than water, some more, sone less. 

Has the capacity of the lungs for air been underrated P I 
cannot imagine that any one will contend that the lungs (^ s 
middle-uzed man will hc^, at a medium state of inflation, six 
times the volume of lur we have asdgned. Upon the whole, I am 
indined to believe the true explanation of the ^fficuUy .will be 
fo\^id m this, that the substance of the bot^ is pervious to air, 
and that a .fonqduable portion of it constantly cnists in the 
body during i^fe^ subject to isorease a,Dd diminution aceordingu 
lo the pressure of the atmosphere ; in the same maimer as it 
exists in water : and, further, that when life is extinct, this air 
ia some degree escapes and renders the parts specifically heavier 
than when the viul functions were in a state of activity. 

The facta that water absorbs air of all kinds, that the quan- 
ta of the air absorbed is prt^rtioned to' the jHVssuFe and den- 
sity of the gas, whether it be alone or mixed with other gases, 

94 Mr Dattoa's Phytiological JwoeHiga^ona on 

and Uilit certuQ laws of equiltbtium take place, by which v^tOB 
acquires that state in which it is disposed neither to give out 
nxa to take in aoy more gas, baTe been abundantly jwoved by 
Dr Henry and mysdf. M- Saussure has shown the hice ibe 
other hquids, and for a great number of sohd bodies. It may 
be seen, too, in my Chemistry, voL i. p. S36, that a bladder, wbkii 
is generally conndered as an animal membrane, least pervious 
to air, may be filled widi one gas, and being some time exposed 
to the atmo^here, it will be found to omtioue fidl Uown as U 
first, but the cooteota will be chiefly atmospheric air. Messrs 
Allen and Fepys, in thor ingenious and exceltrat essays on ree[»> 
ralim, have proved that when a Gtuinea [Hg or a {Mgeon is coD^ 
fined for an hour, more or less, in a mixture of hydrogen and 
oxygen gases, in propivtion as 78 to SS, a large portion of azotic 
gas is found in ^e reudue, and an equal porUon of hydrogen 
disappears. They ascribe this change to effects of respiration, 
but it appears to me more probably due to the principle we are 
advocating ; namely, to the egressof azotic from the whole body, 
and the ingress of hydn^en in lieu of it, in consequence dS with* 
drawing the extenial pressure of the former and substituting 
that of the latter. 

When the palm of the hand is placed over the Xo^ of the 
receiver of an air-pump, and the air is exhausted, the pressure 
of the air on the outmde b scarcely felt, but the inside is swollen 
and feels as if it was drawn or suoked into the receiver. Xbus 
the sensation is on the inude and not without ; but there is 
within, and the consequence is a tendency of the air in the hand 
to escape into the reoeiver, which occasions the pain and swell, 
ing. It is thus also that (he issuing of blood in the suigical 
operation of cufqnng is effected. 

Though it does not seem of much consequence what the 
pressure of the air may be on the animal frapie within certain 
hmits, yet sudden changes must always be accompanied with 
uneasy sensation. Climbing mountains, or ascending in a bal- 
lom, removes a part of the atmospheric pressure from the body ; 
this causes the air in the body to tend outwards, and somedmes ac> 
«asions bleedings. To supply oxygen to the lungs, a greater 
volume of air must be breathed, and this seems to produce an 
occderation of ^e pulse. On the other hand, by descoidiag 

the Almosphmcal Preuure on the Animal Fraiae. 90 
30 or 40 feet deep into the vater ia a £viDg bell, the presBure 
of the air upon the body is increaaed inwards ; painK in the can 
are felt from the difficulty of soddealy restoring a disturbed 
equilibrium ; but if tbe descent is slow and intarupted, time is 
given f CM- tbe air to eaiter tbe pores, and the pain is less seUnblei 
To wbat limit warm-Uooded animids oould bear rar^factiou c^ 
air so as to subsist, has not, that I am aware of, been detenniik 
ed with mudi- predsicm. Ascoits in baUooos have been made 
till the ataio^heric [srasure was reduced more than one-balf; 
Fcnoerly I found that a mouse oould avbaiBt in ^th of atmo* 
tphcnc density and seenied not to have su&red much ; but upon 
reducing tbe dennty bdow ^tb, the animal was coavulsed and 
expired inmiediatdy, notwithstanding the air .was instantly ad- 

If the view we have expounded in this essay, in r^ard to 
the action of aerial pressure on the animal frame, be coirect, 
it may be inferred, that the pressure admits of great latitude ; 
perhaps an animal could subsist under tbe pressure of half an at- 
mosphere, or of three or four, or more atmospberea. The uneasi- 
ness and danger would be found in tbe quick transition ; if time is 
allowed for the ^r to enter the body, and to escape from it, the 
transition is gradual, and the sensation arising from it imper- 
ceptible. The animal economy would be adapted to it, like as 
in the transition from a cold to a warm climate. It may here- 
after be found, what length of time b sufficient to adjust the 
equilibrium, and whether this subject is any way connected with 
certain diseased states of the body. As far as regards the al>- 
Bolute pressure on the body, and our insensibility of it generally, 
this question will be met by the argument, that the ^r within 
the body, by its elasticity, sustains a corresponding pressure 
from without ; but this only accounts for our alleviation from a 
small fractional part of the whole exterior pressure. The great- 
er part must still be supported by the body ; and we must have 
recourse to the great incompressibility of matter to account for 
our insennbility of pressure. Canton found that water, pressed 
by one atmosphere more than ordinary, only exhibited a reduc- 
tion of BiTTO^h pan of the whole; if the same rate, applied to 
the compression of the human body, the reduction or comprea- 
uon of the size of a man, 4500 cubic inches, would only be Jth 

96 Jtmoiphericat Pretsure on the Animal Frame. 

of a cubic incb, for tbe weight of an additional atmosphere. 
'>l^«v <.Wv4be' body cofuialis of aa]^ ■aj^i ^<^ud»,f(f :,almp^t.iii. 
«I9ncfrfWbte-!n«^t^«'iU^ tliew,a^ jqply *.^fli»H p)jrt.«f;|he to- 
.ij»Wo(ipsi6tipg,ef,K(wtic-rfJwd.,)iat ffl.O(iD:^(ipMbi% -WKinate- 
llipl; tfhasf[^o£. voli|m«,.$^! t4tke.,plaG», >l»ttv9«4w wddea tran> 
pfiffi)^ JTqm''T>^ ^tnu^lAeTfc .pnKstire.tO'i^iptb^V/aDd.Unksa 
ekberMmud.octfrt^vq^ .The phenomena. oC, {he j»rat«n ham- 
mer shew, that the particles of wat^ ore hard, as they strike 
earii othn ^Bce Jiat'-sttdi etatl ; lond- it ia^tTumaiaaf^y\fiaimiiix 
IJUti othcv bodici, mibAa asw^-'Ks.IiijuidB^ Are-VDiinittned in 
like nHRiii^.'' A-^aendprettnlre OA"l^^ysteH},-tbM,'«nlf in- 
creases in 8 small degree the attraction of the i^ltimate ptMiclf^, 
and it is met by a corresponding increase of repulsion from the 
atiposphere of heat ; so that the system remaiqs as nearly as 
possible the same, and unaffected by such pressure. 

I can scarcely forbear observing od the present occa«on the ab- 
surdity of lliose who rciniark^that al! people might swim, and that 
it is only'fi;om fea^ or ignorance of the art that some fail in the 
attempt^ When we see that sbn^e persons are heaviec than water, 
and otlieis'only .8 of that weight, it wputd t>e just as plaunble 
for a piece of deal to upbraid apiece of ligniim vits with the in- 
ability to swim from fear, or from want of skill in the art, whitji 

the deal, conwdered of easy acquisition Marichester jHevmra, 

vol. v. New Series. 

Chemical Anah/ses of Spinel, Gaitiiie, 4nd Chrwni O^e.'"- 
Bf Mr'UEBMANN Abich. • ■ ! 

Coartlum nm 



Una. |(Vonivlui 





Silica;- . '. . . . 
Alutaiaa, ..... 
Oiidulated Chrome, 

Zinc-Oxide, .... 

















. 00.00, 







■Sum, . 










( 9T ) 

On tie Un^rM PermeainUtif ^' all kuoun Subttaneei to the 
Uagnfiif Jt^iuence, and the JppUceOioa if thejacl in En- 
gineermg and Mimag,for the Determmation qfthe Thkk- 
neis 1^ Solid Svhttancea not othmetM MefuvrabU. By the 
Rev. W1LI.IAM ScoaESBY, F. B. S. Lond, & Edin., Correa- 
pondent of the Institute of France, &c. Gic. Communicated 
by the AutJior. Concluded from p. 384 of pi-ecrding Vol. 

barManaASwu-ovnis lav op TSBmsBonvK povmb op bab- 


2. l.'am iaui ^lh£ Areciixje ficmer tf iar-magneis, ai differmt 
Stances, was the next subject of investigation. 

Coulomb, I believe, was the first to establish, by ibe test of 
satisfactory and cwdistent experiments, tt^ipreviously assumed 
law, that the force of magnetic attraction and repui^n is in 
the inverse ratio of the squares of the distance. The applica- 
tion of this law to the invesUgation in hand served at once to 
verify the law, and to render the results of my experiments of 
general application. In regard to the comparison of distances, 
it appeared to me to be of considerable advantage to estimate all 
distances in len^ht of the bar made use of, by which the re- 
sultfl for any one bar becarof applicable to all other bars o£ a 
proportional form and quality, and state of magnetic energy. 
And tuch, therefcH^, with a certain pioiMcaticai, afterwards 
found to be necessary, was the measure constantly adopted. 

Pladng now the magnet in the direction of the east or west 
point of the compass, or at right angles to the magnetic meri- 
dian, I proceeded to ascertain experimentally the deviations pro- 
duced, either by the same pole constantly, or by the mean of 
the actjon of each pole alternately, first at the distance of one 
length, and tlieu eueceesively at other distances to the extent of 
ten lengths of the bar. 

Preparatory, however, to a general apfJicalion of the results 
thus obtained, it will he useful to ascertain by calculation the 
actual force exerted by any magnet on a compass at different 
distances, according to the above law of attractions. 

VOL. xiii. NO. XXV. — jnL,y 1682. a 

98 Rev. Mr Scoresby on iftt Uniform PermeabiUttf iff 

When the bar'is placed in the prescribed poeitit)n,'nitti''{he 
north pole at thW distance of <mi« length fitoeD tlhe^MiposB^'theM' 
the action tS the smitH potei tending toeountetucfi ibat'tff tb<r 
borthi wHl Be lii tlie inVerse re&ITon wTtfi tTie hearesFpSIe"3f"S*i 
So 1*. That is, if the force of the 'iieafest pole be calfcdl ; th«i : 
the force of the remote pole will he inversely as 4 or -^th, Which, 
peing in the contrary direction to that of the pearest pole, re-' 
ducea iu action to ^ths. In like manner, at <ieo lengths of the. 
bar, the force of the nearest pdn b^g now invraMj asthfe 
square of 2 or ^fliis reduced by the remote pole: al three tengdis- 
distance, the action of which is inversely as the square of S or 
tth.; benoe 7 — -j = s, repreaenting the actaal influence jw 
general resultant of the whole of the magnetic 'forces in ! the 
nagnet acting upon the compass. ; 

But we may obtain a geoeral expression for all' fSt^asaskt, '■ 
^ber in lengths or fractions of lengths of the bar. 
' Let F be ihe influence of the nearer pole at the distance a. 

, Then will -^ represent the influence at the distance x, end 

*=t, the counteracting iiifiuence of the remote pole at the dis- 
tance T4^> 
; Hmce the reauliaitt infltunce i% 

• I As the force F, however, being the separate action of a pole j 
»ot practicably separable, is not a quantity that can be mmse-' 
oiately ascert^ned by experiment, this expression ' reqmres to' 
fce extended so as to connect it with the value oP the sinned 
force : — ' ■ ■ ' ■ 

I Let R be the resultant influence of a magnet ojf the compass 
^t distance a, and, in the first instance, let a be ecjuaT to a-, . - 

Therefore F = tt iiil : Hence. ' . ! ^ 


aUJmfmMSM6tiancuJoiike^JUagnaieJmJhenoe,^c. M 

XWflst«re.of the .&*e«ft eatiag upon the needle, at various 
dia ta m p e ^ frith the -gen^ ^al- F«mi)tB, and a Teduction of Ifa^se xe^ 
suits -to other tfitlast are exhi]»ted in the following'Table. , . 





RutoofnwluntndiMd j 




» = A f 

_ 1 _ I 

" r 4 





"™^' f 

■ 1 1 

~ 4 9 





* " "fl" 1 

1 1 



16.4 + 


tJi \ 

1 1 

■" nr~w 




33.3 + 


1 1 

™ 86 U 




61.4 — 


1 J 
= 86 « 






"s ( 

I 1 





.-J r 

1 1 

" 84" aT 



•W.7 + 


•"iw J 

t i 
"81 TflS 


' SUM 


319.7+ " 


' -'iaf J 

I 1 ' 

" 100 121 



'432.1 + 


"• = i^j' 





se'aa + . 



. 1 1 

144 1^ 




730.1 — 



1 1 






1 1 



B«r. Mr 

Scdresby bri tfr Wrf^ta<iVfin*B«%' ' , 



w . 2*41 

■UtloofiaulUnlnduad. 1 



' 1 

1 1 

31 - 

■ SI 

t -^,:-.. 


" s» J. 




■ ' '-'''^ 


" S6"i 


' S3 ■ ' 



1 ' 1 

, se 

■ . to - .:■ 

. . -.'ll 1, 

*— !-i- 1 

"aw 384 



.'< , .-,.. 


"= »4 J. 

1 1 
~ 35I~-3«T 



.. .■.■.■.J, 

'* 1 \ 

_ 1 _ 'l 


" 39' ' 


'■"mo ' 

" 33I'~400 




•-Hi ' 

^ 1 1 

^ 400 JWl 




'«-— > 

I 1 




*" «i ' 

■ 441~«4 



I 1 








l ■' ,'. 


t 1 

639 576 



1 \ 

I 1 


**! . 




" m 6tb 




~ m~m 


,, S16878 




""900 J. 

" 900~56i 





1 1 

"■ 1236 1290 






»- — ) 

1 1 




— ibm' 

" 1600 1681 





« ^ — * 
" 3028 3116 





1 1 






4e7«e7fi : 

;" W tfW l\n! s n gKuumliBMiltttma tjuglit to b e y r oport i omJ tothe. 
iaiigents of 'the angles of deriatioQ produced by the magnet ati 
the reepectire distances. ' For, uoce the coropase is acted apcia 
tiiinitltanpQifsly by forces • to two directions, that is, at right 
^gles to tach other, that of the earth, which may be considereci 
ka uniform, aitd' dways in the direction of the magnetic meri^ 
dian, and that of the magnet varying as to intensity, but as td 
^h-ectioo, Ibeiqg dways at right ajnglesto tbeother,! — the meei 
sure of the variable force will be fairly given by tbe -tangents 
pf the angles of deviation produced in the needle.' IT, therej 
jfore, the Uw of the magnetic fiR'ee' o^ to diBtapce b^ correctj 
Ithai the action of either pole diminishes in proportion aa thd 
^uares of the distance iticrease, (iien the tangents of the ob> 
wrved angles ofdeviation applied inv«wly to the general result^ 
bnts, ought, op this hypotfteEps, to give the same product for sl| 
jthe different distances. t 

In order to verify these deductions, and to obtido apracticaf 
^ule for determining the quantity of magnetic inffuence at all 
distances, ihovrevn- remote, a cargful series of experiments wer^ 
tnade with the two-feet bar magnet and one of Eater''s five-incH 
compasses at the several distances of one to ten lengths. 
: The following.TaUecoDtiuhsth^ observed deviations, as ptof 
duced by each pole of the bar, with the application of the tan* 
gent of thie mean of the observed deviations to the reaprocal of 
the magneUc force adting on the compass at the respective dist 
,tance, so as to produce the ratio, which was expected to be uni; 
,fonn, in die sixth column. , \ 

I ' Though the fWtxa ate more in number Iban two, it is puly n«ceH4r; lu 
pconnder th^ reroltams of the IbrccB in mch directun. i 

.vGoog'lt: I 

108 ».». M* Seoresby m * IMfirm fthtatUH^ of 







Ratio of 





Sy each pole of 




"■Si 3* 

M » 





— vt: 



.* 780 

7 iS 



. '!317'> ■ 





a 43r 






» 1 + 


1 1ft 

, zm 





•*.. ^,+ 


*« 40 









* -, ac 

<>. 38 









ft=f 18 







d tt 


ft- It 







■♦ ♦ . 


»= 7 
(- » » 






,•?,."* + 


(-0 6 


'w m 





As the results ia the 6th coTomn appeared to differ too'eaa- 
, Eideiably to be at all satisfactory, the last thi%e cdlumbs'wfTe 
.;fdded io order to determine the real nature and extent of'ihe 
^parent, divcrepancies. Taknig the maaa of the ra^os at 
7M0O, in round nuraberB (which was found to be snffrcieriHy 
Jiear the truth), and applying that in a contrary nay to ^he 
.magnetic forces belong^pg to the different distances, the column 
.of " calculated tangents'" was obtained, the resulting angles of 
vhich, with only one or two exceptions, correspond with those 
obtained by experiment within the probable limits of error of 
..^beervatien*. , , 

* The compass emplojed being onl^ gTMduMed to 30" of rdegi^e, ^d 
without iny TerdleT, it requlied some habit and attention to observe the «n. 
gW tAthin tudi nnall litnita w thove indicated by the column of difiermcc*- 


These results, however, though sufficiently unircH-m and con- 
J -slstinrfcniroBt ■practical pnrpo a e a con n ecte J -witluhe preemt ■ 
< investigaUoDs, were not so entirely satisfactory as to be received 
fllSijp«»tcIusive. Por-the differeeee b«tw«en the observed and cal- 
tiulated deviations at the first distance was by far too conuderable 
to be ascribed to any error of observation ot other accidental cir- 
cumstaoce, «ince it was proved to be occusioned by some con- 
stant^ aioUi^ CMU^i h«cause cf a aiaiilsr discrepancy being al- 
ways found to occur through an extensive series of experiments 
with ioaany different magnets. 

, TV ^iscrepaijcjes beyond the mere errors of observation were 
at length discovered to be mainly owing to the adoption of ex- 
act lAgths of like mfignets as integers of distance, instead of the 
l^tgtl^ of the interval between what may be tamed the fid qf 
attracHou in the north and south portions of the bar. For, al- 
-thbugl^ tb» prguiipat enfg^ of a well constructed and well mag^ 
netized bar is doubts at the extremities, yet a considerable 
though rapidly diminishing power necessarily prevails atthin 
th^ «Kti)emitiea. ^ The (^gregate or reiultant action, therefore, 
I cf the vtayiag int«Dsities of ptfaer -half of the bar may be rc- 
I ierred to « p&tticular point or focus, , wbi<A, throu^ the ap- 
i plication of the foregoing law of aitractiDn, im^ bc^etmnined 
I by_ l^prexiOiatioB experiniEDtal]}'. 

' la* order 'to determine the position of thg'foci of attraction 
iti a three-feet bta'-magnet (A) of very superior construction, I 
assumed, in the first ipstabce, the Jbcal length to be S &et 30 
inches, considering the foci of attraction to lie an inch within 
the extremities of the bat. In this case th^ "-Difference" intha 
first length, which in the preceding instance was 2° 14', (Col. 9.) 
jWasDowreduced to'lesa'Jhan bn^-hatf. Afocal Isn^h of 3feet 
y inchci was then. U^ed, ftben aforthet* teduotioti of error was 
observed. Lastly, I assumed the distance between the 'foci to 
"' be'sife^' 6 inches, arid iheii the results were roo* iftikirtgly 
■^ ccmsistent and satisfaictory. 

The fdlowjtig Tables -exhibit the results of the first and last 
lerin t)f InBst 'BWpitiiiiietitB. y . ■ ■■ . . ... 


1(H' R^y.U^SvfKi^ym^ lMi^H^.^^mfi^l>fMi^-^\-, 

TABLE (/the Eeauils obtame4iohm iaefjcarf ui^ofSie Bar vxtf , 
made the integer ofdi^nce. 



..Twwnt. ., 

.Itotlorf ,_ 







■ ■ 726B4" ■ 
'7Wa7 ' 

• -MlIM ■■ 

Tf^e t/Resuks with ^reefeel Bat-moffnet, tcfi*i ife ^tkmM hOlO^': 
thefoeiwasasivmedtobe&JietSiruAet. ■''--' 



Pole to 








ft. U. 

■ ' 













■ f'*:^* 


" {.": US}-'" 




■ 4.30+ 








■" <r: !:!.}"■ 






"» {;: JS}«-« 



' 1I»* 



"Mr: «} »." 

, 785 




f ., 

• The distance of the migtiet from the e«Bip«a at tht 6m la^b, tt^ 
wiQ be obserred. Is three inches lest than Uie aaaumed focal length. Thia ap. 
parent difierenee arises from the meaaurementt of dbUnce being taken aa 
the interval between the centre of the compass and the nearest extremilg of 
the maf^net, instead of the nearest fictu of attraction in the magnet Ijring 
three inches within the eztremitj. 

_,. C.oo;;lc 

oU'hU^'Skhitiiiug'a'tA-^ MgnctteH^6eaee> <f«> 109' 
In all my previous experiment!, which amounted to fioin. 
fiiWn to twenty Series, the tangent of the angle of c!eviation, 
at the distance of the first length of the bar, was always consi- 
derably ieS8 iKan'tlie mean of the column of ratios, I^ecause of 
the assumed )ength between the foci of the m^ignet |bring too 
great ; but ifa this last series, for the first time, the fatigent be- 
longing to dne focaUength's disui^e is somewhat ^ great, 
which might seen) t9 indicate Uiat the aq^upied Jlengtli was now 
too small. Where,ibpwewer,:a)l the rati«s at otber ^isiaoces are 
found to (xnitnde-s& very closely^ the smaH-differenoe it the first 
tangent must^ be n&red to a peculiar cause, whjch, the greater 
discrepancies' with'-stlortier unlets' eventually enabled me to 
detect. ' ' ! 

In the for^MBg i B ¥o «i UgntiooB <m the m a gn fl t jc (oreea acting 
upon a compass, the attractive and repulsive actions of the same 
fieie of the magnetoa the different polee oi Aaneedki^hMra-hiSWa^ 
considered as a tnmp^e and not ar compound articM, because in 
itiOEt caises, excepting al short distances, they so combine aato pra> 
ddce aflinbst exdctty double *he efiect of either infiuenri- ^ai«Ie- j 
lyr This double eflect; therfefore;whi<ih for simpiMyifeg the^fihl:' 
veetigation may generally be considered as the result of a siugte - 
foh», cannotj in the case pf a short diitance, and with a large ' 
co^paBs^HMdle-'be ^'OOH^ddted; .nitboilt beingf tl^'Vjeai^bn bf 
a (very perceptible error. For although the north pole 'of a 
mhgiiet, whert placed' al a 'ciinsiifeml^le distance from a com^ss, ! 
inithe (UrectidB of its-eaat'or west ipoont, will attract the south ' 
p(Se of the campas3,;and refwl the'north pole with 6q^ual esii^y, 
the Satne magrlef, if iJlitced vkt^ near ihe compaesj so 'as' to pib- 
dtjce B great deviation, wii^ then have a diflferenc& of energy, as 
to' its iltractite and Ivpulsite influences, becduse of the attracted 
pole of theneADeWiiTg' tarnish ?iefirer' to th^ magnet- than the 
pijle Which is repelled. Neither will the.ittean action of these 
tuflo forces be the saibe as that'of the forfleWlo^rtg to the dfs- 
tance as measured from the focus of attraction to the centre of 
.tliecqmiwa,,, Ae.,foce;uunple; . . ^■, . 


106 -9t^Ut.^SioTnby-fiA>th*Uiu0rnyFii»^abm%ji^ 

let M, I^ 4i,be & qiqg^et, of vjhich. £ v.. th.«_fpf^ -^4&t> 
aod-C Aoompaiaat tbe dirtanoe of at least four &cal lengths. 
I^t » 4 be tbe poajUoo of the needle under tfaf ioflueDice o( ter- 
mtiif^ BUfpetiua only, and n^ / the podtioii which it assumes 
u^der^thescuon of the pia^iet. Then the actioa of tha nearest 
pi^ F is r^re^enCed hy the sum of the Kiuares pf tlie di't^Bces 
F^ and F«' mveMsgly-, v,hH:h does not, in this instance, giate- 
riajlsr ^^ frimliie attoi o^ th^ «juai^.of the distnitf^s f a and 
■ 1**1 invereely. 

But in the oase represented in Fig,'5. the result is fer.jodifir- 
Fise- Hara ^ hsr M) lji^,diis^ci;. of pne f^s^ 

l«iigth(.Q»Qnufi>9«;»ich «^r^^;tif«>,o{:^,pj^^ 4^j< 

very considerable increase of action on tb^ pale i( ia gai|ted, }pe- 
jond tbe diminutioa uF action sustained by the pale n',~^the 
increase of force beii^ in the proportion in which the sum 
of the reciprocals of the squares of the dutances F s' and F n', 
expressed fractionalty, exceeds the sum of the rectprocala of 
the squares of ihe mean distoitces F t and F n *. 

' The sum of these direcl squares must in all cases be equal. For Pin 
being a triangle which is bisected in the point C by a line FC drawn lo tbe 
apex, the sum of the squaxei of F > and F n, Is equal to twice Ihe aqaares of 
FC and Ct. In tbe triangle F/n', for the same reaeon, the Bum of tlie 
•quarei Ft* and Fn', is equal to twice the squares of FC and Ct'. But the 
lines in BndVn',repretentiDgthe same needle reTolrlng'on a centre, are equal, 


But tbc Dsturc snct extent or tots ttntvfbntg nnnmice will 
be more evident, if we vfork dat (he ease represMited in Fig. 5, 
exhibiting the effect of the first disUocvof a l3-indi n»ipiet(C) 
1^ Iff joehni focal leagUi, the powers of which, to the uxtentpf 
sjx'lengtbs, are exhibited in the foUowtag TaUe. 

udFC comnmn to both ; hence twtcE the s^uayes of each must be equaL 
Therdbte the lum of the Iquarea of F (, P n, wd tke Mini at the Iquuea <f 
F y, F ■' beb^ each equal to the mnie ttiiag, tniut be equal to on* another. 
Thoi^l, howetet, the lum of these Mrarll iquarM a<e equal — n<it ao thnr 
Mclprodala, al fe dtdf ihtwii by irodlnx out the cue rrfsncd to In Fig. G. 

C^t ttte a tnare timple isue : 

: -.'..-■ irtFC— ^■irf.Ci-s-itfcwrthep. 

gate fiC, Mfig a right-angled triangle, 

fc -i-Ci -l^«, which {^vea ft ■». 
If the needle be now brouf^t into the line 
FCtheuFi'wlllbe(4 — a)-li P«' 
' _(4 + S].= 7;andFC, atbefore, :.«. 
Nov, Che tuor of tbe tqoam F i and F <* 
n 31 + aM< W( «hkb ii fltual to 

tfc-¥ici *n+ lataagtiwiM. 

la like manner, F? +f^ - I* + 7* 
mMI Thuswbefbreitftted, tbeUTAof the squaieaof Fi F n', and the nun 
oftlwifiiaTeaafFi'Fn' ire eqiwl, each ainooDUDK WML ftut «W«> !!«•*■ 

t^naOt. Ih^iaafKvetiafitWl MoiTi ^»3Sai>d2l^ or ^aad ") ai«]| 
Md4>'*^^^'™'>^Ku- But the ledivMcali <tf F(^ and £S^ (m IfldW) 
'm'^'bUI - tfieif xim being Ji + ^ « ^ HenM^ wfaUrt tba sunu oTUie 
'' t«a 'mu of tqaai^ are djoa^ their reciprocal* are Bnmt tft be In tbt rrtatHm 
^ g to ' J •!■ M 1 to. W neart)'. 


1(0 Ufv:Mv.Sf!OFoA^.9f^^Mni/!lKm.£eivval»^fyiOf 



DnIXlai 19 KATH't ConiMN. 


' Me. ' 




FML iDdM. 


l' ■ 7 

»..« 26 

( = 62 20 

n=13 48 

: •»» 80.- 

IsQ 28 
Ju "l2 ' 

' iaiB7> 


least ' 



■J . '6 

n= 6 2 
*=. 6 10 

}' ' 




3 3 

n= 2 -U'^ 
._ 2 30 


' 4133 

' '13777'' 


*: = i; 

>,_ 1 19 

} ' "* 




,* " 

»= 47 
i— 46 

} 4fll 




.ll»l.i«f«lrf-irttt;.»iiU««iWi»»««>«=;»"ft**» 1 


Now, (he position repreaentei in Fig. 6. is thatiof No.^ J,'i« 
I'he first line of this table, in wliich the mftgoet -Was placed Ht'the 
distaiice rif one' foc^'ltngtlj frtwn the xoinp*i»«motr froii' th* 
centre, but, in tlus instance, meaaureid.froBi the, focal pples.of 
tlje peedl^ n,,*, , . , ■■■■■•.<-., ..-^ , , 

Therefore the distances F« and Pnafe each = 1 ; and'Vg 
and F'n the distances o^ ihe remoVe" of cBiititdtSHting pf)fe Hffi 
^j,(,ij _ g. But owing to the conaderable length of the okni; 
pass needle, and the great <leviatioo which. oCcuraedoQ tfeis,oo«»r 
sion (namely 59° ^S"), the actual distances of the two p<^ :»rf"tb« 
needle from th« ne»r^, focus P w«re i and ^ and from ,ftbt ge- 
mote fecuB were if^and'gi.' LetUs BtMC aee «4uaMlEaiB»'«r 
forces these distances afford ill comparison' * J ih those beloMgfiH^ 
to the distance 1 and'2.' ' "" ' ■■'"■■ 

First, As to influence of the magnet on the compas^ y^^}^^ 
the needle is in the meridional position a n. 
Tlie <i»tiu«*s Fi and Vn being each.= 1, their combiped 
influence wiR be inversely as 1* + 1* m f^ wVaeb nprmoM-iiK 

irH6Te"forreprtIie' nearer fScus 1>( tfce' BSF tfMEh VOBli UI on 
tMqeHUeiatliB.fKMadon n^. '','"'"'' ■.:.,, .j 

jAgain, thp disUnces of .tfae femte foow R^ utd.jP'A being 
eadi'i^'^~i)0i^"their,titfitKBcef witt be~iavBraaty.4a.32*, tjiat 
u -A xa 4? the RC^)roqaltC< wiwK. 7, Kpnsepu the r^peclfve 
fojces. And i+ !-=:irepreseptsthecouiiteraclingforceoperat- 
in^ on the needle in the position n s, at tlicdistance 3. Helice 
f •-^j-= j: represent^ the resuhant influence of boUi tbci,,or 
of the whol^ bar in the g^ven posiUoD. ,, 

! Secondit/, Afi to- the actual infliKDce exerted liy Ae mag- 
net in the deflected podtion of the needle «" «*, 

jTbe digt«aces F j' ^d F n' being ^ and ^ = 4 *^ v> ^Vii' 
squaws ir^Twcsentit^ the inverse power of their action, are ~ 4nd 
^.1 Hence the reaprocat r^resenting ^e attractive Jbrce is *; 
aqd the reciprocal representing the repulsive Jbree is ^ T^en 
sH-M=^ + OT = ^°''m>"^i*='* represents the whole !in; 
&^ma*!€r-jMU* ia the, aetual-pogtioni «' »', assui^ed 
by the iree^«»^- ,1 , . : - . . 

■ ^^^D, tbe ,diat8Boe FV, io the-case before us^ was found to 
h«.% And tJiafcfflfuF'jrf.itt:A|)ioir ig..8n4,|.= -|«Bd|i, the 
squared of VhiBH'ariCf 'afifl'^; ' ' ' '■ ■ . 

Jlence the redprocal representing the attractwe Jbrce is S'j 
^od.jth^ re(3pf;qcal fjepj^nting the reguhive action is ^, T^en 
|i^ ^H='^-t^ aai^ftts-tb? vhfis influqiee.of the rem^e . 

jtmuj-M MtMamxing taretft- m 'tbe:iwrtu«l;p(HtJoi]^ i* if^^ 
■ottfeAby-tlwUflaWei-' "i-"!-".!- ■ . ■ .- , „ 

■' ■ H«c«'^ ^'^ «'S*" S««^® ^pep^sent*. tbf jrp. 
niltant iiflneoce of bot^ foci ip the dey^te^ or actual position 
Asauinied hjtit^ pepdjlft. jtIW^ thftfljipw of this.abov? the as- 
sumed force in the portion n » = -|, iadicateA the quantity of 
power gained by the magnet in consequence of the lengt/i of the 
compass needle. ' ■ . . . 

* It !■ here anuiqed tlmt the attractive and repulsive tbices are parallel to 
eacli otlier, «Uch is not the case; hence the'nculta 'obt^n^a,' tfiougti kiffl. 
ckDtlr DMr fbi otU preMnt oljecti can aaif b« eo»id« a^qtregdrnMinM. 

110 !Uv.O4fft(0r«ri>yv»»ft« tAi8*i^jP««»<^^ 

the above, we have ^^ as the resuttwt hiiaeace«f'<he wlttdifr 
bit in the fflsumed position «, *. ' Thei^fore the eiltire'ortesul- 
tant foree Rctiag opon the needle, m th* deflected poaWoo »i^,a^' 
is to the force m the assumed position n, s, as ^J^ ^ iSiSa' "^ 
as Y 'o ? nearly. If, then, we apply this proportioa to the ob- 
served devbtion of No. 1 . (fieries in page 108), 59° 2^, the ta^ 
gent of which is 168979, we have ?■ : f :.; 168979 : 1448S9, 
= 66° 23', which, it is satisfactocy to find, corresponds very 
nearly with the deviation observed when a very small ctUDpftsSr 
was substituted for the large one ; in that case, the angle ibrmed ^ 
by the needle, as near as could be observed, being 55" 46'- 

Still, however, the deviation thus reduced is found to be consv- 
derably greater thfto that given by.« mean pptpBttjogn^ iBWarijt 
64°. The cause of this difference is probably, to be fouod.Jn th* 
peculiar direction, Fs', of the strongest force, which evidently 
ifi not strictly tangential to the meridional position of the needle,i 
but toast operate more favourably for oTercbtning the dinei^w, 
force of the earth, tfaap if, aeUog in die direetiaw ^M, tl'Wen<e 
predsely at right angles to the terr^trial n 

Since now rhe calculated deTwttans of the tiate ftet i 
(Table, p. &i), aa obtained from the mesa nmo 121600, are 
all, except the first, within the limits of the pusmble error of ob- 
servation ; and «nce the ratios obtained from experimeou with 
die twelve-Inch magnet (Table at p. 108) are tdl, widi the'excep- 
•laoa of tlie first, unifom widiiotfae. jica^aljle Unitt'Ofeitm, 
— wbiJst the di«crepaticy «t-tbe fintiqcal length hn hmniH^- 
ciently, I trust, accounted for, — thepoutignof thefiiei^iD.faiA' 
these magnets may be considered. an r^btly AetiiB^tedr*^ < .{ior- 
all practical purposes, therefore, conoe^^ witb t^9i .pHjOPied^ 

" Tboygh I have hitherto apdken rf t fiied and detwminile Focal poiRiod 
npfjeKBtiag the wholasffh* magMtlc tmonvttMm biV s vqptlBrlj nog- ' 
netlcedbar, yet I aiif aw^ that ^M vfry fiml jwritim «i)l ttt liable tfts' 
■mall vaHatian at very Aart distances, in aucb caa^ l>f^ nw*^ the aiAm- 
mit; dun the calculated position. Nevertheless, at diatancei heytxA tbe 
\a^ of the magnet, so alteration lii the position of the foci, I a^rehewl, 
wiUibeiUrnvniUeinpnttice. ' ' ' 

D, = ,l,z<,d.vG00gIf 

tOilcfiimn Smiatamtw io Vie Mtignttk JitflHt»ce,-4i- HI 
iMtbtxt'«f «WMuriiif tha tUckoMftcf wHd wbukiian, * ouffi- 
cintapfiDxuBiiliaB^ we AnctJi^i be readily obuiaed br:eS|M 
nt^ynt^iorlliepmtiwiof tin fbd qf Ntttiutiga in ipf tagukriy 
magnetized ban whatever. 

Hence the kw of the directive ^»«r of bar-mignetB, at an; 
diBtaDce, howerer remote, nui^ be coDHdered, I appcdend, M 

HiA&ctflnlj detenniBed; 

R a'.^+T* ftg + l 
8a + l ' a«.a- + l«* 
as 'Mbre stated, representing the resnTtant action of alt the 
fSrces ia rte magncti at any distance, in measures of its focal 
length, or in fractional parts of such meBsiires, on a compass 
nttMted in the line of the longer axis of the magnet, and bear- 
ing east or vest ftora each other. And hence the direcdve force 
of ail magnets, of "proportional Intensity of power, must he in 
the direct ratio of their focal lengths ; so that if a bar of 1 foot 
focal length' wil! prodoce a given sensible action on a compass 
(suppose of S"), at. the distance of IS feet, — then a bar of 9 feet 
fbekl length, proportionally strong, wfll produce the same de- 
viation at S4 feet, a bar of 9 fWt focal length at 36 feet, or one 
of 6 ftet interval between the foci of attraction, will produce a 
siUltir senfflble deviation at the distance of 72 feet. 

'8. The'ftrregdng hivestigations enable us satisfactorily to de- 
tertnine The ixitret io aAicA Qiia method of ascertaining distances 
may be cftnied. 

^Ad the 'directive ptfwfer of different magnets, similar as to 
pf^pcn-lions and quality, is very'nearly iii the relation i^f their 
lebgths' §"!■.'(«)■ Ji'ahd as the accuracy of different well-con- 
stnTitted 'compasses, ai to theit' capability of indicating very mi- 
nbt«'i]fmisti^ «F magnetic Inflnence, tnay be coopered to be 
in the relation of the lengths <^ th«r needles,— it is evident that 
there caq be no asagnable limit to the appBcatidn of tb« metfatfd 
of atoerbdrang distances no* proposed^ ' For; by iiicrea^g ilie ' 
leMtt or 'oQttAter of the magnets, and improving tlie quality or.^ 
in«e^slH^''thfe dimensions of the coinpasa-needles, itiil tiirther-. 
■no more extensive applications of the prinaple' wiA in lAfi ' 
tained. .. ■ 

118 Rev. Mr Scoresby on the Unybrm PervuabiiHj/ tf 

A few (rf the rteults, Ewwevec, witb ordfosry coBipaiaea.afid 
oodnste-Mzed -bars, may be. iMBfaVa^iUBBawtiw of tb» f soMily 
of. cmployine tbe'OWgoetic inAuence ynsdctHif for the puEpiwe 
piopoaed. > 

With a BiD^e straight bar-niBgnet, and tempered only at the. 
eaiiiy aod a poiketxxiiDpaw ftf oflly Ijinches^iametAr, distances 
of four tUMM tbt IdBgth of Uie bar may be detenskwd' to within 
l-liHb of the whde, and shorter distances to a moce consideraUe 
degree of accuracy. 

With the saiBe unglebar^ anda Kater's compasi <^ 5 incbes 
ia diameter, dJatanoas of about six tinws the length of (be piag^ 
netmaybedelenninedwitbiaavery moderate limit of «rror, afid 
aa«sLeot of er^n ten lei^bs of the bar may be meo^ured tc^ 
perbf^f atenth of.tbe'whole. . 

. XffX) «imilftr, qtagneta plaeed. parallel l;o «ach a4her, a fe^ 
iacbes wwder* will indicat^v witbit) the win«, limits of error, 
drawee of oeady a length and a bfilf. nwce .refMte'i^ith tbif- 
pockptrfiOD^iBu ; oi; with a Eater's coropsasy diitaqc^fn^itwo 
to thiwe leogths.grf atei, when .the devjati(Wi.a^:very..wv41<' . 

' Four bar-QiagnetB of a umilar .kind will j)iaduce, on the "Kf^ 
ter's.compaas, about the snne deTU)tioB«t 16,^>Fii/Iengtb<b.a|ia 
single bar produces at. ten focal lengths— -thus affordiogi with 
three feet magnetayatolerabty correct aieaai^e-o^ thiet^cks^sa (tf 
anjBolid intervening substance, of about 40 feet. But thes^eae 
magnetfF will produce a sensible ^ect mi fJv.comftHs (nunieJy, 
a sum of deviations amounting to 2*) at the distance of no jes^ 
than 38 focal lengths, or 82 feet ! . ., 

I^Kse results, however, which *^ .taken fEou the obKrration 
of the.e&cts of bar-magnets on a. compass a^t^. i^i9n by Jtjh^ 
whole force of terrestrial magoetism^ willibegFoaUyiHiodiGE^ ^d^ 
vastly extended) whea the- directive fiwce of. the, eavth.^n. t|^ 
compass is partially neutntlixed, \^ t^. pn^ier. ai-j^^pgDntent. j^ 
one. or tirasmdl magnets in juxtspoKtign. Foi, ei^Miwiinj; fht 
influence, therefiire, U). the greatest poaBible distance with g^ giv.ei) 
apparatus, such an arrangement will of course be used. .,,,-, 

.But! t»»ceed tagive the particulan of.a £efr,:eiqpe^o>«)t> 
by which t^c extent of . influence expected to be prpduj^ ym^ 

(dl known Sviatancea to-the Magiutic Ir^uetux, ^. 113 
amply verified, and, by which aa increasing influence, under 
itflJJrovttJ *rrOTi^e«tttW, »»* prOgreitaively produced. 

■*nib'fffst experittmlrt irt wMcb riiy -wery great diMamewah 
atIMl)]i)tM,'«(M nMde'WlttV fdUf !(ttn%ht bsMttagaelB^of two'feeti 
in length each (two of them, however, were very we^, aocli 
sd^ff ]itll<^ lo'th6're^t)< nith a"vie» af-.etiinmunag to ebn- 
■vey the magnrtfc ififlufeflOe through -my own house. The coiv-' 
ptas', in t)l)ri'JmtaTKe,''wai'pl)lced -ouuid^.flf tj*e Morthera, ov. 
maiti 'bacIt-%^1, B IHtle dAtrfirthe levci'ofthe (JinngLnxmi fiwr,- 
and the magneta were placed on the south tdde of'^ift amitbtr^ 
or mainlTiWf-Wbn, b - Uttte' de2M0 tks level at ^ dining-maDi 
fle(tr,^^4D thar'ttie roalgmtie influence, 'if it ^ould afiiet>tiw 
cdmpass,' tnlght passy n»t on^ thitmgb the intdFdMdiats tpeieei 
ot'Stkfifet 6itaehe«, butvat ^e iaM« liilio, tbroogh. tlw tltmpnm^ 
dpal walls of the house, and obliquely through tii tba jaiatH ofi 
the'floor,' with dthev tAterpttSit^ tubMandeK' Im ordbr to ranker 
the' compass «s Rinoe|Ftitile&d poniUe,- tfte'direstivefaroairftlw; 
(Wth>-tingn«t)»di #wr«py:gKatly dteini^«d'' by a nentralifiBg; 
ifitf^iM^l^laiMkt'VKl^ tt ; irfiiktj- In eitth-ff»perinei]t^''lb»«^[itet>i 
on th<eV^fpo^le fWn^t'bf ihe'hmracKirtre sitnoltaiiWQ^ tnriMdi- 
witH th^T'ti\ftM^cm paim HW'MBib'Way, '»o M' lo influeiwe the 
cAmjMifH bytbS'BonVePtbeiitJfkTidnj'; !l?hwt sets af.«s!periMenbii 
fm^-aii* vtatik-;, ^vlWr^ :t«8iiUH gave an'tinNwnt of' dwlatitsiti 
<tf 9F*;nr^'4r'4Ef/'atl^ett'lS'.-<-W'hit«t>4>»«»»|HlWj'.n>itbJitd neu^. 
rralieing and directing' bifr wei* utTd)Uui4>ed^'ttieDMgnatsi vami 
bpot^ht rotind Into the back garden, and placed a% the distanoe 
of ^ feet 6 inches from thie conipess in the opposite directkm, 
in which there was no mterposing-ofajbct-;— th^ dewataona now. 
pi'odticed'by 'changitlg diepo(»o<''^«iMglM«B'*»lmkuKouily, 
were,'& tbia pOHflon, very nearly the same m before, being, on 
eivch «f thr^ successive experimems, 0° 16'. This wasdedddd 
evlde^e bf the great extent at which the clirectt¥e powo- of tbe 
nt&f^tiA ifj capable of inffueoting the compass, and indktAod 
thAt ^e meaBare of distatKe^ even within a quarter of a degM» 
of deviation, or less, might be ac<iom[4i«hed with oonaideraUe 

On subsequent trials, however, a visible action on the com- 
jmss was produced by the influuce of a pur of two feet ottg- 
nets «M)ly, atmuoh greater dlMaaces. / .' 

VOB. XIII. KO. XXV. — JUIY 1832. H ,- . 

L ,l,z<»i:,.,C.-'OOgIf 

114 Bev. Mr Scotesby on tke Un^bna PtrmeahUif^ of 

The compaSB, id the next trial, was placed upon the library 
chimney-piece, and the needle bo far neiilralized, that its vibra. 
tions were reduced from IS to 8 per minute. ' A pur of two 
IWt magnetB were then taken to the farther extremity of a bed^ 
room GO the same floor, sep«rated from the compass by the 
width of two rooms and a lobby, with two brick-walle, book- 
case containing books, &c. ; and there, in a parallel position, 
and about 10 inches asunder, presented to the compass. I'heitf 
action, though at the distance of 31 fert 8 inches, was quite evi-, 
dent and measurable. The amount of the influence of Uieic 
poles, in a mean of six sets of experiments, waa O^.S^'J *, 

Having at this stage of my experiments ubtained a beautiful 
pwrof magnets (A), before referred to, from Sheffield, construct- 
ed under the kind superintendence of Mr Abraham, I was en- 
abled to accomplish every thing which my calculations had anti- 
cipated. These magnets measure exactly 3 feet in length, %\\\x 
im:beB in breadth, and |th of an inch in thickness. They are 
made out of the best cast-steel, and tempered throughout,— the 
ends, after the whde.was hardened, having be«i seduced to a 
gold colour, and the rest of the hars to a blue. The following 
table exhibits their powers in combination, as they^lie in thdr 
case, 4i\ inches asunder, in that reduced stale of magnetism pro- 
duced by being repeatedly pUced in unfavourable cmitact ; when, 
magnetised, however, to saturation, their action on the compass 
is still more consideiable. 

• In very delicate experimeuts, it is found to be advanlageoua to the «c- 
tion of tbe compasfi gently to tap the glass with the point of the finger;' 
without tills precaution, the friction of the ueedle on Its point may be i«ti- 
ductive of Goniideabk diseref«Dde& 


aU kttawn StAatontei to the MagtuHe I^tance, 4v. 113 



Poire of the 








64 33 


129° 4 





31 n 

42 90 




7 46 


16 30 





3 36 


7 12 





1 67 


3 6S 





1 10 


2 81 







1 32 







1 3 











































































• S 


















































































116 Rev. Mr ScoreBby on the Unifi>rm PervteabiUfif 

With these magaets the fgllowing experiments, shewing their 
influence through aiAiA substances, were made. 

Near the engine-house of the Liverpool' and Manchester Rffil^ 
way, I found a very favourable position for trying the effect of 
the'magnetic influence on the compass, through a soKd mass of . 
freestone rock in situ. In the place referred to, the rock is ex- 
cavated in two parallel positions to a considerable depth into th* 
■olid. Between the two is a solid septum 31 feet 5 inches iii 
thickness. The magnets being placed on the one side, and the 
compass on the other, the position of the needle, (which happen- 
ed to be so nearly parallel to the wall as to require no directing 
magnet), was observed, and then the opposite poles of the mag- 
net were presented, which occasioned a deviation of about J of 
a degree. The experiment was repeated several times with d 
very uiuform result, affording a mean deviation, being the snni 
of the action of the north and south poles, of about SO" of a de- 
gree, whilst the calculated deviation corresponding with the total 
distance of 33 feet 1 inch, viz. 31 feet 5 inches of rock, and 8 
inches, the distance of the centre of the ccnnpass from the rcCk, 
was 19". 

On a subsequent occasion, I attempted to transmit the mag< 
netic influence through about 60 feet of rock near the same pUce 
as that of the above experiment ; but the quantity of " Kve- 
■ iron •" on the spot, consisting of locomotive engines perpetual- 
ly passing to and fro, produced such frequent changes on the 
compass as to defeat my object in this experiment. In conse. 
quence of this disappointment, I sought in my own premises for 
a sitnation suited for my purpose, which the sloping nature of 
the ground in front of the house readily presented. Placing the 
magnets in the front garden, and the compass within the house 
in a cellar kitchen, the magnetic influence had to pass obliquely 
through an extent of soil, stones, and brick-walls, of no less 
than 61 feet, in order to act on the compass. But even at tluA 
distance its influence was very perceptible. The mean of. ux 
experiments indicated a deviation under the action of theoppo-, 

* The ptoiimit^ of sti^narj iron hu bo InjuiiMs irifluence on eiperi' 
ments of this kind wbatever ; but iron in motion^ if suffltiMitlf aeu to Kb 

upon the compass, mupt if^cesf^rilj produce an unequal influent*. < 

ofaU knoam StAatances to &e Magnetic Influence. 117 
site poles of 0°.3', whUst the cfUculsted action, at S4^ focal 
\eagths, or 61- feet 6 inches, nas fouod Xo be (3PS.\'\ The 
Mifiu^ice of terrestriai magDetism was now partially neHtrslised 
^/ the juKtspoaition of a small ms^netic bar, when a series of 
five expenments gave a mean of 0° 4 J'. Another series of six ex- 
periniflDta, with an alteration in the positioD of the aeutraliziog 
Qiagnet, gave a mean deviation of 0°.5 j. The reality of the in-, 
flueqce, therefore, under these circumstance, throngh a distance 
of 61 feet of earth, stones, and bticks, was unquestionable. 

Results strikingly satisfactory were also curtained, on subse- 
quent trials, in the south of Ireland, with the two feet magnets, 
{B),through solid masses of limestone-rock. The following ab- 
stract shews the surprising coincidence of the " observed" ami 
" calculated results." 







FMt. In. 

SI 9 

40 ft 

« 9 






F»t. la. 


43 4 





The foregoing investigations, defective as they are in attain, 
able accuracy, are nevertheless amply sufficient for the practical 
application of the present method qf determinvng the thicknesa 
afsdid substances, not ot?terwise rr^easurable- 

The cases in which this mode of measuring dbtaoces seems 
to be most particularly suitable, and where, it appears to me, 
its application might often be of considerable importance, chiefly 
occur, in mining. 

1 18 Rev. Mr Scoresby on the Uni/brm Perineabiiity 

In tunnelling, for instance, through rock, and working from 
difierent shafts, this method of measuring the intermediate dis- 
tance would often relieve the engineer from much anxiety, and 
the miner from much personal risk, when the opposite workings 
come near together. For although practical men, who have- 
been well eicperienced in mining operations, in that particular 
kind of rock, may make a tolerable guess of the distance be- 
tween the two *' head-ways " previous to their breaking 
through, yet, it is well known, that very experienced en^- 
neers have often estimated the interposed HMik at some yards in 
thickness, when, in reality, it has not been more than as many 
feet. Blasting, under such a false supposition, it may be well 
imagined, might be attended with the most fatal consequences. 

A very serious accident, that had well nigh proved fatal to 
two very deserving men, happened in the working of the r^- 
way tunnel under the town of Liverpool, which will very well 
illustrate the present case. This tunnel, which is SSfiO yards 
in length, was excavated not only from the extremities, but also 
from six or seven intermediate shafts. The person entrusted 
with the superintendence of the working department, being a 
practical man, was aware of their near approach to a junction, 
and arranged a signal with the opposite party previous to their 
making an intended blast. But the workman charged with this 
duty, it would seem, did not believe that the junction was bo 
near, for whilst the confiding " overlooker," and a companion 
on the opposite side, were listening to the sound of the picks, 
the thoughdess miner, without giving the signal, applied the 
match, when the force of the discharge, instead of re-actipg, ex- 
ploded forward about the defenceless heads of the unfortunate 
individuals in the contiguous head-way. Most providentially, 
they escaped with their lives ; but they were severely wounded, 
their faces permanently blackened by the penetration of unex- 
ploded gunpowder, and both of them suffered the loss of an 
eye ! 

In this instance, had the distance been accurately determined, 
which it might have been by the magnetic inBuence to withiu a 
quarter of an inch, they never would have attempted a blast un- 
der such perilous circumstances, or at least no man would have 
been so reckless of the safety of his fellow- workmen, as to have 
uade the discharge without a sufficient warning. 

^■ttUisnoanSabstoJieuiOl^ MagjuHc Ififiuaice- 119 
Anotfaer impartuit applicatiM) of the prapoeed method of as- 
certakiing dutaaces, is in the working of mines.. When ap- 
pcoaGbing an old working Jrom a difl^nt shaft, or the verge of 
an adjoining mine — peHbaps a different properly, — many re- 
sons might exiat. moh as an accumulation . of water, " fire^ 
damp^" &c. why ^e separating wall Btlould not be perforated ; 
wbikt, on the oUier band, the value of the ore or bed bf coal 
vaigiht be such a« to render it dedrable to approach as n^t as 
Qooustent with safety. No means, however, heretofore known, 
would enaUe the miner to ascertain with accuracy the thickness 
<tf the iotcrposing wall ; whereas, by the proposed ntethod, when- 
ev£r the two sides of Ute wall were attainable, the thickness^ 
within given limits, mt^t ea^ly be determined. And the cases 
in by no means untrequent, in which a magnet, under propel! 
piqcautionB, might be safely carried into an old working (km- 
taioing fire-damp or water, though the breaking through into 
that working might be attended with most ntischieTouB or even 
dongeious consequraces. i 

In mining beneath ibe sea also, or iinder the bed of a river, 
the same principle (substituting a dipping-needle for the com- 
pass) may be easily applied, so as to det»muie the thickneaa of- 
the stratum of earth or rock forauDg the roof of the mine, and 
indicative of the sufficiency bf the pcotedion against overwhelm- 
ing wate^ 

Maiiy supposAUe cates might occur in engioemtig, or iii or-, 
dinary arobitecturat works, in which the prindple before us 
vimild Jutre important application. Suppose, for instance, that 
it ia proposed to built} a spi/e upon the tower of a church, or. 
any other heavy superstructioe upon a f^ven wall, but it is riot 
known, frqm tb4 wiutt. of embrasures or windows in some of the 
sides of. ibe. tower, wbetbcir each portion of the basement be 
sufficiently struig to sdstunJbe addiljwud weigbt. Instead of 
perforetitig the wail, wbe^ no ordinary means exist of ascer-. 
taining ita thickness, nbich might be laborious, and perh^ a 
bIfiOalah to the intbrwrj,.tbc magnet would t-eaditv give die 
thickness to the greatest desirable accuracy. In like manner, in 
eiijpqfering, the tbiokoesd of waits, or beds <^ rock, - not other.^ - 
wiEie determinable but by actual perforation, might, in most- 
suptteeable cose^ be measured by means of tHe magnetic devia- 


C'.(i(V,|, ■ 

ISO Rev. Mr Scotnt^ m- Ote-Un^rm PtrmeabOi^ 
-■ Theverifyingoftnasonry or brickwork executed byiBDntnct, 
HOd not sufficiently inspectHi, n another ^plicatioD of t)u« 
principle which might very often be usefnl, by enabbag lu^ 
without injury to the Unicture or finishing, however deUratc^ 
to determine the thicknefeof almost erery^portitm of die bksk 
walls with almo^ per rect Accuracy. 

Mr George Stephenton, the talented edginecv of the Xkiit- 
pool and Manchesta railway, ni^ested another a^p^dtcalwa* 
which, he conceived, might frequently be. exceedingly oseEul' in 
the woiiing of coal. In many cskb it is the practice uf -thf 
cdliers to run two parallel drifts thraugb a great extent ctf 
coal, leaving between them a wall, from 10 to SO feet tbick^ 
for the support of the roof, but which it is desirable should not 
be thicker than necessary, to prevent the waste of labour and 
coal. In this arrangement, which is often adopted wben tbe 
roof is loose, so as not eaEaly to be supported, it is a matter of 
g^eat practical difficulty to prevail an undue Microachment upon 
tbe limited thickness, that the safety of .the roof be not «DdaB- 
gered. In such a case, the apparatus for tbe deviabon might 
be applied with much advantage, and the thickness verified, as 
occasion might require. 

An ^gineo' in extensive practice in Scotland, who recently 
visited Liverpool, and happmed: to be present at the '' raflway 
area* when I was trying tbe magnetic influence through a grC^ 
body of solid rock, expressed his ek<xeding delight it» what be 
witnessed, and mentioBed se^wral instances, in his experiatce-, ia 
vluoh the present process would have been of incalculable wU 
vantage. Two of ihe caaes it may beaBtiafacUry to mentil'B' 

In an extensive oolBery, with tkc'gslwni'mttiageaient aiMl 
working of which he ms.entnisted, a horiaenlal ^fii designed 
foe csrryii^ the water off tbe nwie, hy coBveyis^ it t4> the well 
of the pumpin^engine, was atofqied up hj the falling of * pon. 
tion of the roof. This «ircDmstance, whidi oonqd^»iy>put-« 
stop to the chid' operaUons of the mine, ocoaMooed them great 
aaiitiety and petjrfexity, fitm iheir utter iwdjility to dettftoine 
fir Ai««>< of the fallen iccJc. - Not knowing bo«r smaH -durt ex- 
tent might be, they did aocdare to'clor any part away' ddi7t> 
the Btopfiage, kstthewateri^i^d burst through and overwheftn 
the workmen ; and to attempt to clear it from Hie uppen-jfiBrt, 

whefe thrwiter bid riam' witMn* ytidof-the roof, wasa liaU 
tcrofinanBii diffiniltj. ibr did ike nuniBMaoti of tbe uppm * 
ptrt, by tiw eBgioeer himaelf 170% &t in a. fiost* and. puaUag 
^■uelf forward by biabBiids:agaimt the roof, gweibim any t»- 
ti>&otion, hrditr tfawa tlm, that the portion af (Men vosk Wt^ 
solid, muBt be shaken withahlaat^asaffiHiUiq^theoiily neaOaiof 
eicuring away theobetructuMi. Thi& hazardous npcrimeat^Kfter 
amchddlsyosd aniiisly, vosat length undertaken and ideveriy 
aceomfAi^d ; aad, fortunatsly, the obstruction {uvnng to be- reay 
part'uil, -the mater made its wEy throwgh the disrupted mataridbb 
BuCit'Wasa isere ehanee, as they knew nodiing of thetluBlo- 
WM of'tbe &Uen masses Had the thickneM been naojr tinus 
Ss great, they never could have ascertained how longit would 
bave b«eD safe to have wwbed below tbe obstnictioo, nor^ whai a 
blast at th* upper part would have beea the most advantageous. 
This, however, the mi^iMtie deviatkn would have envied them 
readily to detemnDe, and then they would have piooeeded at 
once to the most proper measures, and been relieved from iJle 
greatest embarrassment. 

Another case which he meotiooed waa note importmt. In 
the sinking of a coal-mine near the Frith of Forth, it mu i^ 
quired, on one occawn, to run two parallel drifts or tunnelj. be- 
neath this arm oF the sea. It was easential, in. this work> ^tbat 
die two drifts should be near aodi odiec and pnaUel, but, fix: 
^ success of tbe future operations,^ UMy.must not peribmtette 
sepotiun^ walL - When, however, the tinm^'bad pntowded^a 
■Jonadenjole diBtance,'the workmeiv mislad by ea»e mistake.or 
nsgtaotm the'' pan (rf I the supenntendiDgmina:,<biDke thrau^ 
die abptmoj aid theiwhoie .worit, wbidi bad bean omducled so 
fin* at a great cxpaiiae,.waa.'nndeTed' entnely uadess.. Jlar^ 
■ben, was an instancB^ itv whicfa magnets uould have been eni- 
ptayad with the gnalesti'aigli^^.and miMl faftve bew feSeetiial 
K the aooident whiebnuned the work< 

'- Though' many nxve eaacs.m^ easily be ima^oediinwhiA , 
tbff pWceM^befgm usmigfafbeofimpoataalapfdicationt'eBOU^ 
T trast,"ius:beenisaid to:pnive lihat k ianotainwre matteiof 
phihMophical'CunosiijIi bat« capable of 'beooHMing <^ extcnaiTe 
attd practical utility. <■ i- ■ ■ ■ ,■. 


t^ t^.MtSaoteBbycnlbtUhvver*alPennabUi^ 

It still remnna for irie to ileacribe tbe requisite apparatus, 
with the praparatino of the iDAgnet% and to ofier & few saggar 
1JQI16 ior carrying into the practice of mining, &C. the priiunfHra 
developed by the preceding investigaticMs. 
' The apparatus necevaiy for the practioal objects in view are 
flbieflf a pair of bar magnets, tempered throughout, a£ 6 feet or 
□pvards in length ; another pwr, say of IS iuAes, correapoad' 
ing id quality, temper, and proportions; a ccmpass (tbe one ' 
eiDfJoyed for mining operations will do), with two or three oth» 
articles, of simple structure, hereafter to be described, wbi<A 
may be made by any ordinary artizans. The preparatioa and 
determination of the powers of the magnets will be the first step. 
. HI the business. 

The bars having been liiagnetized to aaturatioQ, will require 
to have their directive powers and foci of attraction determined. 
Previous to this, it will be prudent to pl&ce them upon one ano- 
ther for a few moments, with similar poles contiguous, not in 
contact, but sepamted by a sheet of paper, or other tbia sub- 
stance, in order to disperse or neutralize any excess of m^netic 
energy which they might not be able permanently to retain. 
Without this or some similar precaution, the intensity of the 
Hutgnetic energy of the bars will be liable to diminution in the 
course of the experiments, so as to prevent satisfactory of ii^ 
deed useful results. The position of the foci of attraction may 
then be eadly det^mined. And in accomplishing this, tor ordt: 
aary pracdoe, it will only be necessary to try the deviation at^the 
first three or four lenglhe. Assuming the focal position, as In tbe 
experiments heretofore made, at ^'gth of the whole length from 
each extremity, we shall generally, in properly magnetized and. 
w(U-pr(^)ortioned bws, be very near the truth. 
- But, by the way of example, let the poMtiou of .the foci e( 
Attraction of a thret-fea bar^ or of a pw of audi magnets ia 
combination, be r^qtrircd. The assumed pontion oS tbe foci gf 
attraction, at ^gth the length within each extremity, will give 
SI fdet 6 inebce for tbe focal len^h, and 3 inches for the disttUlce 
(^ eii^ focus frcna the extremity. The first focal. Imgtb, bt^' 
cause (^ tbe lOeasuretnents bang fma iht centre <^ Che tovn 
pass toi nearest end of the magnet, hiatead of <fae nCaretat focat^ 
will be S feet 6 inches — S inchea = S feet S inches. The ae- 

^oM lataam SubtUoKes to the Magnttic Ir^bience. 133 
ooDd a . S + 2 ■ 6 = 4 feet9iaclies; the third 4.0 + 2 .6=: 
7 feet 8 inches, &c. Find now the mean derinions, by obser- 
vaticKi, of the two poles of the magnet at these several dtstaace^ 
and multiply the taogent of the deviations by the reciprocals of 
the relative forces beSote determined (Tables at pp. 99 and Hi!) ; 
then, if the amumed pontion of the foci be correct, tlie numbers 
thus obtained will corre^wnd very nearly with the tangent of 
the angle of the greatest deviaUon, as well as with each other. 
If, however, the tangent of the greatest deviation be lea* than 
these remoter products, then the assumed pontioti of the (bd 
will be too near the extremity of the magnet ; but if the nearest 
tangent be ven/ tmich greater than the rest (we speak here of a 
3>feet magnet), then the poution assumed will be too far from 
the pole. As, from principles already explained, the first tan- 
gent ought to be somewhat greats than the products of the 
other tangents*, it will be dearable, when a tolerably close ap- 
proximatioD has been obtained, to verify the result by trying 
the deviations at greater distances. 

What has been now suggested for the determination of rfie 
foci of attraction, is equally applicable to two or more bars in 
fixed ccmibination, or at a given distance, as to single bars. A 
cOuvenient arrangement, represented in Fig. 6, decdgiled for the 
safe keejMng of the magnets and their employment in practidd 
operations, will be well adapted for giving fixedness of portion 
during the determination of th^r povera. Here, cbe magnets 
A 1, A 3, are laid in parallel grooves to a case about ftmr iochet 
apart. C, C,aretheneutraliring conductors of soft iron,whicb^ 
uniting the opposite poles of the magnets «ben not in use, serve 
to preserve th«r energy umnjured. a a are two pieoea of wood 
fitted into grooves in the centre of the case, of the same size as 
the cooductora Such is the anangieitteDt when the bars are 
Required to be neutralised, and always when unemployed; 
"When required in the mine, it is only necessary to change the 
posiuon of one of the bars end for end, so that the two similar 
poles iliay lie contiguouslyi at the same time removing the con- 

* Oq account of thb dl^rsiice being so great, irben short msgnets, or very 
loDg compass needles, are employed, the^iC length must be rfjecled from the 
reiults, and the appruzlination for the fbcat position be determined bj the 
ohwiTstioiw at the more moote dhtances. 

1X4 Rev. Mr Seore^y on the Un^rm PermeaWHy ijjT 
ductors into die grooves at aa, and substituting in theii stead 
the pieces of wood ; b; this means the tn^nets are retained 
firmly in their places, and the whute apparatus kept together. 

Whilst thus retained in their case, the powers and the .focal 
position of both bars toj^her are determined, so that their fxm- 
dition in practical operations is exactly the same. A table of 
their powers (after the manner of that given in page llfi) may 
then be calculated, and the bars forthwith employed as occaqon 
may require. 

But I proceed with some su^estions for the practical appli- 
cation of the foregoing principles and investigation in mining. 

in all cases where both the level and direction of the work- 
ings or mines are known to be the same, or in which the differ- 
ence can be satisfactorily ascertained, the application of the 
proposed process for determining the thickness of interpo^og 
substances, will be. sufficiently plain from what has already be«i 
stated ; for, in such cases, a single observation of die deviation 
produced by the action of one or more magnets will be sufficient 
to show the distance betwist the magnet and the co.mpaBS. 
When the direction of the separating wall lies nearly north and 
south, so that the compass does not require any directing mo^ 
net, the table of deviations already cakuUted for the msgneta 
io use will enable the miner generally to judge with sulQcient 
accuracy of the distance, without the trouble of bringing the 
magnets round to make the corresponding experiment*. And 
even where a directing or neutralizing magnet is employed, it 
would not be difficult to come at very satisfaotory results by th« 
employment of the ^nailer set f£ pn^Mrlional magnets (prp|)(M'- . 
tional as to dimensions and directive power), so as generally to 
render it unnecessary to remove the bars from one mine to the 
piber. For if the two pairs of bars.wo^ coostruicted at the suae 
time, of the same quality of metal, and of similar temper, there 

* Should the proposed plan of measuriog the thickness nf rock, &c. be 
brought into general practice, it would be lueAU and important to have triile* 
cwMtnicted of the form of that in page 3S, shewing the ratio of devUtlona for 
m^pietiof dU&rent d(^[Tee> of enwgy. A aeriesof tables, fbriiiitaiice,Bilght 
be calculated for eveiy degree, or for everj tiro degree;^ of dwiatloii at Om 
focal length, tVom 6fi or 60 to 7S or 80 degrees. 

:,, Google 

aU ftnoiTft Sui^neea to the Magnetic In/Utenee, ^. ,1SJ( 
vould be little difficulty of giving them a direcdre power, which, 
at considerable distances, in reference to tbdr focal lengthv 
would be very nearly, or almost exactly, the same; and, indeed, 
were there some little difference in the magnetic intensity ot the. 
two sets of bare, it would be no difficult matter to ascertain the 
relative force of each, and to obtain sufficiently accurate results, 
by calculation, accordingly. The appropriation of the results 
obtained from the smaller set of magnets for the determination 
of the distance of the larger magnets from the compass, when 
the same deviaUon was produced, would be most simple — the 
measure of the distance given by the smaller magnets being to 
the real distance through the rock, as the focal length of the 
smaller is to that of the larger magnets. If, indeed, the smaller 
magnets were a foot, and the larger three feet in length, the 
distances at which they would produce equal deviations, suppos- 
ing their magnetic energy proportional, would be just as one to 

Another method might be adopted for reducing the observed 
deviation under a neutralizing or directing needle to the ratio in 
the table of deviations, which is by finding the number of oscil- 
lations of the compass needle in a given time, after its adjust- 
ment in the mine, and by comparison with its ordinary vibra- 
tions under terrestrial magnetism only, calculating the relative 
magnetic forces contending against the actioa of the magnet *. 
Bat this method being troublesome, the former is to be preferred 
for ordinary practice. 

As in many cases, however, the comparative levels or direc- 
tions of the two worliings might not be satisfactorily known, a 
single experiment, though it give the distance between the com-' 
pass and the magnet, will not be sufficient to determine the nearest 
approximation of the two contiguous mines ; but the nearest 
approximation, I apprehend, may be very well determined, and 
at the same time, — a matter of no mean importance, — the com- 
parison of level and direction, as well as the distance of the 
woridogs. It may be useful, however, for the sake of perspi- 

* Here the intenrities of tha magnetic forces, under different circumstan. 
cei, will be propurlloaat to the squai^ of the nuroljen of bori^ootal gKilla« 
tiqos in equil times. 


126 B«v. Mr ScoredSy on (ft« Unjfarm PermeeAiUi^' gf 
cuity and practice, to consder this application of the principle 
under three separate cases. 

Cask I. — Where Ihe level 0/ the mines is htonn to be the same, but 
the direction is dtmbtfiU. 

In this case it is only necessary to apply the magnets in one 
of the mines in a given position, and then at the same horizontal 
level of the other, (say on the floor of the mine, or at any par- 
ticular distance above), to try the deviations of the compass at 
moderate intervals, from side to side, directly across the head- 
way, when, from the observation of the greatest deviation, the 
point nearest to the magnets may be ascertained. One precau- 
tion, however, will be necessary. If the direction of the com- 
pass-needle be not exactly at right angles to the portion of the 
magnet, then the greatest deviation will not occur at the nearest 
point but a little beyond, towards the place where the action of 
the magnet is most perfectly tangential *. Hence, it will be 
generally advisable, not only to adjust theneedleof the compass, 
by a directing magnet, as near as may be to a right-angular 
position with the magnet (as shown by the known magnetic 
position of each mine), but also to repeat each experiment with 
both poles of the magnet alternately presented to the compass, 
so as to obtain the difference of deviations of the two poles 
at each position of the compass. In order to conduct this ex- 
periment with the greater fadlity and uniformity of effect, the 
simple apparatus represented in Fig. 7, Plate V. of preceding 
volume, fanned out of a piece of board, may be useful. 

C b the compass, and D a directrng magnet sliding in a groove, 
which is 90 adjusted as to its distance from the compass, that 
the needle may assume a position parallel to the atr^ght edge 

* A» thifl clrcumetBnce might in some ctuea occauon a cotuidereble error, 
if only the deviation by one pole were taken, it would be ueeful to have the 
means of ascertaining the extent of error capable of being thus produced. 
This would be pven by a table of the powers of the magnets, calculated ftwn 
the*inc*ofdeviatkmiii8teadof the A»v«n<^ which would shew the diatauce 
of the magnet from the compass, as placed at right angles to the needle in 
its deviated position. At great distances, however, no material mistake on 

arise from the n^Iect of this source of error, the powers of the sines and 

tangents being so nearljthe same in deviations under 5 or 6 degrees as to be 
within the ordinary limits of error of observation. 

:,, Google 


E J . XdtitrnewI*il.Jiar.m.:gmp.J27. 

by Google 

all known St^Utrtcea to the Magnetic Inftuence, 4-c. 1S7 
of the board a a, when that edge is placed parallel to the inter- 
posed substance, the thickness of which is to be ascertained. 
The adjusting magnet is then fixed in its place by the thumb- 
screw «, so as to secures constant influeuce, whilst the parallel- 
ism of a a with the wall of the mine is preserved ; and, in order 
to facilitate and secure the preservation of that parallelism, a 
deal plank may be placed directly across tlie mine against the 
extremity of the working, and supported at the retjuired level, 
which would not only serve as a table for the compass a^taraluSt 
■ but having nailed upon it a straight batten near and parallel to 
the edge, it would enable the experimenter to bear the compasc 
from side to side of an irregular working, and to preserve if) 
every part of the distance the parallelism of the straight edge 
a a: Fig. 8. Plate I. illustrates this arrangement.' 

Suppose T to be the working of a mine, and T" the approxi- 
mating workii^, apd it is required to ascertain the thickness of 
the intermediate mass of rock R. The case of magnets M 
being placed against the middle of the wall, in one of the hea^ 
wa^s, the plank P is placed at the same horizontal l<>vel on the 
oppcBite side, when the compass apparatus, guided by the 
batten e e, being carried trom side to »de, will shew the great* 
est deviation in the position a. Let the magnets be now turiied 
with their opposite pole towards the compass, (the time for doing 
which is to be indicated by signal, as about to be suggested), and 
the deviations tried a second time across the mine. If the. 
greatest deviation be in the same position as before, ihcU may be 
assumed as the nearest pnnt ; if not, the mean of the two por- 
tions must be taken. 

It is not necessary to describe the experiments more rainute- 
^, nor to enter into the management of the apparatus for all 
particular cc^tions ; for to do so wouM swell this paper to an 
i&convenientiil&igth, whilst the details would be easily anticipa- 
ted by a very little practice. It may be proper, however, to 
mention, that where the deviations on the removal of the coa^ 
pass continue to increase to the very extremity of the board, oi: 
to the side of the headway, it will, be necessary to cause the mag- 
net to be. removed in the opposite direction, ao that the^maxi- 
tavm deviation may be satisfactorily obbuoed. 

=d by Google 

1*8 Rev. Mr Score^y on the Unifimn PermeabiH^ of 

Case II. — Where the directum maybe certain, but the level doubtful. 

Here the magnet and compass being placed oo the known 

. line of direction, the compass is moved progressively upward, 

from the floor to the roof of the mine, to deteroune the greatest 

deviation, which, it is evident, will be on the same horizontal 

level as that of the magnet. 

A result, perhaps more satiafactory, might be obtained by the 
use of a needle, suspended like a dipping needle, and traversing 
in a vertical plane. Such a needle being brought into a vertical 
portion by a small directing magnet, would shew by its devia- 
tions the posJbon of corresponding level. 

Case III.'— Where both level and direction may be uncertain. 
In this instance, the magnet being fixed, and the ptank placed 
on the floor of the mine, the compass apparatus is to be car- 
ried from side to side, till the place of the greatest deviation 
is ascertained, or the middle between the two posilions of great- 
est deviation produced by the different poles. This will give 
the directional position. The vertical needle being now tried 
throughout a vertical line drawn through the directional point, 
will shew by its greatest deviation the horizontal level of the 
magnet, which, being at the same time in the directional line, 
will indicate the nearest attunable point between the magnet 
and compass. The vertical needle, in this and similar cases, 
may be guided in its transit by a board, with a straight edge, 
or pillar of wood, placed vertically, so as to preserve its paraU 
Idjsm of portion at every altitude. 

It may be proper here to call to mind, that the chief object 
of the processes now described, is the deternuudon of the 
thickness of solid substances not otherwise mdlurable, and 
not. primarily at least, the determination of directicm and levels ; 
tot the application of the observaticai of deviations to, these 
latter purposes is only expected to afibrd an approximation, 
in some cases, indeed, a very important approximadon, to the 
truth. Where the distance to be n^easured is small, «By only 8 
or 10 feet, or in any case in which the deviatiwis amount to 9 
or i degrees,— the hne of direction may be very accurately d^ 
termined by the middle point between the maximum deviattoos 

of the opponte pt^ of the magnets, and especially if each ttutxi- 
maia be itself determined by the mean of equai devialiom oa 
both Bides of the maximum; in iJmcase 1 have frequently de- 
tenained, at moderate distancea, the very point on tbe ttait 
{Jank, from whence a line drawn at right angles will pass through 
the magnets, coneequently the nearest possible distance between 
the mBgnet» and compass. Where the deviations, however, are 
very small, as it will then require a eonsidmtble change in the 
positioa of the compass, laterally, to produce any sensible dumge 
in the deviation^T— the line of direction, or the level, will be pro- 
portionally less certain, though the nearest distance may be svS~ 
ficiently ascertained. 

As the person who conducts any e^cperiments on the forgoing 
prindples will have to direct \he application of the magneu, 
villi any changes that may be requinte as to their poles or posi- 
tioo, whilst the experiment is in pr<^ress; an arrangement of 
directions by signal will be necessary ; and this may be very 
well accomplished by the blows of a hammer or mall. 

The distance at which any sound can be heard throu^ solid 
flubstftnces, wilt depend both on the nature of the concussion, 
and the quality of the vibrating mass. Through earth, gravel, 
or other louse materials, the transmis^on of sound is very> li- 
mited and uncert^n ; but throu^ solid uniform rock, direc- 
tions may be communicated by signals to very con«derabIe dis- 
tuices. In solid and uniform sandstone, the pick, T understand, 
. may be very well heard through a distance of fifteen or sixteen 
yards, whilst the vibration produced by a blast may be percei- 
ved at very great distances beyond. The working of coal by 
the pick may be generally heard ^sty or eighty feiet, I am told ; 
though no rational determination of the thickness can be made 
fnmi the nature or intensity of the sound, — for a change in the 
structure of the bed, or the interpontion of an increased quaa- 
thy of mcnsture, may produce as great an alteration in the sound 
as might be' expected if the distance were doubled ! The blow 
(rf* a mall upon an iron wedge set in the rock, may be beard 
Aiach farther than the stroke of a pick, or the blow of the hea- 
viest hammer on the face of the rock, — and this wiH form a 
convenient arrangement for the purpose of ^gnals. 

vol. Xllf, NO. XXV.— JULY 1832. 1^ 

L ,l,z<,i:,., Google 

180 Ber. Mr Scot^y on the Unybrm PermeabUUg rf 

By the use xS. two elemetitK, — number of Mows and an extra 
ioterral of time in difiermt parts of the Msies, — m abuodaot 
code of ngnals might be arranged within the limits of not more 
than ^ght or mne blows in succesaioQ*. 

* The fbllovlng maj serve ai an iUuslratioQ of the method proposed fsx 
rig twUfflHg b; meani of blows. The number might be increased, and the 
rignali modified, by employing ictBtehlngswitlithepotBtof apicfc^xe^wUA 
can be heard kt conaldeTable 'tW'^""^) a« well as by Uie method cf blaw» 

DntCTioya by Ihe ExresiiiaviEB Aybwum or I»aijiaiEB by the Ma- 

nager of the Magnet.. 

"^^ iDdidlOB 

No. or I-^Wiln-. 
Wow>. inaiauon. 

3. Attention. 

t We are attending. 

3. Apply the magnet {N. pole) 

Z. It U done. 

where you are; as near as 

you can tell oppodte me, at 

the floor of the mine. 

4. amr.tb.pok of the magnet, 

4 ItbrereiKd. 

and 4ply it to the nme 


A. Neutralize the magneU 

1, 2. Apply the N. pole' of the mag- 

1, 2. It i. w applied. 

net to ttie middle of the 

working, at the floor of the 


1, 3. Cany the magnet to the ri^ 

1, 3. It is » ai^tlied. 

le level N.B.Tbe 
dirtance in yards to be indi- 
cated by the number of nic- 

1, 1. Ditto to the extreme rif^t of 
the mine ; same level 

a, I. Ditto to the left, ao many 

I, i. It ii St the 

3, 1. It is BO applied. 

3,11 Ditto to the extreme ieftif 3,aiIli0Bttbeei 

2, 3; It is rused as directed. 

!^ 3. Raise the magnet vertically 
from the floor, ao many feet 

%*. BaiK It to the roo^ directly 

3,1. Depress it to the floor, direcUy 

3, 2; The experiment is finished. 

9.3. Theexperlmentisnotflnished. 

3. 4. Do yon understand ? 

3^ 4. It Is at the roo£ 

3.1. It i. at the floor. 

3. 2. Is the experiment finished ? 
3, S. I imderstand. 

3, A. I do not understand. Whit 
do you mewi ? 


all knoan Suhttances to the Magnetic Infiuencet S^c. ISl 

And by such b code it vould be perfectly eaiy for the coq- 

ductoi of the experiment to give vwery requiNte direcUon for 

the application of the magnets, at any distance to which the 

blows could be distinctly heard. 

At distances, however, beyond the limits of communicable 
vibrations, the application of the magnets must be by preooa- 
certed arrangement. In this case a certain moment of time 
might be agreed uptm for the application of the magnets ; and 
given intervals arranged when the magnets ^ould be reversedl, 
and when neutralized. 

Though, ia the [Hvceding investigsdons, the equal permeabi- 
lily vi solid substances generally has been verified or assumed, 
nothing has yet been stated in respect to the effect of the inter- 
position of metallic iron on the action of the magnet. This sub- 
stance, the action of which on the magnetic needle is so peculiar, 
has indeed been made the sul^ect of very particular and diligent 
invesligatioD, but the results have been intentionally omitted, 
both because these results are Eomewhat different from all the 
others, and because ircm, in a metallic state, is not likely to be 
met with in mining, so as in any way to affect the universality of 
application of the process herein suggested for the measurement 
of distances otherwiw indeterminable 

Thus much, however, may be briefiy mentioned, that iron, in 
any state in which it can be had, whether malleable or cast, whe- 

4, 1. Is the magnet agunsf vail ? 4, 1. It u Bgainst tlie wall. 

4, a. Is the m^net neutralized ? 4, 2. It ia neutralized. 

. 4, 3. Yea 1 4, 3. Ye«. It is. 

4,4. No! 4,4. No. Itlsnot 

I, S, 1. Lay aside tlie magnet till dl- 1, 2, 1. Maj we laj aside the mag. 
reeled. net? 

1. 3. 2. Place the magnet. 1, 2, 2. Shall we place the magnet P 

1.2.3. WUch pole of the magnet is 1,2,3. Tfae North pole is presented. 

pfesented ? 2, 1, 2. The South pole is presented. 

2, 1,3. Where iff the magnet placed? Answer by signal of other column. 

2,2,1; 3,3,2; 2, 2, 3; ^3,1; 2, 3, 2; 2, 3, 3; 3, ], 2; 3, 2,2; 9,2,3; 
3,3,1; 3,3,2; 3,8,3; &c 

N. B. The separation of the numbar of blows by a comma, denotes a sen- 
uble pause between each series. 

132 On the Permeabilittf of known Substances. 

ther in steel tempered or soft, does not prevent the influence of 
ihe magnet being transmitted to the compass; but, on the con- 
trary, I have most commonly found, that the deviations produ- 
ced by the magnet acting through a. mass of iron, are greater 
than when nothing whatever is interposed. I have also found 
that the ioflaence is not interrupted, though the interposed me- 
tal be a mass of hardened steel, nor even when trial was made 
on a body of powerfully magnetic bars, two or three inches in 
s(^d thickness. When the mass of iron is not otherwise magne* 
Uc than as to its magnetism of position derived from the earth, 
then the action of a magnet passed through "ks neutral or equa- 
torial plane, is, in all cases, (as far at least as can be inferred . 
from very many trials), more energetic than when no such sub- 
stance is near it This was so particularly the case when the 
magnetic influence was passed through tlie two double cylin- 
ders and furnace of a locomotive steam-engine (conasting of 
ten successive plates of iron, forming a total of 5| 
thickness of metal), that it required the magnets to be a foot 
nearer to the compass in free space, than when placed beytHid 
the engine, to produce equal deviations. For, whilst tbfe dis- 
tance of the magnets and compas^ when the influencewas tcaa^ 
mitted through the engine, was 7 feet 8 inches, the distance oa 
the open side, producing the same deviation, was 6 feet 7} 
inches *, 

Now this anomaly may be easily shewn to arise from the de- 
velopment of magnetism in the mass of iron, through the proxi- 
mity of the magnets, by which the direct or permeable influence 
of the magnet is necessstrily augmented; but that the whole of 
the effect which takes place is not due to this cause,-— what is 
generally called " induced magnetism," — but chiefly to the ac- 
tual transmission of influence through the very substance of the 
mass of iron, I have di^inctly and experimentally determined. 

■ Some working snj^eerd, who were present when this experiment wu 
made, were exceedingly inquisitive alMUt the eff^ts produced, watcbing the 
deviationaof thecompasn with great astonislRneDt. One of them peiceiring 
that the magnet, which waa hid from his view by the engin-e, equally afiected 
ttie compass as when presented in the open space, addressed himself to his 
comrade, and made this characteristic remark, — " Why, Tom," aaid he, " it 
sees through't !" 


( 133 



ll 1 1 1 1 S S S 1 sis S|.|.S|.|.S| S |i_K^ i 




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April 26. 
April 10. 
April 20. 
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April iS. 
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April IS. 
April 19. 

April IB. 
April 2a 
AprU 25. 


April 25. 
April 15. 
April la 
April 20. 
April 14. 
April 21. 
April 24. 
April 83. 
April 22. 
April 14. 
April 8*. 
April 23. 
April IS. 
April 12. 
AprU S3. 




April IS. 
April B. 
April 12. 
April 16. 
April 21. 

April la 

April 14. 
April 14. 
April 19. 
April U. 
April 13. 
April 14. 
April 1. 
April 14. 
April 10. 






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SepL 16. 
Sept 30. 
SepL la 
Oct. 2a 
Sept. 28. 
Sept S3. 
Oct. 9. 
Oct I. 

Oct. a 

Sept.. 29. 
Oct 1. 
Oct 2. 
Sept 20. 
Sept 27. 
OcL 8. 
Oct IB. 
Oct IS. 
Oct i. 
Oct R 
Oct. 9. 
Oct 12. 
Oct 6. 
Oct. 16. 




May' 5. 
May 7. 

May 4. 
May 1& 
May 16. 
June 6. 
Jane 10. 
June 2. 




Ma^r 16. 
April 1. 
Mar. 30. 
Mar. 28. 
Mar. 19. 
Mar. 23. 
Mar. IR 

Mar. 22. 
April 4. 


Aug. 26. 
SepL 2. 
Sept. 6. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept 9. 
Sept 9. 
Sept 7. 
Aug. 26. 
Oct*: 12. 
SepL la 
Aug. 12. 
Aug. 26. 
SepL 13. 
Sept 19. 

Aug. S. 
Sept 90. 
Sept sa 
Aug. 21. 
Aug. IS. 
Aug. 28. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept 6. 
Sept 1. 
Aug. 22. 


Aug. 5. 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 14. 
Jufy 24. 
Aug. 19. 
Aug. 12. 
Aug. 21. 
Aug. 9. 
Aug. 29. 

Aug. la. 

July 27. 
July 31. 

Aug! 21! 
July 16. 
Aug. 16. 
Aug. 16. 
July 22, 
July 23 
Aug. 3. 
July 3L 
Aug. 4. 
Aug. 9. 
J^ 29. 


June 24. 
July J. 
June 28. 
June 10. 
July 1. 
June 22. 
July 4. 

July 14. 
June 24. 
June 9. 
June 19. 
June 25. 
July 9. 
June 10. 
June 19. 
June 26. 
June 20. 
June 21. 
June 24. 
June 20. 
June 34. 
June 26. 
June 16. 


June 29. 
July IS. 
July 6. 
June 21. 
July a 
July 4. 
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June 24. 
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181 7. 




skitter ^Natural Appearonceg. 18S 

On the 19tb of April 1808 there waa a besvy &lt <^ uiov 
fin: fiHir hours. 

1808. — A 6iie productive hsrrest, and but little bl^hL 

Last week in April 1809i very cold, wet, &os^, and unjdea»' 
ant weather. 

May 1809 came in very fine and hot 

1813. — ^An immensely jlroductive harvest, and a general 
thanks^ving for it. 

January 4tb 1814, the deepest snow that has been known fiv 
40 years b^an, and it condnued qn the ground for five weeks : wt 
aome places the drifts were 15 feet high. The frost oonttnued 
IS we^ to March SO. 1814. 

1816. — From AprillSth to 15th snowreoifuned on the ground, 
md the weather was exceedingly cold and iros^, 

1816. — September 3d, a hard frost which produced ice. 

1817. — The month of August very wet, succeeded in Septem^ 
ber by fine harvest weather till November. 

4818.— May 8th, a dduge of rain fell, after which no more 
tain fdl at Treveroux or near, till Septonber 5th, 17 weeks imd 
«ie day, and all vegtiatitm was completely burnt up. 

1819.^^)ctober iSd, Snow six inches deep. 

18S2. — No raia firom May 2d to July 6tb, nine weeks of very 
hot days. 

18S3.— Rain little or much every day from June S9th to Au^ 
gust 15th. — V7 days. 

1824.— A very wet summer, but not cold ; crops of com 
•light of hay heavy. 

1825. — StJd the produce of 12 acres of hops for 5s. 

1826 and 1827.— Two fine summers. 
. 1828.— Very heavy rain every day from July 6th to August 

1829, — Though the 9th of April is stated as the day on which 
oat.«owing was finished, yet an experiment was tried, by sowing 
white gate field with black Tartar oats, on the third of May. 
The we^er was much against tfaem at first, but they turned 
out very well, uid were carried in on the 7th of October. 

Rained more or less every day from the 16th of June to 
20th September, except on four days, the 23d and 24th of July, 
and the 3d and 4th of September. 


195 Earlieal Knowledge qfGold and Silver. 

The season was not particularly cold, but was tbc Wettest in 
my recoUectJon. 

1830.— Opened with a severe frost tjU Febriutry, followed by 
awann dry March, witbout.a storm or a shower. Apvii 1st, a 
fall of SDow till noon, whilst a swallow was seen flying about at 

18S1. — Ob the 6th of May occurred a most severe frost, the 
young shoots and leaves of the oak and ash were destroyed, 
fruit-trees of all sorts were greatly injured, and even the grass 
tub checked to such a degree, that it never recovered from iu 
effitctk . ■ . . . 

Ice was neariy half an inch thick on the ponds oa the eonv 

A severe frost, but inferior to the last described in its eflectSt 
occurred on the night of the S8th May 1818. 

EarUeat Ktuncledge of Gold and Stiver. — Hemod — SeaadtnO' 
vian Muiatm.—Tke Patriarchs.— The Bcoie qfJ6b.—Aaiu- 
mutation of WeaUk mth the Hebrew Nation.— Accmmtlatiaim 
in Syria and Persia ; in Greece ; in Rome. 

±v the earliest stages of society, so many and such great diffi- 
culties were opposed to the use of all nietallic. substancest that 
the discovery and application of them to the purptHes of socia) 
life must have been slow and gradual. 

The most ancient records of our race, the Sacred Writings, 
as well as the works of the earliest profane authors, have, how-, 
ever, communicated such intimations of the knowledge and 
adaptation of the more precious metals to the use of mankind, 
as tends to excite curiosity and to attract attention to the aubr 

The genera) voice of antiquity affirms, that gold, uLver, and 
copper, or brass (aes), were the first metals diecoverod; and 
that they were used partly as oraaments, and putly a» instru- 
ments of war or of industry ; foe though, from th^( softness,, 
they were not the best oalculat9d fot the latter -pwfMseet they 
were better adapted to them than those implements of flint oc 
other hard stones or hard wood, which had been before uscdl^ 

.o;.|c ■ 

Hesiod. — Scandinatnan Museum. 13T 

the most ancient tribes, and which were alao found ftuong the 
savage peojde inhabiting Au!>tralia, who were disoovered in the 
middle «f the last century. 

A well-known passage in Hesiod affirms, that, in remote ages, 
" The earth was worked with brass, because iron had not been 
discovered ;" and Lucretius bears testimony to the same par- 
port, in book S. 1. 1386: 

" £t prior aerii erat, ^uatn feiri, cognitua usm." 

'jL%i3 ia confirmed by the implements of cof^r found in tiie 
ancient mines, which will be hereafter noticed, in Siberia and 
Nubia; whose' woHcing must b^ve ceased some Uiousaod years 

When Brazil was first discovered by the Pmluguese, the 
rude inhabitants used fish-hooks of gold, but had not iron, 
though their soil abounded in that metal. The people in Hi»> 
panitJa and Mexico were, in like manner, uDacqiiainted with 
iroo when first visited by the Spaniards ; though they had both 
ornaments and bnplements of gold, and weapmB of copper, 
nAidi tatter, as we learn from the uialysis of Humboldt, they 
bad acquired the art of hardening by an alloy of tin. 

This subject has been illustrated in Denmark, by opening- 
many Scandinavian tumuli of very remote ages, from which 
have been collected specimens of knives, daggers, swords, and 
implements of industry, which are preserved and arranged in 
the Museum of Copenhagen. There are tools of various kinds 
formed of dint or other hard stone, in shapes resembling our 
wedges, axes, chisels, hammers, and knives, which are pre- 
sumed to be those first invented. There are swords, daggers, 
and knives, the blades of which are of gold, whilst an edge of 
iron is formed for the purpose of cutting. Some of the tools 
and weapons are formed principally of copper, with edges of 
iron ; and in many of the implements, the profuse application of 
copper and gold, when contrasted with the parnmony evident 
in the expenditure of iron, seems to prove, that, at the unknown 
period, and among the unknown people who raised the tumuJit 
which antiqutaian research has lately explored, gold, as wdl as 
copper, were much more abundant products than iron. 

Copper, in the more remote ages, was not only commonly, 

138 The PatTiarchi.—The Book ofJa. 

but in some, if not in all, excluuvely used fbr vaaaey, and at 
these periods may be viewed as one of \he precious metab ; yet 
the dianges that have since taken place have reodered gold and 
8ilv«' more entitled to that name, and vill be so considered in 
the farther progress of this inquiry. 

Some of the eariiest notices which have reached the preMnt 
day of the estimatioa of gold and silver, are in the account of 
the condition of Abraham, the progenitor of the Hebrew peo- 
ple, supposed to have lived two thousand years before our 
ChristiaD era. We read, " that he was rich in cattle, and in 
alver, and in gold*." On the death of his wife, he purchased ft 
field for a burying-place, the payment for which was made with 
four hundred shekels of silver, which he delivered not in coin» 
but " by w^ght, according to the currency of merchants ■|-.'' 

Joseph, the great grandson of Abraham, was sold by his bre- 
thren to a caravan of Arabs, travelling towards Egypt with the 
{M<oductions of thai country, for twenty pieces of silver J. Af- 
terwards, wbni established in 'Eigyipt as minister of the Idng of 
that country, his brothers brought " ^tver in thnr seeks' 
mouths," to purchase com during a season of scarcity in their 
native land. In the interesting sequel of the history of Jos^h^ 
when making lumself known to hik family, be presented to his 
younger and fiivourite brother three hundred pieces of silverg. 

Though gold was known at that early period, and its value 
highly estimated, we find no intimation which can lead to the io- 
f«ence, that it performed the function of money, either by be- 
ing used as the common measure of value for other commodi- 
ties, or by being employed as tiie medium for exchanging one 
kind of goods for another. 

The author of the Book of Job, whether, as some have supi; 
posed, a cotemporary of Abraham, or, as others have thou^t, 
of adate some hundred years later, b one of the oldest writers. 
vhoee works have been transmitted entire to the present day. 
He was not only acquainted with gtdd and silver, but was aocu- 
mtely infonned ot the manner in which they were procured. 
" Surely," says he, " there is a vein fix the silver, and a plaoe 
for the gold where they fine it." He farther sUtes, <* that the^ 
■ Gene^ xli. t, ■)- Geuesia xsiiL 14, 15, an^ Iff. ' 

; Genesis xxsviii. 99. g G«ieri« slv. tS. 

Jccumulation of WeaUk with (he Hsirew Natim. 189 
earth hath dust of gold*." Tbougfa liviog in a countiy vhidi 
jields none of the predous metals^ Ij^ vas thus familiarly tc, 
quainted vidi the fact, that silver was found in veins, and gold 
CMamwily in Huall particles. 

Asnong the peo[^ with whom Job was conBected, aivee 
Beems to have passed from iisiid to hand hy weight, as money ; 
whilst gold was apjnopriated like the onyx, the sapphire, crys- 
tals, pearls, topazes, and odier jewels, as ornaments Cor the per- 
son. At the conclusion of that beautiful poem, the restored 
wealth of Job is reckoned up in cattle, not in money ; and 
dwu^ his viuters brought each a piece of motley^ probably sit- 
ver, yet each of them brought also an ear-ring of goldf. 

Of the AccumidatKm of the precious Metals, from iht most 

remote Jges to the establishment of the Imperial Government 

in Rome. 

There are no inUmation in the Sacred Writings (Hebrews) 
which afford any means of funning an estimate of the whole 
quantity of the precious metals which had been collected in the 
patriardbal days. We must, therefore, rest saUsfied with the 
scanty accounts with which they furnish, and proceed to later 
periods, when the relations of the several accumuli^ions are more 
frequoit, though not marked with any such prea^on as can 
inspire implicit confideoce. 

In the history of the reign of Solomon, as recorded in the 
Book of Kings and in the Chronicles, we find statements of the 
quantities of the precious metals used in the royal palace and the 
hoiy temple erected by that monarch. We read, that " he a\er~ 
laid the house within with pure gold : and he made a partitkm 
by the chains of gold before the oracle, and he overlaid the ora- 
cle with gold. And the whole house he overlaid with gold, until 
he had finished the whole house : also the whole altar, that was 
by the co-acle, be ova-laid with g<^d|." 

The quantity of gold which Solomon collected in a am^ 
year, is stated to be (1 Kings x. 14), six hundred threescore 
and ax taloits, or peihaps about L. 800,000 in value at the 
pcesent mmnent That with which he covered the sanctum 
sanctorum, at the same rate, would amount to above L. SSO,000. 
■ Job xlii. II. and^X f 1 Kngs vi M, 21, and K. 

t Job xxviii. 1 and S; also 15, 16, 17, 18, 19- 

110 Jccumtilation of Wealth wUh Ous Hebrew Nation, 
We learn from the Book of Kings*, ' that the king brought by 
his ^ips from Ophir four hundred and twenty talents of gold* 
or about L. 190,800. The Book of Chroniclesf represents the 
amount greater as four hundred and lifty talents, or L. S09,000, 
a difierence of no great moment, and one which, perhaps, a col- 
lation of manuscripts might reconcile. 

Without attempting to calculate the quan^ty of metallic trea- 
sure heaped up by Solomon, we may best describe it in the lan- 
guage of his day. We read that " his throne was of ivory, 
overlaid with the best gold ; that all the drinking vessels were of 
gtild ; that all the vessels of the forest of T^banon were of pure 
gold : none were of alver, for (hat metal wqs nothing accounted 
oi in the days of Solomon C and, in short, " the king made silver 
to be as stones in Jerusalem ■fT 

After this short intimation of the store of silver and gold ac- 
cumulated by the Hebrew nation, it may be now proper to defer, 
to another branch of the subject, the consideration of the way 
in which such a store of the precious metats may probably have 
been collected under the reign of Solomon. 

In proceeding from the sacred to the profane writers of an- 
tiquity, the reader is naturally in some degree surprised at the 
credulity, or at least apparent credulity, with which the most 
extraordinary and improbable tales are narrated. This is most 
remarkable in Herodotus and Diodorus, who fire yet far from 
unworthy of confidence, where nothing supernatural is concerned. 
The Greek and Roman writers relate prodi^pes, which, at this 
day, we know not whether to attribute to their own credulity, 
or to that of the community for which they composed their 
works. In either case it does not render them utterly un- 
worthy of credit, nor destroy their testimony in matter of his- 
tory, of geography, of manners, of laws, or of government 

llie history pf all ancient nations is filled with prodi^es 
which are no longer believed ; but if, on that account, their 
authority on other subjects be discarded, it will become impos- 
eible to trace the progress of mankind through the several stages 
of society, from the most rude to the most civilized state. It 
is scarcely two centuries since in every part of Europe, with all 
the knowledge and civilization which had been imbibed, the 
' 1 Kings X. 29. t Chronicles viii. IB. 4 Kii^ x. 


Accumulations in Syria and Pertia. 141 

belief in demoniacal possewions, in the power of witches and 
fairies, and in spectral appearances, universally prevailed. It 
wotild be unjust to the memory of the historiansaod cbronicl^^ 
of that and the preceiUng ages, to reject their testimony, because 
they believed in supernatural events and appearances, which 
- have lost all hold upon the present race, except among the most 
igtHirBnt of the vulgar. 

If, in extracting from the wiiungs of antiquity what relates 
m<H« immediately to the subject of. our inquiry, it should occa- 
sionaliy appear that incredible events are related, the aound 
judgment of the reader will enable him to s^iarate the facts from 
the fictions in which they may be enveloped ; and he may fiad 
€imusemeat, if not iiiatruction, in observing the great credulity 
of the eminent men of antiquity, and in comparing thar habits 
of investigation and discrimination with those of the ablest 
writers of their own age and country. 

Atayria and Persia. — It appears from the rehttions of IKodo- 
rus, that large masses of gold and silver had been collected to- 
gether by NinuB, the founder of Nineveh, " who possessed him- 
sdf of all the treasures of Bactriana, among which there was 
abundance of gold and silver*.^ From the same writer we 
learn that Seiniramb, the wife of Belus, and the successcu' to his 
dominion, who built the city of Babylon, among other stupen- 
dous and almost incredibly magnificent works, erected in that 
rity a temple to Jupiter, or Belu^ ; *' upon which were placed 
the statues of Jupiter, of Juno, and of Rhea, all of beatea gold. 
That of Jupiter was standing upright, was forty feet in height, 
and weighed a thousand Babylonian talents. That of Bhea 
was of the same height, sitting on a throne of gold, having a 
lion on each side of her, and ooe at her knee; and near them 
two vastly- large serpents of silver, weighing.30 talents. The 
statue of Judo was in an erect posture, and wei^d 800 talents. 
An altar was erected for their deities of beaten gold, 40 feet 
tcHig and 15 broad, weighing 500 talents, upon which were 
two cups, each of them weighing 30 talents, and near to them 
aa many censers, weighing SOD talents. There were also three 
drinking vases of gold, the largest pf which was dedicated to 

, ' IKodorufi, book U. cap. !• 



149 Accumulaiuma in Syria and Peraia. 

Jupiter, weighing 1800 talent^ and the otber two 600 ulents 

As DIodorUB wrote in the Greek language, it is probable be 
adopted the weight of that country, according to which the 
value of this mass of gold, aa calculated by the Abb^ Barthde- 
my, would amount in our money to about L.11,000,000 Ster- 
Ung ; whilst others estimate it at samewhat less, a difference, 
however, searcely worth investigating. It is itnposnble not to 
m^wct the statanent here ^ven of atnne exa^eratimi, though 
we may be induced to brieve that a large quantity of the pre- 
dous metals had been collected at that early period ; but the 
exactness of the quantity must be a subject of doubt, when it 
is conndered that Diodorus wrote near two thousand years after 
the evaits he relates, and in an age when written records must 
have been both rare and of doubtful authenticity. The pro- 
bability of an accumulation of gold to a great extent in Baby- 
lon, is strengthened by the narrative in the book of Daniel, of 
the great size of the image of gold erected by Nebuchadnezzar, 
on the plain of Dura, near that city. 

There is an appearance of authenticity and of accuracy in the 
account given by Herodotus of the tribute of gold and stiver 
which Darius Hystaspes, king of Perna, about 180 years be* 
fore Christ, drew from the several provinces, into which, after 
completing his conquests, he divided his extendve dominions. 
The amount supfdied by each province is stated, and, whether 
paid in silver or gold, " the aggregate sum," he says, " will 
be found to be 9880 talents in silver, and estimating the gold at 
thirteen times the value of the nlver; there will be found, ac- 
cording to the Eubfflc talent, 4680 of these talents. The whole 
bang estimated together, it will appear, thai the annual tribute 
paid to Darius wag 14,fi60 talente f .■" 

This treasure is estimated by Gibbon and by Rennel, to be 
equivalent to about L. 8,860,000 Sterling. According to the 
inference of the former writer, drawn from the same authority, 
in book i. cap. 198, this revenue was the surplus, after the 
expenses of the maintenance of the army, and of the provincial 
administratioD, had been discharged. This quantity of gold and 

' Dlodonw, book ii cap. 1. + Herodotus, book ilL wip. 96. 


Accuvuilationx M Syria and Periia. 143 

dver, was probably that which became the property of the mo- 
narch, fomuDg s kind of reserve stock, to meet unforeseen con- 

We find in another passage in Herodotus, a description of 
the manner in which the treasure so collected was [reserved in 
the- royal remdence. " The gold and nlver wfere melted and 
poured into earthen vessels, and the«e when filled were re- 
moved, leaving the metal va a solid mass ; when any was wanted, 
a {Hece was bn^ten off, of the capacity which the occadon re. 
quired •." 

It seemed, as far as r^arded Darius, to be the practice to cmn 
no TOOK QiAA or alver than was needed to conduct the commerce, 
and to defray the expenses of the state "f*, which at that period 
could not be of any large amount, tnm. the paudty of com- 
modities, which were the subjects of exchange, and from the 
low prices which all the necessaries and conveniencies of life 

It Ib not improbable that this reserve fund was carefully kept 
from circulation by hoarding, as a preparation for the grand 
camp^gn against the Greeks, which must have formed a part 
of the wariikc operations projected by the Persian monarch and 
lus miniBters. We learn that Xerxes took with him into the 
field so much money and valuable e&ects, as formed loading for 
1200 camels X i and, upon the disastrous events which attended 
his invamon, was under the necessity oS distributing so large sums 
to the mercenary troops which had acoompairied him to the field, 
that Sparta alone received from him 5000 talents §. 

Darius coined peces of gold of great purity, which obtained 
the name of Dorics : th^ were about the value of twenty-five 
shillings of our present money. The name Dane was at subse- 
quent periods, however, given generally to all gold coins which 
contuned but little alloy, and thus indicating the purity of the 
metal, rather than the weight of the piece. The darics of this 
coinage, were few in number, and contracted in circulation, or 
more of them would have been handed down to posterity. It 
is Bud, there are but two now known to exist, one of which is 
in the collection of Lord Pembroke. The figure of an archer is 

* Herodotui, book iii. cap. 96. -f- Strabo, book zr. p. M& 

J Demosth. tie Sjmm. g leocrat. Ikju/h S8. 

144 Afcumultaion» in St/tw and Pertm. 

stamped oil' it, which gave riie to tat snoent wittirasai, ^t may 

be worth relatiog. 

Agesikus, king of Sparta, received from Darius a bribe of 
~8(S000 dancs to wkbdraw from the other Grecian states with 
wbota he wafr in allioDce. Being reproaebed for his tresehery, be 
idelended Iiiiaself) by asserting that his operations had been sus. 
prided, owing to bift having been defeated by 80^000 arcbers. 
' Grace. — ^Tbe wealth of Croesus, king of Lydia, 4ho lived 
about 540 years before Christ, has becone proverbUl ; and, 
though no precise communicatioi) of the extent of it has been 
handed down, we may form some esumate of it, by the munili- 
cent present be made to the temple of Delphi, as related by 
HdrodotuB *, and Diodorus'f-, amounting to 4000 talents of siU 
ver, and 370 talents of gold, or near L. 3,000,000 in value of 
our HToney. 

We find in Herodotus a story illustrative both of Ihe wealth 
of this king, and of the manners of his time. When Croesus 
sMit bis Lydians &om Sardis to consult the oracle at Delphi, 
tbey were raoeived with hoapitality by the family of the Alc- 
BMSonidK at' Athens, and, on their return, acquainted tb^r 
master with the kindnaae they had experienced. A member of 
that fnaily reoeived on iovitBtJon to visit Crcesus, aw} on bis 
arrival was presented with as much gcJd as he was aUe to ear- 
ly^. " To improve ^ value of the gift, Alcmieon made use 
of the following urdfice : Provtdng biraself with a large tunic, 
in .which were many foMs, and «4tb the most capaeioua buskins 
be could procure, be flawed his gfiide to the royal treasury ; 
there rolling himself among the gdden ingots, he first sitified 
luB buskins as full c^ gold a« he pasailily conkl ; he then filled all 
the folds of his rabest his hair, and even bia moulh, widi gold 
dust. Tbie-don^ with extreme difficulty be staggored fmm the 
place; and from awdling mouthy and projections' all anrand 
faim, resembling cny ihtng ruber^han a Dttm.- When Croesus 
sairhim be burst into laugbta-, and imt only su^red him to 
flarry away all that ha had got, but added tO' it other presents 
equ^y vthidtde. The fanaly from this cinumst^e b^eame 
exeefldingly affluent, and Alcmseoo was enabled to pracure and 

■ B. i. c ea t WodoruB, b. xvi. c 56- . $ Herodotus, b. vL e. 105. 


Accamuiathtu of Gold and Silver in Greece. 145 

muntain those horses which guned him tbe victory in the 
Olymfnc games." 

Whatever may have been the real wealth of Cnegus, it would 
appear that gold must have been of very high value in Athens, 
when such a load as an individual could carry about his person, 
in the way here described, could be sufficient to form the founda- 
tion of the fortunes of one c^ t he aristocratical families c^ that state. 

Pytheus, king of the petty toritory of Celeena in Phry^a, 
has been celebrated for his wealth. According to Herodotus, 
he was a native of Lydia« but according to Pliny, of Bithynia ; 
and it docs not appear in what manner he became posaeesed cf 
the rich territory he ruled. It is related of this roan by Hero- 
dotus, tliat, " when Xerxes invaded Greece sixmt 470 years be- 
fore Christ, he entertuned that monarch and bis wholG army 
with great magnificence ; and being asked the lunount of his 
wealth, replied to Xerxes, I conceal nothing from you, and will 
not affect ignorance, but faidy tell you the whole. As soon as 
I heard of your approach to the Grecian Sea, I was desirous of 
giving you money for the war. On examining into the state of 
vay a&irs, I found I was possessed of SOOO talents of silver, 
and 4,000,000, wanting only 7000 staters of gold of Darius ; 
AU tbii I give to you ; my slaves and my &rms will be sufficj^t 
to maintain me." According to the estim^e f^ Larcher, an 
able French criuc, ti^ metallic treasures of this man, the ruler 
of a sniaU tenitory, but the pn^Hnetor of ri(^ mines of nlver, 
anomted t» L. 6^000,000 of ourpr^ent money. 

A long account oi tins man has be«i collected by Larcher, 
diidy fmn the work of Plutamh, " De Virtutibus Mulierum.^ 
It narratea the matures taken by his wife to cure him of that 
pasaon for seeking gold, to which the lives (^ his suli^ects were 
Eacrifieed, and by which a want of sufficient food for subsistMce 
NDSB caused. As the stony has been frequently told, and must 
be faniUav to most readers,, we may di^>«iie with the relation 
of it. The application of the hixati ot all the inhabitants to 
the searcfaing toTy and purifying gold, caused such distress for 
SeoA, that at length Fytbeua was induced to direct, that only 
one-fiiUi, instead of the whole, (^ the citizens should ia future be 
compelled to devote themselv^ to those (^rations. 

Xhe story of Pytheus is important to one of the objects of 
the present ioqmry, inasmuch as it ^ows, as far as it regards 

VOL. XIII. NO. XXV.— JULY 1,838. K 

146 Jcci.muiattons ofGcid and Silver in Greece. 

the particular case, that the acquisiticm <rf gold and silver was 

only to be obtained, in that remote period, bj the mines being 

in the hands of severe as well aa arbitrary despots, who spared 

neither the enjoyments, the labour, nor even the Uvea, of thar 

subjects, in the eager pursuit afler the metallic riches of their 


It does not appear that the free states of Greece possessed a 
st^ffe of gold and silver, equal to that acquired by these absolute 
rulers of smaller porli(5ns of territory. When Pericles*, in 
ordar to animate the Athenians, in their defence against the 
Peloponnesiaos, about the year 431 befme Christ, addressed 
them, he stated the amount of the money then in the citadel to 
beL.1,162,250; and, in addition to that, the gold in the sta- 
tue of Minerva, which must be replaced if appropriated to the 
public service, to amount to L.1S4,800. The revenues de- 
rived from the tributary states, amoimted annually to the sum 
of L. 116,250, and more than L. 700,000 had been expended 
in improving the public worica f-. 

The mass of the preaous metals brought from the eastern to 
the western world by Alexander, must have been enormous, 
though much of that captured was expended in the sutyugated 
countries, and in those which were between them and Greece. 
The accounts of historians are probably exaggerated ; but what- 
ever allowance may be made lor such a practice wliidi was too 
common with the ancients, ve must be convinced from tbe nu- 
merous authorities * wluch bear testimony to the facts, and cor- 
roborate each other, that the accumulation in the hands of indivi- 
dual monarchs and states, was much greater about the time t^ 
the establishment of the full power of the Roman emjure, than 
any subsequent period. 

The treasures acquired by Alexander in Susa and Peraa, 
exclusive of those which were found in the Pernan camp and 
in Babylon, are stated by the authors above referred to and 
others, by some at 40,000, by othns at 60,000 talents. The trea- 
sure of Feisepcdis is rated at 1^,000 talenu ; that of Pasagarda 
at 6000 ; and upon the capture of Ecbatana, according to the 

* Thucjdides' Peloponnedan War, book II. 

t The auma here stated are taken Moording to the cakulalion of Dean 
Smith, the teamed tranalatoc of Thuqrdide*. 

t Stnbo, Gift, p. U> — krOta, iii. 3. Juitin. si. J4, and Plutarch, Tit. 

Accumulatunts of Gold and Silver in Greece. 147 

account preserved in Strabo, 180,000 talents are sud to have 
been collected from tbence, besides 6000 talents which Darius 
had with him, which were taken by the murderers. 

Alexander's profuse expenditure, which his flatterers called 
generosity, was in accordance with the vast sums he seems to 
have acquired. He gave'great rewards to his soldiers, and paid 
their debts, amountiDg to 9800 talenta. He presented to the 
Thessaliaus SOOO talents. The funeral of Hephfestion is said 
to have cost 12,000 talents, and the researches in natural 
history, for the work of Arialotle, 800 talents. The wealth of 
his satraps waa also enormous. Harpalus, one of them, is said to 
have amassed €0,000 talents, although, when at Athens, he 
denied the possession of more than 950. The successors of 
Alexander also collected large sums ; thou^, by their exten»ve 
and fierce wars, the greater part was dis^pated. 

In PolybiuB is found a description of Ecbatana, at a'period 
subsequent to the capture of that place by Alexander, and af- 
terwards in the reigns of Antigonus and Seleucus. 

"The magnificence of the palace," he says, " was such in every 
part as to give a high idea of the power and wealth of those by 
whom it had been erected ; for though the wood was all cypress 
or cedar, no part of it was left naked ; yet the beams, the roofs, 
and the [Hilars that supported the porticoes and peristyles, were 
all covered with plates, some of silver, and some of gold. The 
tiles, likewise, were all of silver. Though the place had been 
three times plundered by those we have named before Antiochus 
arrived, there was still remaining, in the reign of Ena, some pil- 
lars cased with gold, and a large quantity of silver tiles, laid 
together in a heap. There were also some few wedges of gold, 
and a much greater number of silver, l^ese were coined into 
money, and amounted to the sum of about 5000 talents *." 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, the second king of Egypt after Alex- 
ander, IS stated by Appian, upon the authority of official docu- 
ments, to have possessed treasure to the enormous amount of 
740,000 talents; eiUier Soman talents, or the small Ptolemaic 
talent. If Roman talents, which were about equal to the Attic 
talent, be rendered into money of the present day, it will give 
the amount as 178,000,000. If the smaller talent, which seems 
moat correct, be taken, it will amount to at least one-quarter of 
" PoJybiua, bout v, cap. B.— HisU Eoni, Proem. 10. 

148 AccuBiuliaions of' Gold and Silver in Rome. 

that sum. Though an account of this kind niaj appear exa^ 
geivted, yet there seems no reason to doubt its gaieral veracity. 
The revenues of the Ftolomies were exccBsively lar^, and the 
countries over which thdr dominions extended were, by the col- 
lections, conif^etely drained of all their wrought gold and al- 
ver ; and the tributes were collected by the farmers of the re- 
venue, with the asEaatance of an armed force, composed not of 
regular soldiers, but of organized bands of robbers. Some idea 
of the degree of ra^iatnty in extracting revenues under Ftolcany, 
may be tbrmed by comparing the tribute drawn from the pro- 
vinces of Ccelesyna, Palestine, and Samaria, under Cyrus, as 
given by Herodotua, and that extorted by the successes of 
Alexander, aa.given by Josephus. At the time of Cyrus, the 
island (/ Cyprus was included in the province of Coelesyria ; 
but in the time of Ptolemy, was separated from it. In the first 
instance, the tribute paid was 350 talents *. In the latter in- 
sUnce, it was farmed to Eveigetee fur 8000 talents ; but if the 
taxes were farmed by a Jew, he was to pay double that amount, 
and,, moreover, supply to the royal treasury the mcmey required 
to redeem the confiscated goods of such persons as had not paid 
their taxes f. 

During the period of the Macedonian empire, the predous 
metals were spread in great abundance over the whole eastern 
shores of the Mediterranean ; and if there had not been a very 
large portion of them hoarded up in the royal treasury, th^ 
value must Have fallen much lower, in comparison with other 
commodities, than was actually the case %. 

The Romans. — The extension of the Roman emigre, until it 
comprehended almost the whole of the known world, if it tended 
to diminish the production of the predous metals, powaf uUy at- 
tracted them, from Aaa and Africa, to its own metropolis. It 
is thus that the enormous fm-tuoes of individuals, which are re- 
lated by historians, are not to be accounted for. The descrip- 
tions of such fortunes, it is true, are niri confined to their mere 
metallic wealth, but mclude their lands, houses, slaves, and fur- 
niture, and also money lent at interest on mortgages or othft 

■Herodotus, bo«k ill. cap. 89. -|- Jo«ephu> Aatiq. Jnd. xiL ^ 

:; See, on thia niltject, the valuable German wsi^ of Frdbnar Boetkb, ». 
titled, " Staatduudultiu^ dei Atbener," an excellent trsMdatiott of which 
waa publiBbed in 1828, under the title of "Public Ecoiunn^ of Athens." 

Accumulations of Gold and SUver itt Rome. 149 

sAmritieB. But unless ttie metallic wealth had increased in it 
prodi^ua degree, tliat remarkable nee in the prices of other 
commodities could not have been espenenced/vhich is noticed 
by all writers. As, among other instances, we know that the 
hoHse of Marhis *, at Misenutn, was purdiased by Cornelia fm 
75,000 drachmas "f-, and a few years after sold to Luctillus for 
SOO,SOO drachmas J. The fortunes of private individuals itiay 
be judged of by a few select notices to be found in contemporary 
autbors. Crassus is said to have possessed, in lands, bismillies §, 
beades money, slaves, and household furniture, estimated at as 
much more ||. Seneca is related to have possessed termillies'llf. 
PaHas, (he freedman of Claudius, an equal sum. Lentuhis, 
the augur, quatermilhes* *, C.C. Claudius Indorus, aldiou^ 
he had lost a great part of his fortune in the dvil wars, left, by 
his will, 4116 slaves, 3600 yoke of oxen, 357,000 head of other 
cattle, and, in ready money, H. S, sex cendes *{■ *|'. 

The emperors were possessed of wealth in a proportion com- 
mensurate with th«r superior rank and power. Augustus ob- 
tained, by the testamentary dispositions of his friends, quater- 
decies millies ^ X- Tiberius left at his death vigeaes a septies mil- 
lies § §, which Caligula lavished away ia a single year. 

The expenses of the government, and the debts atid credits of 
the most' eminent individuals, seem to have been on the same 
colossal scale. Vespasian, at his accession, estimated the mo- 

•Plutudi in Mario. t L. 2421 ; IT : 6 Sterling. 

f 1. 16,152 : 6 1 10 Sterling. 5 L. 1,614,588 : 6 : 8 Sterling. 

II Though Craasui had leveral silver mines, and estates of great value, 
wbich were profitablj msnaged, jet bis revenues from tbote lourcea are re. 
jtresented u inconuderable, when compared with those be derived from hii 
slsveB. He bad a lai^ number of tbem, whom be educated, who were taught 
to bennne cMden, amanueusea, book-keepers, gtewards, and cooks- Betddee 
thli, he made uitereit of bia juoney, at a high rate^ receiving for tile use of 
it one pec cent, at the end of each month. It ia recorded, aa a saving of fail, 
'" that no man could be accounted rich who was not able to maintam an array 
out of bis own Tevenuea." It would seem, that when he was desirous to form 
Bpowerftil parkin the state, be could be occaaionHlly as pnfUse as bs was 
habitually araridous; fiK on one occaedon he gave an entertainment to the 
populace, wbo were seated at 10,000 tables, and at another time gave tbem a 
supply cf bread-com ftr three months.— Plulardi, life of M. Crassus. 

-^ I. 9jMt,eTfi' SterUng. • • L. 9,SS»,ies SteiUng. 

'- -H- I- M4,S7I» Sterling. *$ L. 3S^1,««6 SterUng. 

%%U%l,1W,97i Sterling. 

150 Jccumtdalwms of Gold and Silver in Rome. 

ney .which the muDtenance of the oommonwcalth required at 


The debts of Milo amounted to H. 6. septengenties *. Ju- 
lius CKsar, before he held any ofljce, owed 1300 talents. When, 
after his prsetorship, he set out for Spain, he ib reported to have 
said, "Bis miilieR et quingenties sibi deesse, ut luhil haberet;" 
that IK, that be was L. S,0018,000 worse than nothing. Wbeohe 
6rst entered Rome, at the beginning of the dvil war, he to(^ 
out of the treasury to the amount of L. 1,095,000 Sterlifig, and 
brought into it, at the end of that war, L. 4,84d,000. He is 
reported to have purchased the friendship of Curio, at the torn- 
mencement of the civil contests, by a bribe of L. 484370 ; and 
that of the Consul L. Paulus, the colleague of Marcellus, by 
one of L. 879,600 f. 

Anthony, on the ides of March, when Cssar was killed, owed 
L. 320,000, which he p^d before the kalends of April, and 
squandered of the public money more than L. 5,600,000 J. 

Many other instances might be found of vast masses of wealth 
bdng coUected, of' large debts being contracted, and of prodi< 
g^us sums being expended, either on public occasions, or in pri- 
vate indulgences of the dress, the tables, or the furniture of the 
Homans, just after the acquisition of universal empire. At that 
period the treasure, whit^ had been acquired by rawquest, had 
not been generally in the hands of numerous individuals, nor 
hud much of it been consumed by the iricdon, which the prac* 
tice, soon after extended, of converting large quantities of it into 
wrined money, necessarily occasioned. — Jacob on the Predout 

On the Origin and Composition ofBasc^. 
Jqasalt, like granite, appears composed of several different 
minerals, and has not derived its existence from the fusion of 

■ L. 666,\0i sterling. 

t It U remarked by FUny (baokxxzUi. t^p-S), that the dty of Borne never 
possetsed so much money aa it the b^inning of the wu between Ceaar and 

} See Adam^s Roman Antiquities, 9th edit. p. 461, from irtience, as &i ai 
r^arda Rome, the facts are selected, and where the evidence on whkh Mcli 
of them tests is pointed ouL 


On the Origin and Conpontion ofBauUt. 151 

granite or an; other known rock. With the view of testing in 
some d^ree the aannxj of this (^linioo, Leonhud requested 
of the celebrated chemist C. G. Gmelin, who has publi^ed so 
interesting an account of the compontion of Phonolite or Clink- 
stone, to examine basalt in the same manner as he had phonolite. 
Leonhard, in his great work oa Trap-rocks, now in the press, tells 
us that Gmelin readily agreed to undertake the analysis, and 
had ah^eady communicated to him the following examioatioa of 

Analysis of Basalt, by Professor C. G. Gmelin. 
The analysis was conducted in the same way as that of pho- 

SataU/ran Skltim, a Conical Baaaliic Rede in H^iw. 
100 pans of the gelatlnlzbig mus 100 putB of tbe not gelatinising 

SiUc% . . 


Silica, .... 




Lime, . . . 


Oxlduhted Iron, 


Hagnetia, . . 




iUiunliis, . . . 


lime, . . 


Oxide of Iron, . 


Stnmtiaa, . 


Oxide of Manganese, . 




Natron, . . 


PotMh, . . 


Water, • . 


Contents of U 

e analjEed Bwalt, . lO.lflS grains. 
..gelatinizing nan, . &2M 


Contents of the Basalt altogether, 

Silica, . . . . . . 40;64 

Alumina, 9.57 

Lim^ 14.0S 

Strontian, MfJ 

Blagueaia, lU? 

Oxidulated Iron, .... 13.SB 

Odde of Manganese, . . . 1.10 

Fotad), «^74 

Soda, S-Ol 

Wrter, 4.01 


IflS On Ag Origin tmd Comp^iitiiini^ BmoU. 

The mass which does not gdatmize yielda, when what ap- 
pears to be magnetic iron ii abstracted ham the oxidulated 

oxide of iron. 

Silica, 44.50 

Alumina, 1S.II6 

Ume, UM 

StrontlMi 0.14 

MagnMla, ...... ISM 

Soda, 4.06 

Potaib, 1.49 

Water, ai3 


This result does not agree precisely with that of any other 
mineral, with respect to the component parts, but it apjmMicfaes, 
in some measure, to atiorthite, a spedes of felspar disoovered by 
O. Rose. Anorthite is entirely decomposed by concentrated mu- 
riatic add. It likewise contains a considerable qiiantily of mag- 
neffla, but what particularly deserves notice is, that no other fos- 
sil containing much magnesia gelatinizes with acid. The quan< 
tity of silica and Ume in that part (^ basidt which gelatinizes 
with atnds, agrees completely with that contained in anor- 
thite. But, on the other hand, anorthite contains a far greater 
quantity of aluminous earth, considerably less magnesia, and no 
alkali. On the whole, it appears that that part of basalt which 
gelatinizes with acids, is the regular mass from which the vari- 
ous crystals are developed, that occur so frequently in basalt. 
For example, if is easy to perceive, that in cqnsequenoe of the 
disappearance of magnesia, Labrad<H- felspar, that universal com- 
ponent part of dolerite and syenite, as well as of many meteoric 
stones, stilbit so frequent in basalt, as well as chabasie, prehnite 
and arragonite, will be found in the niass. 

The portion whit^ does not gelatinize, has nearly the same 
component parts as augite - 

The analysis of basalffrom HdhenHofi^ln in Hegau is aol yet 
quite completed. The proportitm of the gelatioizing part to that 
which does not gelatinize is == 6>197;3.9[)3, and it deserves to 
be noticed, that it approaches very nearly to the basalt from 
Stetten. .... 


100 puts of the gdatimziiig porlun 

SUica, : . . . 




Oxidukted Chdde of Iron, 



Ume, .... 


K^pii^ . 


Soda, ... . 

Potoi, . . . 


Water, . . . 


Without doubt that part which does not gelatinise is completely 
anak^ua in its comporation to the basalt from Stetten, 

The geUtnous portion of basalt from Sternberg n«ar Uracb, 
has likewise the greatest aoali^ in its compontic^ with, the pr&> 
ceding. In this basalt the portion that gdatiniz^ is very re- 
niarkable: its proportion to that which does not gelatimze = 

100 parts of the gelatinizing mafis conusts of — 
Silica, 36.94 

Oxide of Inm, 
Oxide of MaDgeaese,, 





Bataitfrom the vicinity of Wezlar. 
This basalt exhibits a very distinct decompoation on its sur- 
face, coi^Bting of two to four lines of bluiah-grey, and whpre 
the decomponUon has proceeded farther, of a light ydlow co- 
lour. In tliis instance, the decomposed par^,. as wdl as that 
which is undecomposed, requires examination. Of the former, 
a part of that which w^ most wmpl^tely decomposed was. em- 
ployed. The princlptd result was anticipated, as might be ex? 
pected, namely, that the decomposition diminished the relative 
proportion of the gelatinizing mass. 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

154 On the Origin and CompotUien i^BaatM. 

The gelatiniring nuM in proportloii f The undecnmpoaed Banit, ws Ofl7,4T'l 
to tbst vbkb did uol gdatiniEe, ( Tke dMompond Biult, » D31,iai 

100 parts of the gelatiDizing mass ' of the uadecompc^ed ba- 
salt contains^ 

Sllicii, !&9 

Titamum, a63 

Alumina, . . . . 11.64 

Oxidulsted Oxide of Iron, . . . S&;» 
Oxide of Uuiganese, .... 0.21 ■ 

Lime, J.37 

Magaeaia, '..... 6.46 

Soda, S.87 

I^)U■h, ..'.... 1.fiO 

Water, e.n 

The portion which did not gelatinize exhibited a peculiar 
composition ; but the analysis must be repeated, as the loss is 
so considerable : — 

Silica, 6&65 

A^iifninaj ...... 1^.16 

Oxide of Iron, . . . . ' . 3.99 

Ume, li.66 

Hagneda, . ... 3.91 

Soda, . 3.17 

Potasb 3.13 


The quantity of alkali is remarkable, and it might be sup- 
posed that it was acquired in consequence of the silica in the ge- 
latinizing portion being separated from that which did not gela- 
tinize by Uie carbonate of potash ; but that cannot be the case, 
because the powder was first of all acted upon by diluted muzia- 
tic add, and then carefully washed. 

The result of the investigation of the decomposed mass was, 
that the quantity of silica, titanium, lime, magneua, and the al- 
kalis was diminished, while that of the oxide of iron was ctm- 
dderably increased. 

Chrome has been found in all analyzed basalt ; without doubt 
it is contained in olivine, and perhaps the chromate of iron is 


On the Origin and Compotition ofBoiaU. 155 

likewise to be found; ProfeGSor Bugec^ajger of Freybutg hu 
long nnce diKoveivd t^utvne by means of die blowpipe. 

Nothing was discovered, after repeated experisiaits with mu- 
riatic acid, nor with sulj^unc acid. Lithia has not been dis> 
covered. Strontian was by no means always found ; but it was 
detndedly discovered in the basalt from Stetten. 

On the Chimera Jnimalcule. 

Ii: is a very generally diffused opinion, although suppcnted by 
no poative facts, that those animated creatures belonging to the 
lowest classes to which, on account of their minuteness, the 
name of Microscope Animalcules has been given, are formed by 
the simple aggregation of the so-called orgiuiic molecules ; and 
Dr Hermann has endeavtmred to explain the OHitagious nature 
of chcJera upon this supposition. As umilar views have been 
more than once suggested, and it is to be feared that their plau- 
sbility may gain for them a more extended credence; the o|h- 
nioQ of a naturalist deeply versed in microscopic inquiries, and 
who has personally observed the oriental plague, a disease not 
^similar in some of its characters to cholera, merits conuder^ 
tioD. Professor Ehrenberg, in a late furtive jnece, has express- 
ed himself in the following terms upon this subject. 

To the doctrine of the umilaritj of the contagion of plague 
and of cholera, is connected with another wbich has lately found 
its way into the public journals, and which is merely a revival <^ 
the old and antiquated idea of small invisible insects which ge- 
nerate this contagion by thar irritatiim, poison, &c., and propa- 
gate it by their increase and migrations. Similar stories are to 
be found in the traditi<Mi8 of various people as well as those of 
the poisonous look of some human faces, of the dragon, c^ 
witches, magicians, the second sight, &c., formerly so seriously 
believed, but now only tbou^t ridiculous. Linn^, the great 
rrfonna- of natural histOTy, first took this fabulous animalcule 
into the domain of natural history, pr<^bly anlj widi the 
view of directing the attention of naturalists to the suljecL 

:, Google 

166 On theChdera JtUmalaile. 

It was Baid to be the csuee of the pestilential blisters of the 
Gulf of Bothnia. He gave it the Termiform shape, and the 
yellow colour of northern tradition, and conferred on it the 
scientific name, more ndicuknis than formidable, of the Infernal 
Vurj {Furia infentdHs). Before diat, at the time of the plague 
at MarseilteB in 1731, the contagion had been ascribed to small 
infusory'like winged or mitelike, yet invisible, animals ; and at 
the time there appeared in the French language many treatises, 
which must now appear absurd to every well-informed per- 
son. One of these, printed anonymously in 1726, to push the 
matter still farther, deduces all diseases from these animalcules, 
which are designated by the fc^owing name : VerM agtovpiaians, 
court de ventritteSf barbon qu^umt, douifiang, erect^, jiitu- 
lairet lacrymaar,_fleuistes iflancs! The traditicm of the Lin- 
nean Furia still remains in Finland, where the anthrax is oom- 
tnon ; and, in Siberia, I found, in 18S9, on my journey with 
BartHi von Humboldt, a ramilar tradition regarding the cause of 
the Siberian pestilential boil, only that it was ascribed to flying 
ita^ insects, without, however, one of them ever having been 
esacUy characterised or even taken. Although we passed 
through many places infested with the pest, and I neglected no 
opportunity of learning the causes of the disease, I found no 
trace of this insect 

. A nmilftr tradition gave rise to the questiim which was put 
to Dr Hemi»ich and myself, in the year 18S3, by the Pacha o£ 
Egypt, whether it was true that, in Dongala, there were flying 
teorjnons which produced mortal wounds, for the troops refused 
to march there, having already sufiered much from those with- 
out wings. As during my natural history researches for nine 
months in Dongola, I had found nothing which justified this 
bdief, except the troublesome small mosquitoes, which were 
Deither p«»sonous, nor scorjHons, the mind c^ the Pacha was set 
at ease. 

As was to be expected, the same idea of invinble poisonous 
insects was transferred to the contagion of cholera ; yet it is 
hardly credible that Hahnemann, as stated in the Xi^pzic Jour- 
nal, should have for this reastm recommended the sedative ef- 
fects of camphor, because it killed these insects, and so es< 
pelled the cholera. 


On ike Chol^a An^aktde. 157 

I have, rtH" many years, made these minutefit of orgamc bo- 
dies the subject of my particuiar inquiries, aud have for th^t 
purpose employed the best instrumeuts. But none before me, 
nor have I myself, ever succeeded in finding in the air these 
small bodies to which tradition had given a real existence. I 
must, therefore, warn medical men from modes of treatment of 
cholera founded upon this principle, for no naturalist has yet 
observed these animalcules. I have never observed these ani' 
malcules under the microscope, at the time of the plague in 
Egypt and Sib^ia ; and previous to my African journey, in the 
Hospital of the Charite at Berlin, I had examined with the mi- 
croscope many contagious cutaneous eruptions, iritbout having 
ever seen them. While, by the most rigorous microscopic ac^ 
curacy, I have made the angular discovery, that infusory ani- 
malcules, from |th to D^egtb of a line in size, possess an orga- 
nization similar to many of the higher animsls, and have de- 
monstrated their propagaUoa by eggs and internal organs 
which are leas than jgioi^th of a line, or irsVaa^'i '^ ^'^ i^uJi 
in diameter, and are yet disUnctly visible. 

What must, then, be the size of the pest or cholera animal- 
cules, or cours de venlrietes, if they were not discernible by 
such instruments .■' The (pinion is to be classed in the same ru- 
bric with the traditions and hypotheses of dragons, &c., and has 
at least been con&rmed by the experience of no credible natunu 

According to the observations of Professor Ehrenberg, the 
so called " Priestley^s Matter,^ when it is not formed by real 
animals of a very different form, was by algas ; and particularly 
when it appears as a pellicle or cuticle, is the result of putrefac- 
tiw), and only CDnsists of the dead bodies of infusoria. It is 
therefore not the commencement of new formations, but the re. 
mains of dead organic genenitionaL 


I 138 ) 

On the CrystaMization of Ice, and of Vdns of Ice in Ice. By 
Professor Hessel. 

r o& some time past I have been occupied with observations oa 
the difierent forms of crystallization. The crystalHzation of 
water under certun condition^ induced by artifidal means, 
formed also the subject of my inquiries. I shall here briefly 
detail one of my experiments, which I have repeated frequently 
of late, as I reckon it not unimportant for the doctrine of veins, 
whose different modes c^ origin can, in my opinion, only be sa- 
tiefuctonly expltuned by collecting as many examples as posfflhle 
of the formation of veins and vein-like masses since the commence- 
ment of historical epochs. So that we have then only to inquire 
whether this or the other vein, or assemblage of veins, bears most 
resemblance to lava-vdns in lava, to veins which may be gihi- 
odered as canals filled up by mineral springs of some sort or 
other, to fissures filled by subfimations, to fissures which have 
been the outlets for alternate streams of fluid or elastic matters, 
and which have been gradually closed by the deporation of solid 
matters, or to fissures which have been filled by infiltration from 
above,. &c. ; or whether these veins are to be viejved as the result 
of the contemporaneous congelation (crystallization) of two or 
more heterogeneous masses, one of which has filled fissures in 
the other, but which have never been in reality open. 

Upon this supposition every experiment on the ori^n of vein- 
bke mas^, however insignificant it may appear, nmst be con- 
odered as an augmentation of our resources for the elucidation 
of the origin of those veins which have not been observed by 
man, so that this communication is of interest not merely to the 
crystallographer hut also to the geognost. 

I set aside, in a warm room, a mixture of fine cUy and wata-, 
in which the latter was scmiewhat in excess, so that the thin mud 
could be easily stirred about with a fine hair-brush. Upon 
resting for some time it divided into two portions, the under- 
most of which connsted of moist clay, and the upper and least 
Gon^derable of clear water. During the cold days which we 
had in December (5° — 10° F.), I exposed the mixture aBer 
notation to cryatallizaticHi or freezing. Crystallizatioii did not 


Prafessw Hesse] on the Crystallization of' Ice, Ssc. 159 
take place till the mass hod returned to the state of re«t, but 
before the separation took piece between the clay and the water. 
The gtnicture of the frozen mass vaiied in different experi- 
ments. In every case, however, frozen mud and frozen clear 
water could be distinguished from eadi other. But the tatter 
did not occur as a stratum at die upper J)art of the mass, but 
was distributed through the substance of the frozen mud, 

1. The most common appearaoce was like that of sm^l 
quartz veins traverdng in different directioos a siliceous slate. 
The same as in hand specimens of siliceous slate, when two of 
the quartz veins meet one another, they traverse one another, 
slnft one uiother, or mutually cut each other off, Sec. was otv 
served distinctly in the present instance. The principle that 
the travernng vein is newer than the one traversed, could not be 
easily demonstrated to be correct in these ice vrins in the frozen 
mud ; nor could the idea of the contemponuteous formation of 
v^ns with the surrounding rock be admitted as unconditionally 
correct In these ice veins there was apparently a real cutting 
across cS one vein by another, so that the traversed vein be- 
yond the traversing pursued its original course, or was diverted 
somewhat from its portion, but more fi^uently one was com- 
pletely cut off by the other. Often we cmild suppose a true 
wed^ng out of such a van without a previously existing empty 
lissure [ffomoting its formation. 

S. Often the water-ice was distributed through the frozen 
' mud Uke the quartz in the fdspar of grap^ granite. The 
surface formed by cutting and polishing exhilnUng, like the 
latter Hebriuc, Arabic, and Chinese characters ; and these were 
still more characterised on die dark surface of the mud, than the 
greyish-white quartz on the whitish felspar. 

S. Another mode of distribution of the water-ice in the frozen 
mud, was its forming vertical plates, which were so grouped 
that the surface of the mass of mud on its middle section, re> 
gembled a concentrically radiated crystalline mass, the rays di- 
verging from the centre outwards. Several of these groups of 
rays were observed. Each ray projected to a coouderable height 
above the surface of the mud. 

During the formation of the veins, I sometimes observed also 
that of hollow spaces. These were endowd by three or more 

_ t;ooKlc 

160 Mr Wilson on the Introduction qf 

ice veins, which' peoetmted obKqudy downwards, psrtly to the 
Jtiottom of '^ vessel; they had a l^eadth of from half to three 
quarters of an va/Sd, and were quite empty of the froEOi mud. ' 
The frozen mud, separated as much aa possible from tbe 
tnmspareni ice, gave, when thawed, a mtrist mud, so that crys- 
tallisation had {Hoduced no more ctunplete separatioD than sim- 
ple rest ; but die ordinary separation of the water fnxu the mud 
was produced in a much shorter time than by the mere (^ra- 
tion of specific gravity in the mechanical mixture. 

With regard to the causes of the three different appearances 
that I have enumerated, they appear to me to depend upon 
differences in the excess of water in the mud, on the tempera:. 
ture of the mass before it is exposed to congelation (sometimes 

bmlpg water was used), and especially the rajMdity of tbe an- 

geUtioD. Farther I can give no explanation. 

Account of the Introduction qfthe Wood-Grouse or CapercaHiae 
{Tetrao UrogaBui) to the Forttt ofBraemar, By Jahes 
Wilson, Esq. F.R.S.E., M.W.S., &c. Communicated by 
the Author. 

The almost recent extinction in Britain of the largest European 
bird of the gallinaceous order, is a remarkable fact in the geo- 
graphical hbtory of the species. Its rein trod uction is also a 
circumstance of sufficient interest to deserve a det^ed record. 

The wood-grouse or capercailzie, was formerly a well-knowa 
and frequent inhabitant of the Scottish forests. It still occurs 
in con»deraUe abundance among the wooded and alpine dis- 
tricts of Europe, especially in Scandinavia. It is rare in France, 
well-knowD in (Jermany, not unfrequent in Switzerland. It 
spreads through Rus^ into Siberia, and is very numerous in 
several distticts of the north of Asia. It seems always to prefer 
mountmnous forests, and is rarely met with in pliuns or flat 
countries, however richly wooded. Its favourite trees are pines, 
Inrcb, and juniper. It feeds on the fruit of tbe last-named 
plant, and on the buds and tender sprays of the two former. 
Colonel Montagu found the crops (^ two females which he ex- 
amined, to contain a spedes of beny ramilar to the cranberry, 
called in NcHway 7^/tteboer; and the tq» of that plant, toge- 

tJie Csfpercofiiiie to the Forest ^Braamar. VSi 

tlw with' a^g3 of the commoD heath, appeared to have be^ 
swaUowodiDGoDHdorable quantity. The giizardvrae extremely 
strong and mwcirier, aaA cantaiiked a large mass of pebhles io- 
t«nnix0d with -the macerated food *. Many other aXpme and 
wfipdlaiKt plant*, no doubt, nuDister to its wants, and, in com- 
vsea with the re«t of its orderi insects of various kinds taay be 
presumed to be sought after, especially by the yovng. 

These turds ate of polygamous habits, and consequently do 
not pair. During the breeding season, which commfnoes as 
aooD as the buds begin to expand, and continues throughqut 
the rajNd northern spring till the forests are clothed in their 
fxea^iest green, the male is frequently seen perched on some tall 
{une, where he moves })acl(wards and forwards, ultecing at the 
same time a peculiar cry, which seems to attract the neighbour- 
ing females. His head, on these occasions, is red and swollen ; 
his wings dependent, and his neck extended^ His cry is said to 
commence with a loud explosion, which is followed by a ncnse 
Uke that t£ the whetting of a scythe. This is hetu^ at .a great 
diaUUQce, and, as soon as the females are collected aroand the 
trecv the iwda- descends from his " high estate," and 'jfAvs their 
company *t*. 

The last capercailzie recorded to hare been killed in Scotland* 
was ^ot, about fifty years ago, near Inverness. For a cona- 
derable time anterior to that period, it had been of extremely 
rare occurrence, and, although a solitary remnant of the ancient 
stock may have contrived to tnaintain a precarious existence for 
a few succeeding years in some obscure recess of the umbrageous 
forests of Braemar or Rothiemurchtis, it can scarcely be doubted 
that the species, ere long, ceased to exist as indigenous to Bri- 
tmn. tt was known to have been extirpated from Ireland at a 
considerably earlier period. 

When we consider the great size and beauty of this species of 
game, and its value as an article of food, we need not wonder 
that various attempts liave been made to naturalize it for the 
Second time in Scotland. I shall confine my present notice to 
the individuals which I have myself had an opportunity of ob- 
swving. , 

* Supplement to the Ontitholi^ical Bictionar/. 
+ Journal Econoroique, April 1763. 

VOL. xni, NO. XXV. — jolt 18SS. (''''nnolc 

l&S Mr Wilson on the Introduction (f 

I had laBt summer the {dessure of sccompaajing my aoen- 
x&a friends, Professor Graham and Dr Greville, on a botaotcal 
excnmon to the Valley of Clova. The discovery of Astragaba 
aipimu, till then unknown as a British plant, and of other 
interesting rarities, rewarded their zeal, and baa been elsewhere 
recorded*, for myself, I chieBy plied the angler's trade, and 
had the satisfaction of providing my friends and their followers 
(Professor Graham being accompanied by a detachment of his 
class) occafQonally with an agreeable addition to their dinner in 
r^ioos where there were very few loaves, and (hut for my ex- 
ertions) no fishes. We afterwards crossed tlie Grampians, skirt- 
ing the " dark Loch-na-gar" and other fine mountain masses of 
that neighbourhood, and, descending tothe banks of the Dee, 
took up our residence for a time at the Casdetown of Braemar. 
I was wading down the Dee one fine afternoon, a little below 
Mar Lodge, and with a tighter pannier than usual, when I 
beard the cry of a bird to which I was unaccustomed, and my 
bad success in that day's angling induced me the more readily 
to diverge from the " pure element of waters,? tp ascertain what 
this might be. I made my way through the overhanging wood 
for a few hundred yards, and soon af^r reaching the road, 
which runs parallel with the river on its n^t side, I observed a 
wooden palisade, or enclosure, on the sloping bank above me. 
On reaching it, I found it so closely boarded up, that I had for 
a time some difficulty in descrying any inmates, but my eye soon 
fell upon a magnificent bird, which at first, from its bold and 
almost fierce expression of countenance, I took rather for some 
great bird of prey than for a capercailzie. A few seconds, how- 
ever, satisfied me, that it was, what I had never before seen, a 
fine living example of that noble bird. I now sought the com- 
pany of Mr Donald Mackenzie, Lord Fyfe's gamekeeper, the 
occupant of the neighbouring cottage. He unlocked the door 
of the fortress, and introduced me to a more familiar acquaint- 
ance with its feathered inhabitants. These I found to conust 
of two fine capercailzie cocks and one hen, and the latter, I was 
delighted to perceive, accompanied by a thriving family c£ young 
birds, active and beautiful. I made various inquiries on the 
spot ; but the fatigues of angling, and of entomolt^sing com- 
■ See tbis Jaumol, October 1831, p, 373. 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

the Ci^rcaihle to the Forest of Sraemar. 168 

biaed, prevented my writing down the result at the time, al- 
though I have Btill a distinct recollection of the leading focti*. 

It was, however, with great pleasure that I availed myself, at 
an after period, of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's obliging ofifet to 
convey a series of queries to Mr Gumming, Allanquoich, Brae- 
mar. Lord Fyfe's factor, from whom I received the substance of 
the following information. 

The first importation of these capercailzies arrived from Sve- 
den about the end of the year 1827, or early in January 18S8. 
It consisted of a cock and hen, but the hen unfortunatdy died 
after reaching Montrose Bay. As the male bird alone arrived 
at Braemar, the experiment was judiciously tried of putting a 
common bam-door fowl into his apartment 'during the spring 
and summer of I82S. The result was, that she laid several 
eggs, which were placed under other hens, but from these eggs 
only a ^ngle bird was hatched, and when it was first observed 
it was found lying dead. It was, however an evident mule, or 
hybrid, and shewed such unequivocal marks of the cap^cailzie 
character as could not be mistaken. 

The second importation likewise condsted of a cock and hen, 
and arrived safely in this country in January or February 18S9* 
The female began to lay in the ensuing April, and laying in ge- 
neral an ^g every alternate day, she eventually deposited about 
a couple of dozen. She shewed, however, so strong a disposi- 
tion to break and eat them, that she required to be narrowly 
watched at the time of laying, for the purpose of having them 
removed, for otherwise she would have dertroyed the whole. In 

' During our excuraiou we generallj pasied over tha ground more rapidl; 
than was consisteat with entomological oitBervatiou. The objecta sought for 
b; the botanist are generally of larger uze, and Iwing alHO loyers of light and 
sunshine, thsj are more easilj distinguiahed tlian moat of the Inaect tribes, so 
many of which court concealment and the riiade. I was, however, fortunate 
tn obtaining near the Spittal of Glenmuick the scarce heath-buttea^j Hippar* 
elUa Tpphon, which I had never before seen alive in Scotland j and in open 
glassy glades, amongthewoodswhlch^cirt the right bank of the Dee, between 
Abergeldy and Invercauld, I captured the rare «nd beautiful HipparMa 
Bkm^tia, commonly called the Scotch Argus, a apedes hitherto fbund chiefly 
in the islaud of Anan, and not prerioualy known to occur so far north on the 
mainland. Of the rarer Diptera, Pediaa ricMa may be mentioned as not un. 
frequent among the woods of Braemar. 


Dinliz,,!:,., Google 

164 Mr Wilson on the Introduction of 

fact she did succeed in breaking most of them, but eight were 
obtained uninjured. These were set under a goiudioo h^o, but 
only one biid was hatched, and it died soon after. lot the spring 
of 1830, the'hen caperculzie laid eight eggs. Of these she broke 
only one, and, settling in a motherly maoner on the other aevea, 
she sat steadily foe five weeks. On examining the ^;gs, howevea', 
they were all found to be addle. " It is to be remarked," Mr 
Cumming here observes, " that in 1829 and 1830 th? hen had 
access only to the cock that was brought home with herself." 

In the early part of 1831 , three apartments were ingeniously 
formed adjoining one another. The heo was pUced in the 
central chamber, between which and the enclosure on either 
side, each of which contiuned a male, there was an easy com- 
munication^ so contrived, however, that the female could have 
access to both the males, whilst they, from their greater size, 
could neither approach each other, nor disturb the female as 
long as she chose to remun in her own apartment. In May 
and June of that year she laid twelve eggs, seven of which were 
set under a common hen. Of these, four were hatched in an 
apparently healthy state, one was addle, and the other two con- 
tained dead birds. Of those left with the capercailzie hen, she 
broke one, and sat upon the other four, of which two were 
hatched, and the other two were found to contun dead birds. 
Of the two hatched one soon died. Both the ham-door hea 
and the female capercailzie sat twenty-nine days, fnHD the time 
the laying was completed till the young were hatched ; and Mr 
Cummmg calls my attention to the fact, that there were birds 
in all the e^s of this year's laying except one. 

My visit to Braemar took place about the first week of last 
August. I think all the five young were then alive, and al- 
though only a few weeks old, they were by that time larger 
than the largest moOT-game. I had no opportunity of handling 
them, or of examining them very minutely, hut the general view 
which I had of them, at the distance of a few feet, did not 
enable me to distinguish the difference between the young males 
and females. They seemed predsely the same at that time 
both in size and plumage, although I doubt not* the male 
markings must have soon diewn themselves on the young cocks. 
The ungle surviving bird of those hatched by the mother died 

the Capercaihie to the Forest of Braemar. 165 

of an accident, after living in a very healthy state for sereral 
wfeeks. Two of those hatched by the common hen died of some 
disease, the nature of which is not known, after lingering for a 
considerable time. It follows that there are only two young 
birds remaining. These are both females, and when I last 
beard of them some months ago, were in a thiiving condition. 

The whole progeny were fed at first, and for some time, with 
young ants, — that is, with those whitish grain-shaped bodies, 
which are the larvie and crysalids in their cocoons of these in- 
dustrious creatures, though commonly colled ant's eggs. At 
that period they were also occasionally supplied with some ten- 
der grass cut very short. As Boon as they had acquired some 
Strength, they began to eat oats and pot barley, together with 
grass and the various kinds of moss. They are now fed like 
the three old birds, chiefly on grain and heather tops, with the 
young shoots, and other tender portions of the Scotch fir. I am 
informed that the distinction between the sexes had become very 
obvious before the death of the young males. The plumage of 
the latter was much darker, their general dimensions were great- 
er, their bills larger and more hooked. These characters be- 
came very apparent during Xoyemher and December. 

The old males have never yet had access to the young birds, " 
so that it has not been ascertained whether they entertain any 
natural regard for their offspring, or would manifest any enmity 
towards them. From the continued wildness of the old birds, 
espedally the males, it was found difficult to weigh them, with- 
out incurring the risk of injuring their plumage. However, the 
male which arrived in 1S29, and which then appeared to be a 
bird of the previous year, was lately weighed, and was found to 
be eleven pounds nine ounces avoirdupois. Judging from ap- 
pearances, it is believed that the weight of the old hen would not 
much exceed one half There is, indeed a striking disparity in 
the dimensions of the sexes in this species. 

I have not yet heard the result of this season's courtship. The 
intentJCHi is, as soon as some healthy broods have been reared in 
confinement, to liberate a few in the old pine woods of Braemar, 
and thus eventually to stock with the finest of feathered game 
the noblest of Scottish forests. 

WooDTlLLE, tth Juni 1832. 


( 166 ) 





















































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( 167 ) 

Degcripiion of geverai New or Rare Plants ioluch have lately 
Jiowered in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and chiefly 
in the Royal Botanic Garden. By Dr G&aham, Profes- 
sor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

June 10. 1832. 
Andromeda tetragona. 

A. tetragona ; fuliis quadri&riaDi iinbricatis, aitpreasis, uibtrif uetru, ob- 

tuBia, glabri9(>); pedunculia elongatis, aolitaiiiB uniflona; corollis 

campanulatU. — Spren^ 
Andromeiis tetragoDi, Lma. FL Suecic. ed. 2. N& 366. — Willd. 3. CO?. 

—WiMaib. FL LappoTi. No. 300. — Pnrtb, FL Amer. sept. I. S90._ 

Spreng. 2. 289. 
Andromeda peduni^ults solitariia lateralibus, comtlis campaiiulatia, foliia 

oppositis obtualB imhricatia.revolucia Gmel. Ft. Sibeiic. 4. 120. Nu. 5. 

Deschiptjov Stem erect, wood; (aboul B inches hisii} naked near the 

baae, and marked by the oriffin of fallen leaves, much tinuiched ; branches 
Buberecl, the lower decumbent at the base and rooting. Leaves (two 
lines long) in four rowa, closely imbricated, sagittate, concave in front, 
triquetrous and furrowed over the midrib behind, blunt, slightly pu. 
bescenC, parLicularl; in native specimens, but the d^ree seemj to 
varv, aB does the colour, which is bright nr dull neen. Feduadee 
axillary, solitary, at first short, afterwards much elongated, slightly 
pubescent, sheathed with scales at the base. Flower drooping Co- 
Is* S-parted, greenish, tipped with red, glabrous, persisting, segments 
gibbous at the base. Corolla while, csmpanulate, somewhat conttwted 
near the mouth, whicli is S^left, the segments blunt and spreading. 
Stamens Included, filaments shorter than the pistil, erecL Antheri yel- 
low, each with tvo slender spreading hispid bristles. Piatii scarcely 
longer than the stamens ; stigma obtuse : style persisting, straight, 
slif^tly tapering upwards. Gertnen roundish-oval, obscurely 4~tnbed, 
depressed at the insertion of the 'tyle, and surrounded at the base by a 
wrinkled glandular ring. CapmJe erect, nearly globular, glabrous, ha- 
ving 6 loculameuts, the dissepiments arising from the centre of the 
valves, which are inflected in their apices. 
The seeds of this interesting little plaut, whi 
indigenous in Britain, were kindly commu: 
den, Edinburgh, by Dr Richardson and Mr Drummond, on the return 
from North America of the last expedition under the command of Cajv. 
- tain Franklin. It flowered, for the ftrst time, in April 1032, in the 
same border with, but a Uttle later than, its beautiful compat^ot Ati. 
dromeda hj/pnoidea. We have two varieties ; one only has jet, by Hower. 
i>ig,rewa^ed the judicious cultivation of IMr Macnab. It is the lifter 
coloured, and conaderably the freer growing of the two. 

Arbutus piloEa. 

A.pilosa; caule frutescente, procumbente, piloso: foliis ovalo^elllpticis, 
ciliatojcrrulatis, coriac^s, aplce mutids, callosis ; pedunculis axitlari- 
bus, unitloris, elungatis, nutantibus ; antheris quadri aristatis. 
Descbiptioh. — Slern branching from the root, prostrate, red, twiggy, co- 
vered with thickset, harsh, spreading, rusty-coloured hairs. Leaves (9 
lines long, ii broad) scattered, spreamng, and being turned to the light, 
are diaticnous, coriaceous, nekeA ind shining on both sides, dark green in 


168 Dt Graham's Detcr^tian of New or Rare Pknis. 

front, pafe belied, orato-alUptkal, with ■ callous tip, bat .nb ntiicro^ 

rdned, sernilate, eich semture being tipped wilh a bair sinihr to those 
tm the stem, a very few also oocauooally exist an or near the midiUe rib 
behind. Petiolet short, aubappressed, and with raLber tumid axillorj' 
buds. PtdtmoUa aparingly covered with a few fulvous hairs, solitarj in 
the axils of a few of the terminal leaves, of which thej are eg.ual to one- 
half the lenzth. Bractea ovate, scattered upon the peduncle, adpressed, 
lai^er and fewer uji wards. Cii%ft6-deft, persisting, white, glabrous with- 
in and without, spreading, segments ovate, acute, gibbous at the base* 
Corolla [3 lines long) ovate, white, B-tootheri, teeth blunt and revolute. 
Siameni 10, ariiriDg from a amall green disk ; filaments white, covered 
, with minute pubescence, swollen immediately above their origin, and 
there somewhat concave on their inner aur^e, subulate upwards ; anthers 
yellow, attached by their tiaeks, orato-oblong, each loculament with two 
small aaeeoding awns, in front of which it opens by a pore. Sligma small, 
red, terminal, very obscurely S-lobed. Sl^ erect, cylindrical, included, 
colourless. Genaen ovate, green, rather more than half the length of the 
style, and equal to the filaments, slightly covered with obscuie pubes- 
cence, and depressed on the top, where the style is inserted. 
This species is nearly allied to ^.mummiita, which flowered in the Botanic 
Garden lately, and is figured in BoL Mag. t. 3093., but is easily distin* 
guisbed by the character given above. They undoubtedly belong to the 
same eenus, but whether they should be left as species at Arbvius, or re. 
moved to G^iaUberia or Arelotlaphj/ht, or erected into a new genus, must 
be chiefly regulated by the fruit, which I have not seen. I doubt whe- 
ther the calyx, though persisting, will become berried as in Guo/fAnio, 
but the anthers are, as in that genus, provided with 4 awna. The pre- 
sent species is a native of Mexico, and was raised by Mr Neill from seed 
received fi-om Mr Don. From Mr Nrall we received it at the Botanic 
Garden. In both establishments it flowered during May, and is per- 
fectly hardy. 

Epacris cenefiora. 

£. eeraflora; ramuUs tomentosis ; foliis lanceolatls, acuminaUs, patentis- 

simis; floribus patulis, pedunculatis, secundis;. calycibus acutis, ci- 

liatia, tubo corollie longe brevioribua. 

Descbiptioh. — stem erect, branched. BnmAa tom^itous, purplish. 

Ltaoet lanceolate, acuminate, dark green above, paler below, mucronate, 

mbpetiolate, spreading wide. Fbtaert collected near the extremities of 

the branches, white, secund, peduncled, patent. Calyx tegnentM lanceolate, 

ciliated. CoroUa, tube obscurely pentagonal, thrice as long as the calyx, 

pitted on the outside between tne <»lyx segments, and having nectarife- 

■V,,,. .i^,>,™,)a under the corre^MHidng elevations within, somewhat con- 

tractedupwardailimbrevoluts,segmentasub«cute. jStaB«)usubex«erted; 
fihunents alternating with the nectariferous pores, and adhering Ibrougli 
their whole length to the inude of the corolla; anthers dark kadeiM»- 
loured, pollen granules white. Stigma capitate, aublobate, flattened on 
the t^. Style glabrous, somewhat thickened above its base, and ogua 
contracted, tapering a little towards the stigma. Germen given, gla- 
brous, subrotund. Unripe capmie subturbinate, pitted at the insertion 
of the style, Seeib erect, on a central placenta. 
This apedes, a native of Van Diemen's Land, waa raised at the Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, from seeds communicated by Sir Newbigging, and 
likewise by the Rev. Mr Craig, in January 1831. It flowered for the 
fint time in A^ril and May 1832, the plants being still very small. It 
appears to be ripening seed abundantly. 

Francoa appendiculata. 

F. i^petnUeulaia; eaulescens, foliis lyratls, dentLcuIatis utriiiq,ue pubes- 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

Dr Graham's Description ofNeio or Ran Plonta: 169 
caniibv*, labo famptlnali maxlnM conUta obtUK Mig«htof ilttibua 

Fnncoa appendiculate, Cman. Icon. vL 77- t> MA — Ftrr. Syaflps. 1. 440. 

—Sprtnget, Sp. PlanC 2. 962- 
FraDcos soncMftilk 7 Ad. Jvtt. Ann. Am 8(n Nat. 3. I9S. t. 12. 

Desckiptioh Root vith Bever^ very leafy crowng. Stemi ikort- heoea 

(R inches long) petioled, Ijrate, witb soil, alielitly clutmiius pubescence 
on both aides, bullate, undulate, strongly veined, denticulate, decurrent 
along the petiole; lobes blunt, the tenmnal one b; much the largeat 
(in a vif^rous plant G inches long, 4} inches bioad), Uuntly nngled, cor- 
date at the base. Ffower-ttoft' (2 feet high) termiiMl, scape-Ulcei having 
a few leaves at the base only, erect, straight, round, slightly tapering, 
densely covered with pubescence similar to that on the leaves j from the 
axils of the stem-leaveK, and ham a bractea near Ibe top, ariae solitaij 
erect branches, in all respects similar to the primary slioot, but (mailer. 
Spika Ifi inches lone) racemose, Savers (J inch lone, j Inch across when 
fully epzanded) rather dense, springing fi'oin the axils of lanceolato-lnear, 
green Bractee. Calyx persisting, 4-6-parted, KTs-en, rather longer than 
the pedicel, segments ovato-acute, 3-nerved, glanduloao-pubescent with. 
in and without. Peialt 4-5, twice the length of the calyx, obovat»«llip> 
tjcal, channelled in front towards the short claw, keeled behind, of a pale 
rose-colour, with a daAer spot in the centre, becoming lighter after ex- 
pansion. Stamens 8-10, shorter than the calyx, alternating upon an ob- 
scure but nectariferous disk, with short diverging scales (abortive sta. 
mens); filaments subulate, glabrous; anthers yellow, liilocular, oblong, 
bifid at both extremities, and slightly diverging at the lower, bureting 
alonsF the sides, pollen yellow, granules smalL Genaen superior, ublong, 
4-5'.iurrowed, 4^valved, and having as many loculaments, formed by 
the InversioQ of the margins of the valves. SHr/ma sessile, 4-6-lobed, at 
first invaluie, then spreading, peltate, fleshy, sur&ce tubercled- OvtUes 

by Mr Andemon. From Clapton It was obtuned by Mr Cunninghao 
at Comely-bank, near Edinbuivh, and communicated to Sir Neitl's gar- 
den at Canonmills. In both these establishments it flowered in May 
1832. I have no doubt of this being the spedes of Cavanllles, and veiy - 
little about Its being that of Jussieu, though the petals are figured (not 
described) by Cavamlles as acute, and though the flowers are said by 
Jussieu to be without pedicels In his plant. The leaves correspond with 
Cavanilles', and the station is the same. His figure represents tbe 
fiowera as secund, and a dried specimen brought home by Mr Anderson, 
and given to Mr James Macuab, has tht! same appearaoce. 

KeDoedia Comptoniana. 

K. Comptmiono, var qmn^a^oRa. 
This Is a very handsome Tariety, but I can perceive no good character by 
which it can be s]>ecifically distinguished. It is very robust, the leaves 
being much longer and narrower than in the usual form of the species, 
and very ollen with 6 folioles, the terminal one only, as in the common 
variety, being supported upon an elongated petiole. The flowers are in 
a dense raceme, and of a deep rich lilac, with two green striated spots 
on the veiiUum. It was raised from seeds sent to the Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, fi^m New Holland, by Mr Fraser in 1827, and flowered in 
tbe greenbouse for tbe first time in April 1832. 

Menziesia empetriformis. 

AT. t mp dr^omai ; ibliis linearibua serrulatis ; pednDmKs i^gregHis; 

:,, Google 

170 Dr Graham's Description qfKea> or Sar$ Plants. 

Henzieflia empetrifbnnU, SwiOt, in Lino. Soc Tnngi 10. 380 — PuriA, 
Flor. Amedc Septent. 1. SM — NuilaU, Gene^^ 1. ^b'i.—Sjyttng^ 
Sjat. Yeget. li 202. 
Desciiption. — A email erect lAniA. hfaves (6 linei long, 1 line broad) 
linear, on sliDrt adprawed petioles, crowded, Buberect towards the extre- 
mities uf the branches, below spreadinf;, when young glBoduloto-dliated, 
afterwards glabrous, with a few cartUi^inous smalTteeth eapeciallj to- 
wards the apices, alii^tlj channelled aboFe, fleshy in Iheir sides, midrib 
■omewbit nepr^ae^ flattened and wrinkled. PnAmoiM (4 inch long) 
erect, glandular, axillarj, single and single-flowered, collected near the 
extremities of the branches, hibracteate at Che base. Bmetea ovate, con- 
cave, crenate, opposite. Calfx 5-phvllous, red without, green within, 
except on the edges where it is red, glabrous, ciliated with minute white 
hairs, leaflets blunt, wrinkled and gibbous at the base. Condia (3 lines 
long, 2 broad) r^disb-purple, campanulate, erect, glabrous, about Ijiree 
times as long as the calyx, fr-toothed, teeth reflected. Slammt 10, of 
rather unequal length alternately, about the length of the germen ; fila- 
ments rose-coloured, flat, linear; anthers purple, oblong, narrower at 
the upper end, as long as the filaments, connivent, grooved along their 
udes) bursting by two terminal pores, attached by their backs to the 
filaments. Fiitil exserted ; stigma of 6 counivent, trit^igular teeth ; 
style slightly curved, cylindriciU, red ; germen globular, green, glandu- 
lar, quinquelocular ; ovules very numerous, attached to a large central 

This very distinct species of Mgiuiaia was raised at the Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, from seeds communicated by Mr Diummond on hia return 
from the la«t expedition to North America imder the command of Cap- 
tain Franklin, and, I believe, collected by him (Mr Drummond) on the 
Kocky Mountains. It first flowered in November 1831, but much more 
abundantly in May 1832. 

If Sir James Smith had seen the living plant, I think he would have ^ven 
a diflTerent specific character. The leaves, in the recent state, are de- 
cidedly tumid, both above and below, being depressed only along the 
middle rib on either aide. 

Fimelea sylvestris. 

P. iglvetlris ; foliis oppo^tis utrinque glabris, lanceolatis, acutb; florali- 
bus 4-6, rameie subslmillbus, capitulo lerminali mumfloro breviori- 

hus; perianthiia glabra, tubo innin'dibuUformi Br, 

Pimelea sylvestris, Br. Frodr. FL Nov. Holland. 361— Bam. et Sehvlla, 
SyaU VegeL 1. 2Ji.—tSpreng. Syst. Veget. 1. 92. 
DBsCKiFTioir.^-5'ten erect, shrubby, twig-like, bark covered with minute 
warts. Leavet (above 1 inch long, }th of an inch brood) opposite, in five 
rows, on short adpressed petioles, spreading, glabrous on both sides, 
lanceolate, acute, quite entire, flat above, ur dightty turned hack at the 
edges, very obscurely veined, middle rib channelled below ; floral letmet 
similar to those of the branches. Capilujvm terminal, many-flowered, 
llowers expanding from without towards the centre, much longer than 
the floral leases. Ptrianlh (above half an inch long) glabrous, funnel- 
shaped, pale rose-coloured, becoming white aft«r expansion, throat naked ; 
limb 4-parted, s^ments erect, ovale, their edges folded outwards at theai 
base, the two outer segments in the bud subacuminate, and keeled at Uie 
apex, the two inner blunt; tube much attenuated downwards, but dilated 
at its base where it covers the germen, and is persistent, all above being 
deciduous. Filamenta adhering to the throat, above this free, longer than 
the perianth, reflected. Anihars orange-yellow, Ihi ear. Stigma capitate, 
small. Stgle erect, filiform, exserted, ^abrous, colourless. ISermen ovate, 
rompreseed, glabrous. Onife single, pendulous. 
The seeds of this species were collected on the south coast of New Holland 


.Dr Graham^s Descryttion ^Netn or Rare PkmU. 171 

in July 1820. and being kindlir sent by C<^(Hiel lindesay, irere receiTed 
at the Botanic Oarden, Edlnburgb, twelve motitlu afterwards. Several 
plants flowered freely in the greenhouse in May 1S33. They form a 
handsome addition to the speties previously in culUvaUon- There ia 
reason to believe'tliat the seeds will ripeu. 

Rulingia corylifolia. 

B. ayryUfcRa ; foliis ovato^deltoidds, laiibcordatii, baai lobars aupra bis- 
pidis, Bubtus hirauto-tomentoiHB ; atipulia ovato acuminatia ; corymbis 
opporititbliis ; fitamentis antheriferU BimpBdbus, Bterilibus ovato-lan- 
ceolalia altemantibus. 
Descbifiioh — i^rui branched from the bsse of the stem, branches sli^t- 
)y flexuose, tomen to 90- villous, and sliebtly visdd. Leava (2J Inches 
long, 2 inches broad) ovato-deltoid, slightly cordate, Eilightly lobed at the 
base, Berratfl-crenate, rugose, pubescent on both sides, but much more 
conaiderablj- behiiid, where also they are paler, bright green above, and, 
when fading, becoming red, being very prnminent behind ; petioles Eligbt- 
ly channelled above, villous, niuch shorter than the leaves, bistipulate. 
SHpiUa oppoMte, distinct from the petiole, ovate, acuminate, villous, and 
with long cili». CorymU collected near tbe apices of the branches, densely 
covered with white hairs in its primary anil subsequent divisions, each 
division having on tbe outside a lanceolate bractea. Flomers pedicellate, 
white. Calj/x S.phyllous ; phylla cordate, villous both within and with- 
out, but much more harshly without, somewhat reflected in their sides, and 
forming a prominent edge where they meet each other. Pelait pubescent, 
much smaller than tbe calyx segments, concave, gibbous at Uieir base, 
their sides fbrmed into two blunt parallel wines, which project towards 
the axis of tbe flower, apex extended into a blunt linear appendage, at 
first curved towards the axis, but afterwards bent back, and passing out 
between tbe segments of the calyx. Stamens 6 (perfect), immediately 
within the petals, and alternating with the segments of the calyx, shorter 
than the petals, and included within their folds, alternating on the same 
urceolate borderwich, and somewhat shorter than, ovato-lanceolate scales 
(abortive stamens), which are hairy on the outside, smooth within; fila- 
ments glabrous ; anthers short, bilocular, bursting along the sides. Pol. 
leii yellow, granules round. Sligmata cohering to each other, small, ca- 
pitate, colourless, shining. Slyle> 6, glabrous, in contact in the centre of 
the flower, scarcely longer than the stamens. Gertaen 5-lobed ; in its 
early stages lobes conical and a little rough, afterwards rounded, green, 
depressed in the centre, sod densely covered with stellate pubescence, 
S-locular, dissepiments from tbe edges of the valves, their two layers 
afterwards separating. Ovvlea two in each loculanient, with a central 
ridge of the valve between them, both attached to the central column 
below its middle. Pubescence every where on the plant stellate, except 
from abortion, when, as on the upper aut&co of the leaves, it often ap- 
pears single. 
This plant was received last year by Mr Neill at Canonmills, and in the 
Botanic Garden, £diabui^h, from Mr Knight on the King's Road; and 
both with Mr Neill and us, it flowered freely in the greenhouse in May 
last 1 am indebted to my acute friend Dr looker for many important 
. references r^arding this genus and Its allies, which led me to investi- 
gate its structure much'more closely than I otherwise would, and pre- 
vented my committing some nustakee. 

Stylidium birsutum. 

S. AirtuJum; scapo hirsuto villis acutis; racemo subum[ilici; calycis 
labia (I-) partita; capnila ventricosa ovata; foliis linearibus, basi at. 
tenuatis, margine parum recurvis, squamis scariosis distjnguantibus 
interioiibusque acununati3.--J}r. 



lift Dr Grdiam^s Dev^pikm i^New or Rare PlatUs. 

Stylldiuin hirnituin, Br. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Hollud. M%.—Sprenb. ijp. 
Pbnt. 3. ^i^. 

Dbschptiom.— Hoo( of strong, hard, branching fibres. Leavei (6 Inchea 
long) all radical, linear, glabrous, firm in their texture, edges revolut^ 
attc^nuated at the base, interapersed with scariose glabrous scales, which 
become lai^^ toward? the innermoat, these being terminated with a point 
resembling tlie leaves, but shorter. Seape (9 inches high) erect, simply 
rather longer than the leaves, cuTered, efpeciall; at the base, with, long 
spreading colourless acute (not glandular) hain, smoother upvanls. 
Baoemt 0} inch long) spicate, the uppermost flowers expanding first, 
each lising from.the axu. of a lanceolate green bractea, wMch is covered 
with hairs umilar to those on the scape. Pedicels hairy, half the length 
of the- primary bracteie, and having secondary lateral bractes. Co^ 
l-partite; tube very hiury, having both pointed hair» and others which 
are shorter and glandular; s^ments connivent, blunt, having glandular 
hair&onlj, the two outer the largest and broadest. Corolla purpliah- 
rose coloured, yellow In the throat, as well as the calyx covered on tbe- 
outside with glandular pubescence, the four larger swments nearly- 
equal, spreading, flat, channelled ia the centre, and slightly crisped on. 
the edges, the two next the labeilum rather the narrowest, and having 
each one erect, ovate, entire tooth at its base, of similar colour with the 
rest of the corolla, the two others green at their base on the outside, 
and Airrowed in the throat, the groove having prominent, erect, pubes- 
cent edges; labeilum deflected from the inside of the calyx between the 
lips, small, ovate, acute, yellow, with a purnle crisped and crenate edge^ 
its appendices blunt spreading and mudi shorter than itself; tube pale 
yellow, twisted, equal to the longest segments of the cglyx, tbe whole of 
the inside and the upper sur&ce of the limb presenting, under the mi- 
croscope, a beautiful crystalline amiearsnce. Coiumn linear, flat, equal in 
length to the limb, dark red in front, yellow behind, glabrous, very Ir. 
litidjle, bordered at its lower parL jtnAert leaden-coloured, pollen gra- 
nules lilac, minute, ovate. Sligma of 'dull green colour, oblong, gism- 
dular surface crystalline. German ovate, bilocular, dissepiment imper- 
fect above. OvoUt very numerous, attached to a central receptacle, 
awantingin the lower part of the dissepiment. 

This species is new in cultivation, and the flowers are larger than any in 
our gardens. I owe to the late Mr Fraser, colonial botanist, a native 
^edmen collected at King George's Sound, on the south coast of New 
Holland ; and. from seed picked off one sent at the same time to Mr 
Hacnab, the plant described was raised. It flowered in the greenhouse 
of tbe lioyal Botanic Garden in May, and will continue to l^ar flowera 
during the early part of June. 

Symphitum Caucasicum. 

S. Caaeanevm ; caule ramoso, infeme hirsuto, supeme glutinoio ,- fbliis 

ovato-lanceolatis, base atlenuatis, semidecurrentibus, fairsutiB;-caly- 

cibus obtusia. 
Symphitum Caucasicum, JtfortcA. £k£. FL Tauric Caucas. 1. 12B.— ^>re»- 

gel. System. VegeL 1. 663. 
Bescbiption — Stem (2 ffeet high) hirsute near the bottom, hij^er up pu- 
bescent and viscous, slightly winged, fleiuose, branched. Leaves ovato- 
lanceolate, hirsute on both sides, but less harshly on the upper, and there 
when young subviscid, half d ecu rrent, the lower attenuated at the base, 
the upper pair oblique, sessile and alternate. SpUeei terminal, ceminate, 
many-nowered, secund and involute, common peduncle ana ]iedicels 
gUnduloso-pubescent. Calyi angled, the angles and blunt teeth ciliated, 
when in fruit distichous. Condla at first red-purple, hut loses this co< 
lour as soon as It exjiands, and acquires a lively azure hue ; tube lon^r 
than the calyx, spanngly and minutely pubescent on the outude, having 



Dr Graham's J)escriptwn ^New or Bare Plants. 178 

a white fleahy narrow edge projecting internally from its baae iivvt the 
disk ; teeth of the limb blunt and revolute in their edges; teeth of the 
throat erect, blunt, and having short erystalline dlis nn their edges* 
Stameta included, about as long as the teeth; filam en ta purplish ; an- 
thers yellow, rather shorter than the fi'ee portion of the fllaments, bi£d 
at both exlremitiea. Pistil rather lunger than the stamena ; stigma bi. 
lobular, rounded; style slightly tapered, clabrous, lilac ; germen light 
yellowish-green, seated on a white disk. The unripe achema are rouefa> 
irregularly depressed over thuir surface, and each is raised on a sand-guM 
shaped portion of the disk, the upper lobe of which projects &om Its 
lower side a simple row of short dependent subulate hairs. 
The seeds of this pbnt were received at the Royal Botanic Garden, from 
DrFlscher, under the name adopted, in 1830, and flowered for the first 
time in May 1832. The profusion of lively coloured flowers in this spe- 
cies, which is less deformed by coarseness of herbage than others, makes 
it one of the most desirable for cultivatien. 

Tropseolum tticolorum. 

T.trioolamm; caule tenulssimo scandente ramoso, foliis peltatisectls ; 
s^mentia 6-7 ublonsia obovalisve integris basi attenuatia, petiolis cir- 
rhosis, pelalis unguiculatis calyce persutente Eubclauso parum longi- 
oribus obtusis integerrimis. — SaeeL 
Troproolum tiicolorum, Saeett British Flnwer Garden, 870. 
Descsiptiom. — Root tuberous. Stem filiform, greatly branched, branches 
entangled, purple, shining. Leaves alternate, petioled, palmata-di^tate, 
round, (8 lines across) 6.1obed, sofi, slightly villous, especially below 
where paler,- veined, lobes unequal, obovato-elliptical, generally only 
one of thera mucronate; petiole (1 inch long) filiform, resembling the 
branches. PedancUa (above 2 inches long) solitary, opposite to the leaves, 
pendent, capillary, slightly thickened upwards. Calyx of bright vermi- 
lion colour, pentagonal, 5-cleft, the segnieuts blunt, mucronulate, on the 
outside tipped as well as the spur with purple, on the inside tipped with 
green, whole inner surface glandular; spur erect, about one-third of the 
length of the peduncle, awl-shaped, nectariferous. Pelala 6 (3 lines long^ 
yellow, subexserted, inserted below the incisures of the calyx, obcordato- 

others, and g . . . 
We received Uiis plant from Mr Anderson of the Apothecaries' Garden, 
Chelxea. It produced its truly splendid flowers in the greenhouse of 
the Botanic Garden in March and ApilL 



( 17* ) 

CelesHai Phenotiunajrom JxUy\. to October 1. 1833, cakutcUed 
Jot the Meridiem ^ Edinhurgk, Mean Time. By Mr 
George Inneb, Astronomical Calculator, Aberdeen. 


h Oa Stan an ^ven In SIjUl .1jc»hI»i. 




H. , 

16 38 - 



SI 69 43' 

( Last Quarter. 

22 23 



436 7 


1 34 40 

Iffl. IL Mt ^ 


10 se 30 

d i 2 SCetL 

13 38 43 



18 40 13 

d 5 /• CetL 

8 2- 

Sup. d o ij 


15 IS 1 

d»f « 

23 24 31 

^ First Quarter. 


22 16 21 


1 68 4 

Im. I. Mt. V 


14 18 

Im. I. «iL Tl 

2 41 16 

6 ty^ 


11 S4 36 

d5r B 

3 7- 



13 a 15 


6 66 31 



13 38 3 


8 14 22 



18 29 39 

d J- B 

16 30 

Im. IV. sat 71 


18 43 33 

d d: » 

6 69 16 

dDi/. t 


14 10 34 


7 41 2 

dE2^ t 


1 33 19 

Em. III. sat. If 

7 3 63 

tiD" S 


3 14 11 


g 30 38 

6])' t 


32 42 9 

Im. II. sat. y. 

16 1 10 



9 24 36 

su^ d © 5 

22 47 65 

O FuU Moon. 


13 40 1 

# New Moon. 

17 23 36 



14 19 18 


6 IS 40 



21 44 - 


10 14 19 



32 8 36 

d JiOB 

13 42 4 



4 32 - 


12 82 M 



3 • 30 

Im. L sat ^ 

12 38 39 




3 20 8 


6 Dh 

11 48 - 


23 29' 5" 


2 21 S 

Im. III. aat. ^ 

9 31 41 


■ 1 18 28 

lin. II. wL 1/ 

11 6 - 


10 42 2S 

J) Fi«t Quarter. 

14 19 43 

FuU Moon. 

8 67 37 


16 16 14 


12 3 13 

d S 9 Oph. 

19 42 

dMVl ■ 

13 « 11 

dJi/- t 

16 2 - 

9 greatest dong. 

13 48 22 

dSa,. } 

16 6 11 


22 30 87 

Im. I. sat. Tl 

22 22 16 


13 13 18 

d))" t 


25 41 

Im. I. Mt Ti 

15 40 14 

dD-r J 


18 39 65 

d E.K 

4 4G _ 



17 10 19 

d DStCett 


Celaiial Phenomenajhm JtAf 1. to October 1. 18S2. 175 

AUGUST— om/uuwd: 

1 3 28 



13 48 6 


17 34 48 



4 43 46 

enten 11^ 

32 6 2S 

dJf » 


20 48 17 

629 7 

( LMt Quarter. 


3 11 26 


17 4 - 



21 32 66 

• New Hmo. 

19 24 U 

dDy B 


10 41 63 


SO 41 M 

d))ii « 


18 68 6 


SI 11 42 

d ji2» a 


4 9- 

6 B9 

2 12 44 

61- » 


32 26 

Im. II. ut % 

3 14 la 



22 43 S2 

Im. I. aat l} 

3 IS 14 

d U « 


9 48 44 


23 2U 62 



16 39 19 


2 19 37 

Im. I. ut V 



18 46 ^ 



19 17' 15" 



Im. IV. Nt y 

1 17 31 

D First Quarter. 

S 28 26 

djl> B 

8 40 - 



2 68 31 


19 M fiS 


13 17 37 


89 36 99 

dD2^ f 


9 36 46 

dK H 

1 69 

Itll. II. Bit. V 


13 2« 37 

( Last Quarter. 

19 69 4 

6^0 t 

4 33 - 


22 » 53 


6 12 67 


4 16 - 


20 4 24 


13 17 


2 19 40 


22 27 66 

Im. IIL nt V 


11 40 27 


37 30 

Im. I. nt. V 


22 12 69 

Em. II. lat 11 

« 14 19 



21 22 - 


u 727 



1 9 2 

Em. I. sat. V 

23 68 17 



1 14 8 


2 24 24 



10 31 17 


3 48 - 

In£ d © ? 


13 66 9 


S 17 20 



47 19 

# New Moon. 

16 3S 33 

dD V 


1937 62 

Em. I. Mt. V 

3 13 2S 



30 32 - 

$ greatest elong. 

3 36 67 

Im. II. Mt. % 


9 28 46 


11 6 26 



3 33 24 


10 a 



1 38 18 


23 42 37 

ci5 2ECeti. 


10 11 51 


2 29 41 

Im. III. Mt, y 


48 29 

Em. II. sat. y 

2 32 30 

Im. I. ML V 


3 46 4 


6 34 48 

d 5 /• Cetl. 


3 4 16 

Em. I. M. 11 

3 40 15 



7 3 - 


21 1 13 

Im. I. sat. H 


IS 16 98 

d 5' 8 

21 43 9 



176 Celestial Phenomenajrom Jufy I. to October 1. 1832. 











































■ 222222 





.V Google 

( 177 ) 



1. First View of Sierra Leone. — ^Dr Boyle, in his interesting 
wwk <Hi the medical topc^aphy of the western coast of Africa, 
says, " There are very few parts io the tropical world which at 
first sight hold out more allurements, even to the experienced 
traveller, than Sierra Leone. Its splendid scenery, and its beau- 
tiful river, together with its extensive, commodious, and general- 
ly secure harbour, and pleasant-looking town and villages, are 
calculated to excite the most flattering hopes in respect of health 
and enjoyment, notwithstanding strong previous impressions 
with regard to the contrary. On making Sierra I^one from the 
north, the mountains from which the peninsula was named first 
excite attention. They are lofty, perpetually clothed, from 
their summits to their bases, in all the fertile gaity of Nature^s 
verdant scenery ; and there is a pleasing and endless variety in 
the outline of iheir countless peaks and declivities. As the ship 
draws in with the shore, signs of cultivation appear, and increase 
with rapidity, both in number and attractiveness. Freetown, 
and the lately formed villages in its neighbourhood, at lirst ap- 
pear like anomalous patches in the view -, but on a nearer ap. 
proach, they add greatly to its beauty and its interest. When 
the ship has arrived just at that point of distance Irom which a 
person may see all the broad outlines and apparent characteris- 
tics of an extensive scene, without being able to discern the mi- 
nute details, the effect is magnificent. On the left hand is the 
BuUoon shore, low, but covered with luxurious and richly 
coloured bush, an occasional palm and pullom tree, rising in 
graceful form above the neighbouring mangroves : — in appear- 
ance it seems to embody the notions formed of fairy-land, hut 
its realities most sadly illustrate the folly of such dreams. Tbe 
middle ground also occurs on the left hand, and it gives a va- 
riety to the view. In front are the spacious river, extending 
farther than the eye can reach, and the north side of the penin- 
sula, with its lofty mountains, and Freetown, ruiming to the wa- 

TOL, XIII. BO. XXV. — JDLT 1832. ■*■{ .nnnlr 

178 Scientific InteUigence. — Meteorology. 

ter's edge, tmd sunnouDted by the barracks, and protected by a 
handsome fort, and a coast, forming small and conveniept bays, 
from the town to its termination at the Cape^ which runs boldly 
into the sea. On the ri^t is the Atlantic That a scene, com- 
posed of such ostensible material features, is grand and impos- 
ing, may readily be supposed ; but those who are ignorant of 
the peculiarities of a tropical climate, and its seductive influence 
on a stranger, can form no adequate notion of the character and 
extent of its actual power. For the moment home is forgotten ; 
or if remembered, the remembrance is accompanied with a de- 
ure it should be situated in such a seeming paradise. In thus 
q)eaking of the view on arriving at Sierra Leone, we are sup- 
posing the settlement to be made on a fine clear day, when the 
atmosphere is bright and comparativdy devoid of malaria, and 
the river runs its natural course, unswollen, aod free from dis' 
oiloration. Should the arrival, however, happen at a di&rent 
period, when the atmosphere is dense, oppressive, and fraught 
with deleterious e^ihalalions, and the rains are deln^g the face 
of the country, and at once augmenting the river, and destroy- 
ing its beauty, then Sierra Leone jwcsents a very di^rent ap- 
pearance ; there is nothing to excite a pleasing anticipation, but 
there is a world of causes for apprehension and for dread. The 
realities of the scene are, of course, unaltered, for the t?ra periods 
are the property of the climate, and must be alike endured by 
the colonists; but the appearances present a melancholy and 
fearful contrast." 

2. Description o/* an African Tomado.-~-T\ie seaaons at 
Sierra Leone are divided into the wet and the dry. The latter 
is generally ushered in by the exploaon of two or three torna- 
dos, which, although formidable in themselves, are still so long 
connected with the approach of a pleasant time, as that the in- 
habitants have sometimes prayed for their appearance. One erf" 
those strange commotions of nature is thus described by Mr 
Boyle:—'* A violent tornado appears to strangers a most ap- 
paling viritation, and produces an extraordinary effect Upon 
their feelings. It consists of successive flashes of the most vivid 
lightning, tremendous shocks of thunder, rapidly and alarm- 
ingly rriterated, impetuous gusts of wind, deluging rain. Thfs 
terrific combination of the elements sweeps aloi^ the whc4e of 

_ t;ooKic 

Scientific Int^iigeace. — Jfeteorokffy. 179 

the coast under conaidenition ; but it ocxurs with pecuHar force 
on what k called tbe windward coast, especially at Sierra Leone. 
lis denomination is derived from the Portugese, it being a oot' 
ruption of tb« word tnieno, which means tbundar-storm. Its 
approach is first dtaccmUile by the appeoranoe of a small dear 
silvery speck, at a hi^ altitude in tbe heavoily expanse, whidi 
increases and descends towards tbe bonzon, with a gradual and 
slow, but visible motion. In its descent it becomes circumscribed 
by a daric ring, which extends itself on every aide, and as soon 
as tbe silvery cloud approaches the horizon, v^s it in impene- 
tr^e gloom. At the moraent the elements seem to have cewed 
Aeir operations, and tbe very functions of nature to be para- 
lysed ; the atmosphere appears to be deprived of the spirit of 
ritaltly, and a seniation of approaching sufibcation pervade* 
■od oppcesses the physical system. The mind is wrapped in 
awe and suspense, but tbe latter is speedily rdieved by tbe dark 
horizon being suddenly illuminated by one broad blaze of elec 
trie fluid; pesis oC distant thunder then break upon tbe ear, 
and rapidly a|:^roacb, and increase in fervency and violence, till 
the shocks become appaling ; when the thunder is at its loud- 
est, a tremendous gust of wind rushes with incredible and often 
irresistible vehemence from the darkened part of the horizon, 
Dot rarely in its course carrying away roofs of houses and chim- 
ney-tops, blowing down or uprooting trees, and laying the stout- 
est and largest ships on their beam-ends, or sinking them under 
weigh or at anchor; and to that succeeds a furious deluge of 
nun, which falls in one vast sheet, rather than in drops, and 
ocmcludee this terrible convulsion. The lightning is of the most 
vivid descrifriJon, and, contrary to what has been reported of it, 
gddom sheet-lightning, but forked and piercing, and oflen ex- 
tremely destructive, both to things animate and inanimate. Its 
apparently doubtful, wild course, is sometimes directed to a large 
and k^ty tree, and the foliage, at the points of contact, is bUsted 
on tbe instant, tbe exposed branches are severed from the trunk, 
and i»obab]y tbe enormous trunk itself is rent to its basis and 
destroyed. When it comes in contact witb a house, it fre. 
qoently leaves it as great a wreck as ships have been seen to be 
oil coming out of a severe action, ch* after a destructive storm ; 
and, occasiooajly, the building entered by it may happen to re- 

180 Stiehtific TnteUigeneei — MUeAilt^. ■ 

main untouched, and its inmates, some, or nil of Uwnst afrdw 
author has known to occur, perish under ite scorching influcAGe^ 
Occadonally the spindle of a ship's mast, the most elevat«d'f))M 
of it, may appear to' be the point of attraction, and it will flodie^ 
tjmes dart among the spars and cordage harmtess, descmdiiig 
till it reach the deck, when it suddenly quits the -vessel by hosh 
aperture, and rapidly returning through another, seems'to have 
acquired a new character with incredible -velocity ; tor,- eteerih^ 
its strange and rapid course into the meindeck or hotd, it wiU 
kill, maim, or injure every animate or inanimate w^h nhich'it 
comes in contact. Much good has unquestionably been eflected 
by conductors; but those who have watched the progress of 
the electric fluid, will hold the theorist in no estimation, ^vho 
does not make the atmosphere the first and most important point 
of consideration. The heavy peals, or rather the terrifying 
shocks, of thunder which follow the lightning, irequently not 
only shake the buildings at Freetown, but the very foundations 
on which they stand ; and the reverberations from the surrdtmd- 
ing mountains increase, if possible, the awe excited by elemert- 
tary commotion. The succeeding rain, or rather deluge, is 
happily of short duration, and rushing down the various inlets 
and indentations in the adjoining mount^ns, it forms into streams 
even a few minutes after its commencement, which sweeps 
through the streets of Freetown with astonishing velocity, bear- 
ing with them all the exposed vegetable and other matter, fn a 
state of putridity or decay. Such is the tornado, and it is%y 
the preponderating power of its gusts, and the atmospheric in- 
fluence of lightning and its rains, that noxious exhahttions frdth 
the earth, and deleterious miasmata, before confined to' 'the 
neighbourhood of their origin by opposed or light ctrireftfs faf 
ait in the day, or attracted by the land (the more '!6fijr' the 
more attractive) in the night, are removed, and cbtisfe&titiWIy, 
the indescribably distressing feelings occasioned 'bJ'ii'TOulaffi- 
mosphere, are superseded by those fcomparatively y^ei^iMBb 
and enlivening sensations which have been already -^HdtiSiJ, 
pp. 40-4S. The average time for the tornados to setiiij'tt'the 
termination -of 'the month of September, from which linit'iintil 
Christmas, tolerably calm weather may be expected ' iiltilcfri-iSt- 
mas, the periodical winds called the harinatan commencei 'kviA 

Sdejitific Intelligence. — Meteorology, 181 

GOBtinue by blow for six or teo Weeks. It is very curious, that 
wliflBt;'t6 die tmtives, and to the Europeaoa, who, from long re- 
tklenbe^ may be vaA to be acdimatad in the aettlement, these 
winds 4n cxoeedlagly Btuioyiog, tbe Europeans newly arrivsd 
eonuder them as Kfre^ing and salubrious. Butduring the 
liag^g of tbe bannatane, tbe furniture ot every bouse is covered 
witb fine sand, and tables and chairs crack under their influence. 
Mr Boyle, ooncludes this part of hia subject by a diary of the 
weatber at Si«rra Leone, for the term nearly of a year,— a docu- 
ment that will be read with extreme interest by all the cultiva< 
tors of roeteorolc^jical soence. 

' 3. On fA^ Stance to ruTmh Spray of the Sea may be carried. 
— -A few remarks on the distance to which spray from tbe sea 
is sometimes carried inland by storms o? wind, may not, per- 
hapst be deemed altogether irrelevant to the subject we are 
treating upon. Sea-water is brought into tbe immediate ndgh- 
bourbood of Manchester, which is at least thirty miles from the 
nearest coast, by every violent and long conUnued gale from the 
we&t; and the exact proportion in given quantities of rain-water, 
collected on several occasions of this kind, has been determined 
chemically. That the sea is tbe principal source whence the 
■alt is derived, witb which the rain that falls in this town and 
its vicinity is occasionally impregnated, cannot, I think, be 
doubted; as I have clearly ascertained, by direct experiment, 
that its excess or deficiency depends entirely on tbe direction, 
toKe, and duration <tf the wind. Rain collected in clean glas»- 
vessels, a few miles to the north of Manchester, when the wind 
Uows moderately from the north or north-east, scarcely ever 
exhibits tbe slightest trace of muriatic acid, on the application 
of the most delicate test (nitrate of silver), even when reduced 
two-thirds ur three-fourths by spontaneous evaporation ; though 
aamjples collected in the town, precisely at tbe same lime, on be- 
ing subjected to tbe test, generally have their transparency 
awre or less impaired. This fact seems to prove, that, notwith- 
standing muriate of soda is never raised into the atmosphere by 
evaporation, yet tbe sir over large towns usually contains a very 
minute portion of muriatic acid, which, as Mr Dalton observes, 
is probably supplied by the sublimation of muriate of ammonia 
tduring the combustion of fuel. A considerably increase of mu- 

181 Scieat^ Int^Ugmce — Meteoningy. 

nntic acid takes place in the r^ wlucli fallg ic Manchester, 
^en Kcompanwd with a brisk breeze from the west, of Beveral 
boiin' tbira^n ; as is evid«it tram the graater degree of op^- 
ty obserred in «HD^es caught under such ciFcuaistances, when 
treated wiUi a few drops of the solution of utrate of alver ; aod 
that which &11b in the adjacent oountry, then manifests a sena- 
Ue trace also. Indeed, the direction of the wind remiuniag the 
Mine, its fi»ce and duration aeem atmost entirely to regulate the 
qaantity of muriatic acid ia the atmosphere; which oompletely 
establishes the fiu:t ^t it is brought from the sea by the me- 
chanical action of powerful currents of ^r. The utmost dis- 
tance to whi^ sea-water is conveyed by tempestuous trinds is 
Bot easily determined. Sir H. I^svy, in his £Iem«it8 of A^- 
cultund Chemistry, p. S95, states, that " in great stcrros the 
spray of tile sea has been carried more than fifty miles from the 
shore ;^ but he does not give hb authority. Being at Blackv^, 
m Derbyshire, the residence of my relative John Bladtwall, 
Esq. on the 9M of November 1814, when a violent hurritsne 
•ecurred, whidi did extenuve damage on the southern coast, I 
took several opportunities of examining the rain which fell at 
intervals on that occasioD, and unif(»inly found that it became 
extremely turbid on application of the test, evidently coutainii^ 
tnuch more muriaiic acid thau nun collected in large towoa, 
duriag cdm weather, is ever found to contain. The etooR 
eomraenced on tbe^night of the 22d of November, and conti^ 
nued, with little abatemeitf, till after noon on the SSd. The 
wind Mew from the south all the time, and the place of ob«er> 
vaUon is 140 or 150 miles from the eea in that direction. This 
U, peiliaps, the greatest distance oa ^eoord to which sea-water 
bas been dearly ascertamed to be conveyed by the wiod ; and 
Aat it extended much further is lu^ly (Mnobable.— J/anciedMr 
•Memmrg, vol. v. New Series. 

4. WUd Animais in the Iliinoit Couatrg, in North Amtrieu, 
<^-The bt^iiio has entire^ left us. Betbve the catintry wa* 
settled, immease pndries aKirdcd. poituBage to-large hndsof 
this aninal, and the traces of tJum are still nnaini^ in the 
•* bufialo paths,'' which are to be seen in •seneal parts itfi-tlw 


State. These are well beaten ti»ct«, leading geoe^rally from Ijia 
pntiriee in the iaterigr of tlie state, to tlie mftrgios of the Jai^e 
rivers ; shewing the course of their migrattoiis as they change^ 
their pastures periodically, fioax the low nscshy ^UttYiiun bq 
the dry upland plaias. In the heat of smsmei they would be 
driven froio the latler by the prfurie ffies ; in the autujnn tbey. 
would be «xpdled from the former by the mosquitoes ; in the 
spring the gTftss pf the plains would afford abundant pastuiagt^ 
while the herds could enjoy the warmth oi the sun, and snuff 
the breeze that Sflreeps so freely over theta; in the winter, the 
rich cane on the ri^er banks, which is an evergreen, would fuTt 
nish faod,-n-while the low grounds, thickly covered with tol^ 
and forest, would afford protection from the bleak winds. I 
know few subjects more interesting than the migration of wild 
animals, connecting, as it doea, the singular display of brute 
instiiut, with a wonderful exbibibon of the various supplies 
which nature has provided for the support of animal life, undei 
Ml endless variety of circumstances. These paths are Darrow* 
and ranarkably direct, shewing that the animals travelled in 
fungle file through the woods, and pursued the most direct 

ecmte to their places of destination.^ Deer are more abuo- 

(lant than at the first settlement of the country. They increase 
to a certain extent, with the population. The reason of this 
^ipears to be, that they find protection in the neighbourhood of 
mui, from the beasts of prey that aasajl them in the wilderness^ 
and from whose attacks, their young particularly can with dif- 
ficulty escape. They suffer most from the wolves, who huijt 
in packs like hounds, and who seldom give up the chase until a 
deer is -taken. We have often sat, on a moqniiglit summer 
va^X, M the door of a log-cabin on one of our prairies, and 
beard the wtdres in full chace of e deer, yelling very nearly id 
the same manner as a pack of hounds. Sometimes the cry would 
be heard at a great distance over the plain ; then it would die 
away, and again be distinguished at a nearer point, and in ai^ 
other dicection ;-— now the full cry would burst upon us from a 
nejghbonriilg thicket, aad we would almost hear the sobs of the 
(!XhaaBted,dser ;-^nd again it would be born away, and lost in 
tba dietsDce. We have passed nearly whole ni^ts in listening to 
puch sounds i asd once we saw a deer dash through the yard, 

184 Seimtijlc Inte^gmce.^-Zoologif. 

mA immedutelj pa§B the door &t which wc sat, fullowc-d by his 
■udRcious pursuers, who were but a few yards in his rear. — 
ZtDBQetiBe nmnbers of deer are killed every year by our hunters, 
irho take diem tin' thar hams and skius alone, throwing away 
the rest of the carcass. Venison hams and hides are important 
articles of export : the former are purchased ftom the hunters 
at S5 cents a pair, the latter at SO cents a pound. In our vit 
lages we purchase for our tables the saddle of veoisoa, with the 
bams attached, for 37^ cents, which would be something like 
1 cent a pound. — There are several ways of hunting deer, all 
t^ which are equally ample. Most generally the hunter pro- 
ceeds to the woods on horseback, in the day-time, selecting par- 
ticularly Certain hours, which are thought to be most favourable. 
It is said, that, during the season when the pastures are green, 
this animal rises from his lair predsely at the rising of the moon, 
whether in the day or night ; and I suppose the fact to be so, 
because euch is tiie testimony of experienced hunters. If it be 
true, it is certsinly a curious display of animal instinct. This 
fcour is therefore always kept in view by the huntert as he rides 
slowly through the forest, with his rifle on his shoulder, white 
Itls keen eye penetrates the snrrounding shades. On beholding 
a deer, the hunter slides from his horse, and, while the deer is 
observing the latter, creeps upon him, keeping the largest trees 
between himself and the object of pursuit, until he gets near 
enough to fire. An expert woodsman seldom fmis to hit his 
game. It is extremely dangerous to approach a wounded deer. 
Uniid and harmless as this animal is, at other times, be no 
sooner finds himself deprived of the power of flight, thaS he be- 
comes furious, and rushes upon his enemy, making 'desperate 
plunks with his sharp horns, and striking and(rATt(p]ihg''foM- 
ously with his fore-legs, which, being extremely muscular', and 
armed with sharp hoofd, 'are capable of inflicting 'vetf serine 
wounds. Aware bf this circumstance, the hunter ttppnMttbes 
Rim with caution, and eithftr secures h!« prey bytf webntbshdt, 
where the first hds been but partially Bucceasfii!, or, m 4s«cre 
ftequently the case,' causes his Sog to seize the wouiMed aniiilil, 
wbile he watches his own oppbriunity to stab 'hiiai with 'His 
huMlng-ktlife, Sometimes where a odiAis 'bucknthc-virthi, 
and the huwer it impaticDt or inexperienced,t»rribl« xiooftt* 

ensue on sudi occanons.— AnoUier mode-, is to vttth tf night, 
in the neighbourhood of the saltJicks. These are- spota lAere 
the earth is impregnated vith saline portaclea, ornkere the wlft- 
water oozes through the soil. Beer and other grazing animlifa 
frequent such places, and remain for hoars Itelung thfr eoi^ 
The hunter secrets himsdf here, ather in the thick top of' ■ 
tree, or most generally in a eoreen erected' for the porpaae, aad 
artfully concealed, like a mask-batterf , with logs or greeb 
bou^s. This practice is pursued only in the sutniner, or ewly 
in the autumn, in doudless nights, wh«t the moon ihtnes bt^ 
liantly, and objects may be readily discovered. At the risitig 
of the moon, or shortly after, the deer having risen from their 
beds, apjHxwch the Hck. Such places are generally dennded of 
timber, but surrounded by it; and as the animal is aboat to 
emerge from the shade into the dear moon-tight, be stops, looks 
cautiously around, and mufis the air. Then he advances a few 
Steps, and stops again, smells the ground, or ruses his expanded 
Dostrits, as tf he "snuSed the approach of danger ta eveiy 
tainted breeze.^ The hunter sits motionlesE^ i^ tnott-lneath- 
less, waiting until the animal shall get within rifl&«hot, and 
until its position, in relation to die buDt«- and the light, shall 
be favourable, when he £res with an unerring aim. A few deer 
only can be thus taken in one night, and after a few nights 
these timorous animals are driven from the haunts which are 
thus disturb^. — Another practice b called driving, and is ooly 
practised in those parts of the country where this kind of game 
is scarce, uid where hunting is pursued as an amuaeoidiit. A 
large pi^y is made up, and ^ hunters ride fordfc with their 
dogs. The hunting ground is selectedi and, as it is prtUy n^ell 
known what tracts are usually taken by tbe deer when-stmiBd, 
an iadiridual is plaoed at, each of those passages,' to inteiQ^t 
the retreiding animal. The seene of aotion bein^ in some m^- 
Buce, surrounded, small partiee advanee with U)e,dc^ ffoni.ibf- 
'f«ent -directions, and the stattled deer, in flying, moel generdlty 
pass aocae <£ the- persons who- are cOae^eAy and-who fird at 

them as they pasa. -The eS< has disappeared. A few.hafe 

been Kx» df late years, and Bometaken-; but it is not loaown 
thM anyremaiu at (Ms- time, wtthin the luMts of the- States.*- 
'Tfceieoi'iB-Mldon seoo. This aiuBwl inbahits thole ^ris of 

t90 SeitHtiflc laidli^nce^—ZMk^ff. 

t)w lOeuatr^tbtt we thkkiy vocxW, and ddi^U pariiculMrljt 
Wi(»Qe4«nke«, wbece it feeds ja the mntxr oa the teoder alioots 
of.'tbe <y<»ing .caiie. The meat is taukr and finely Aavcuredf 
«pd U'fitteepied a gneat delicacy. H'oJuev are very ntimerotuio 
Cilery part of the state. Tbeie are tno kioda : the cottunon or 
klaaV wdf, aad the fiwiiie volf. The Conner i« a large £eree 
winul* wd very destnictive to ^becp, {sgs, calvee, poultry, and 
wen yotmg colts. They bunt in lai^ pocks, and after ubi^ 
every «tratig»n to circiunTent thm prey, attacJi it with re- 
marksble fgrocaty. like the lodian, they always eodeaTour W 
wipnae tbmr rictiia, aod strike the mortal blow without eK- 
poiiiig tboaselvee to dai^er. They eeldom attack man exeept 
Vhep aalec|> «r wounded. The largest aoinialt, when wounded^ 
«Dt*l>gled, or otberwiae diaabkd, become tbeir pneyt but ia 
general they only attack such as are incafnable of reEwtaiic8> 
They hare been known to lie in wait upon the bank of a aoiewii, 
which the bufiUoes were in the h^t of crosui^, and, when one 
of tboae uowi^y animals was to imfottuoate as ta jink in the 
noire, t^ing suddenly upon it, and worry it to deaUi, whole 
tbue diaabkd from Feaistance. Their most camniDB pnj is the 
d^er, wludi they hunt r^ulsrly ; but all defenceless apimale 
4ce alUifl acceptable to tb^ ravenous «ppetite& WbentesiiMed 
by hunger, (hey approach the &nn-houaes in die sight, pni 
watch thai prey tram uadet the very eye of the fattner ; ajod 
when the latter is abaeoL with his dogs, the voJf ia aametinaea 
aeen by the feoaisles luxking about in nud~dAy, as if aware. q£ the 
VDpratfict^ Btateoflhefaauly. Our heroic £eaaaies havesoiDe- 
(ieoes Aat tbem imder sueh eircumataQcea. The stnell of bum- 
ipg. atnafcBtida iiM a KnMBkd)le eSeot upon this aniia^ .If* 
fire, be UMlte » the woods, and « pcwtioa of t^ idfug- thEOwh 
ii^ it.'flO'BB^ta oatiirate the alaoospbas with the odoib", the 
swlivei^ if any are wUhin reach of the scent, kamediately aissKibie 
anNind, howling in the most mournful manner ; and such is di» 
iieanrkable faccination under which they seem to labour, that 
they will oftHi sufier Uiemselvea to be shot down r^er than 
quit the ^t. Of iJie very few instances of their aUaaiaaff 
bwaan bein^ of which we have heard, the foUowisg may serve 
to.gvve.e<»>iieidfiaof.thflir halnts: In vary .early tines, aN^ar 
man wias paausg in the nighi^ to the ivwet part of Keatocfcyv 

iSUeni^ bUtOgetux.'^Zaolagp. Wl 

tjmta me aeUlemmt to uioliier. The disUiace wm iewvni nilu, 
and the country over Hhkfa he tmellod eatiraly anailtled. in 
tbe nKsning bis carcass wsi fouad entirely stripped of Setku 
Near it lay his aie, oDwed with blood, and aU around, tb* 
buahw WCTE beat down, the grouixl tioddtn, and the mtmber of 
feotttracta to great, sa to show ^t the uafortimate TJotitn had ' 
fwi^t long and manfolly. On puiwiiiig his track, it «]^teaKd 
that the wolves had pursued him &r a. considerable dtstanoe, he 
had often turned upon them and dfiven thran back. Severs} 
timet tbey had attacked iuta, and been repelled, as aj^wared by 
the blood and tracks. He had kSled some of then before the 
final oDset, and in the last conflict had desWoyed sevens j hh 
axe was his only v/eapcat. The pratrie<nu^is a smaller ipeoea, 
which taks its aane fiem its habits, or MGading entir^ apOK 
the open plains. Eveo whm hunted with dogs, it will mak# 
orcuit after dicint nwad the prairie, carefully svoidhig tfie fa- 
rest, <ff only dashing into it occauonally when hard prewed, sad 
then ratunuDg to the plain. In size aad appeacanoe this ani- 
tnal is midway between the wolf and the tax, and in colour it 
lesembles the hitter, being of a very light red. It preys upoD 
poultty, rabbits, young pigs, «ajves. Sic The most friendly re- 
lations subsist between this animal and the coramtxi -wtAf, aad 
they constantly hunt in packs together. Nothing is more com- 
nuHi than to see a large black wolf in company with several 
prame>wcdves. I am well satisfied that the latter is the jackal 
of Asia. Several yaan ago, au agnraiknr^ sooMy, aihich was 
established at the seat of government, offered a large premium 
to the person who should kill the greatest number of wolves in 
one yeu-. The legislature at the aaioe time offered a bounty 
for each wolf-scalp that .sboidd be taken. The fianaequnice 
was, that the expenditare for wolf-scalps foeeame so gmt, as to 
render it necessary to repeal the law. These animals, although 
still numerous And troublesome to the iazmer, ^re greatly de, 
oreased in number, and are no Jonger dai)gerous-ta< nna. We 
know of ik>'ifutsi>eeft» late years of ahiHiiadbMn^iMThig been 
attacked by them: — FeaihenUmehaugiCs Journal. 

5. EnUmid^y in Scotland. — The great attention which has 
beeii bestowed for many years on the Entomology of England, 
where there-is sooredy a nngle dty. wJthoat one or more asn- 

duous cdlmtprs, reodrav the fact the more xenurii^ietithat. Id 
the northeniporiioa of the ishad, this ileligt)trur«ta6jr '^old 
have mode so slight a prepress. Thra nla; be in some manner 
owing to the want of a proper ekmeataty wotk, ef a sufficiently 
compendioua nature, to gdde the sttideat thnwgh the 'intricacies 
of a subject^ somewhat eacurahwed by-ao umMtled Cystem <^ 
nomenckitiire and arraDgement We are therefore happy to have 
it in OUT power to announce that the first volume is in a forwafd 
state of preparation, of a work entitled EatQUKAsgia Edinensia, 
or a descraptioD and histuy of the Insects indigenous lo the 
oagtibourfiood of Ediabuigh, by Mr James Wilson, F. R: S. E., 
&c and Mr James Duncan. This volume is Intended to con- 
tun the generic characters and specific descriptioos of the cole- 
opterous, insects found in the district just named, combined with 
a general history of their localities, economy, and metamor- 
phoses. An introductory essay will present a general view of 
the CUk Inaecta, — pointing out ite distinctive attributes and 
telatioas to the other great divisions of the animal kingdoto, and 
including an account of the anatomical structure, phyeitdogy, 
geographical, distribution, G(c. of the extensive ordee, to o-por- 
tton of which the descriptive part of the fcfflhcoming ^ohnne 
^uJusiv^y rehites. 


6. Heigkta ^Mountains and Lakes in North. America ;->- : 
Loi^FeikCbippeiTe;*!), or Bock; MouDtaliu, ...16,00^ fet. . 

Mount WashingtoD, N. Hampshiie,* 6,234 

M^isfield Mountain, N. Peak, Veimont, 4,279 

CatsUB Moontrfas, Bound Top, N. YoA, ^eO» 

UMlUillB,Lat.4«.NW.ofUlamiri, 9,600' 

AU^um; Moimtaiiii, In Tli^iiiis, 3,lWt 

Ozarc AIouutaliiB, weit of MiBsusiypi, S,2fi9 

WiscoDson Hills, S. of !Ltike Superior, 2,350 

CatskUl MounUdnhouse, N. York, 2,2H ' 

' aowvMDfatreunitilbatarftnldkes^^iuipec'UiS 

Superior, .; - „... 1,3W . : ,, 

Headwat«rioftheHu«igsippi, ],aOO 

Break Neck, nem West Point FouDderj, 1,187 

BalnjLake,SE.oftheL(dteofthe Woodd, :... 1,100 

Toum Mountain, Ktmni^ooi'N.'iNTief, i.. IJWT ' 

i .. , , ...... \,;-f 

. . .. : IbiBiKtfaelolUeBt.ofthFWfattf U^VDtsiw- -.<..(.,.> 

Scknt^ InttJUgenn. — Geeb^: ' 189 

^.IUka,itf«ha.VMdv—.>-- • -•» . IfM* 

Dog V*«, , ifim 

Spuree of ths Miami, »U ^ , 

Source of [he Scicpta, 919 

Sources of the St Fet«r and Red RiTcn,. 830 

HMth4^thaFUtta,XMMiri, _ eM 

.Ui)ikthoftlM-8t.i'*tcr,Mi«iMiKii, „ ^., S9t 

JUbWinn^peq , „ 505 

Lake Superior, „ STl 

I^tes Huron tnd Michigan, 571 

OUo.uemrWheeltDg', Virginia. MB 

LJcBEri^i. :. Me 

OUo, at Ondnatti, ., 414 , 

Point Levi, opposite Quebec, 310 

Mouth of the Ohio, 300 

I.ake Ontario, „ „ 231 

Ftalhtnlondiali^'a Atimitan Journal qf Gtoltffp. 


7. On the Gold, Siher, and Platina iif Russia.— The art- 
Husl [H<oduce of nlrer in the Runias, is estimated at ^ut 1000 
pouda, o( forty pounds each ; but what, after all, is this 1000 
pouds, er 40,000 pounds, to the produce of the Valendana tnJne' 
in Mexico, which ior manj long years produced its millions of 
dollars annually ? " Young Demidoff had not yet returned throat 
Italy ; from his relation and agent DaniloS*, I met with every 
attention. Hia cabinet contuned many beautiful specimens «rf 
platina, most of which were designed as presents to the crowned 
beads of Europe. Although some ^ngle masses of platina 
weighed seven or aght pounds, none could be cmnpared to 
those in the cabinet of the mining oorps, one of whidi wdghed 
about S7 pounds. My own specimens, which wire presented 
to me by Zobolefsky, altbou^ weighing 800 gr^ns each, and 
d which I had been not a little proi^d, dwindled away, in the 
view of tbo great varieties lying in profusion in Demidoff's ca< 
binet. Owner of the most celebrated platina depositi^. and gold* 
washings, he had had many opportunities, in the MfUrse of « 
few years, of selecting and putting aside not only Iqrge maonve 
lumps of gold and platina, but what wasi yet. more inter^tmg, 
a great variety of most beautiful aod perfect crytt^s of gold. 
The mass of platina before alluded to, as w^ghing ^ pounds, 
was found completely isolated, altid at nearly 60 versta from the 

19d Scientific IntdHgenee. — Afmerahgjf. 

usual deponid of ]^tina, in a bed of red ehij, where some staves 
were employed in making bricks. Those sl,reains in the beds 
and on the banks of which the gold deports are met with, con- 
tain more of gold, and lees platina, on the European than 
those on the Asiatic ade of the tJr^ Mountains. The amount 
of gold obtained from these washings, had amounted for the 
year 1830, to nearly half a million sterling. It may be well 
nnagtned to what an extent their operatiotis must be extended, 
when the 100 pouds, or 4000 pounds weight of soil, seldom 
yield above 6S grains of gold, and varies from 65 to 180 grdns, 
—which is there conadered rich, — to tlie 100 pouds. Never- 
theless, their mining operadons are conducted with such skill 
and success, as even. to obtun, of thit limited quantity, nearly 
the iriiole amount ; and that, too, with such little cost, as to have 
been, indeed, far beneftth my expectation. Of the simple ond 
yet beautiful processes m«de use of in the gcJd-washings of the 
Ural MoontMins, I shall speak hereafter, well convinced of the 
great utility and service which they would be of , if made known 
to the mining regioni of otiier countriea^ The Demidoffs, Da- 
^doffs, and many other Russian families, are acquiring princely 
revenues from the employment of their slaves in these gold- 
washings ; but it is not alone the gold, — the plaUna itself is ano- 
thw great source of their prosperity ; more especially since all 
the plalina is now coined at the imperial mint, and established 
as part of the curr^it txaa of the realm. The coins made of 
platina are beautiful ; those large pieces with the head of the 
Emperor «re the best, and show better the effect and polish 
which coins of this metal can take. Though many hundred 
pounds weight of platina are coined mcxithly, into pieces of 11 
and 22 rubles, they disappear rapidly from the drculation. 
They may be met with occasionally, and a few at a time, in the 
hands of the brokers. I consider their price much above the 
London price of malleable platina, which is at present about S5 
AMogt English per ounce : considering that the crude platina 
is the produce of the country, the Russian price for malleable 
platimi, wHch is lAout SSs., is too extravagant; and yet this 
does not arise from the expense of manufacturing, but from the 
east of the material itself, which is far higher than. the platina of 
South America. The cause of this is the monopoly and easy 

Sciaiti/kJnUaigener.~-Botaiu/. 191 

dupMal of it, at a high-piioey tkrough Um edaage.'^F^aiher' 
ttonehau^t Journal, September 1881. 

8 a^gaphgfiiam orioKtwi of Jaaquio.— This spedea of tbe 
Giuiyacan or Bean-captr tree, ia a GomnM» mtiTe of the pro- 
vince of Carthagena ia South America. It grows to the height 
of 40 feet, and the wood ia remarkably deoK and heavy, bai^ 
of greater specific gravity than tlw uwst compact oak. The 
Spanish §ettlers ^>eak with enthusiasai of ita durability. It hag 
heeo found by experience to be so lasting, when driven aa {nles 
into the g^wmd, that they often give it the naioe of imperUh- 
ahle wood. As it does not contra any galiic acid or tannin, 
iroo-faateninga do not act injurieusly upon it. This timber, it 
k beUeved, might easily be piocHred i and it might be worth 
wllil* to try some pilea cf it id our stm-piera, in the hope that it 
would resst the attacks of the minute but very destructive ma. 
tioe insect (Lemnoria terebraiu of Leach), the ravages of which 
imvie hitherto baffled the ing^iiity of our engineers 

List of Patents granted in England, fiom M August lo 30(A 

August 1831. 

Aug. S- To Mr J. C. Ahcbuoit, Bart. Bultenant Caatle, county of Cork, 
" for certain Improved nucbiuerjr for propelling veneli on voter, 
which machinery is applicable to other useful purposes." 
3, To J. Hall, youngeT, Bartford, engiiieer, " for an iraprorementi 
in machmery used in the manufacture of paper," Communicatud 
by a foreigner. 

10. To J. M. E- Abdit, Newman Street, Oxford Street, printer, " for 
'. .» machiDe m apparatus for drawing, utd for ct^ying and redit- 

cing drawings and other objects or subjects, and for Ukiiig pano- 
ramas." Communicated by a foreigner. 

To A. CocHEAUE, Esq. Norton Street, Great Portland Street, 
« for certain improvements In machinery for propelHng or mo- 
ving locomotiTO carriages, and giving motion to milb and othw 

To W. Maboh, London, patent axle-tree maker, « for certain im- 
provements in the conatruclion of wheeled carriages." 

11. To D. Seldxn, Liverpool, merchant, " for certain improvements 

192 LUt <fPatentt. 

In metallic miUe fiiT gtindlng cofiee, com, drug^ p^U, tnd va. 
rious other msteiiali.'' Communicated b; a jbreigner. 
Aug. 13. To A. W. GiLLET, Birmingham, " for a new or improved machiae 
or InHtniment lo measure, beat, and give the accents in all the 
different maode of time, with an j degree of velodt; required, ap- 
plicable to the teaching of music" Communicated bj a fiireigner. 

27- To J. Pebkiks, Fleet Street, ei^^neer, " for his improvement on 
his former patent, dated Julj 3. 1831 ; maldng the same applica- 
ble to the evaporating and boiling of fluids for certain purposes." 

iO, To B. Aingworth, Birmingham, button-maker, " for an improve- 
ment in the making and constructing of buttons." 

Xist o/" Patents granted 'm Scotlrmdjrom \St'h to 98rt March 
Uarch Ifi. To Joel Beitcstct Nott of Liverpool, Esq. in conseqnence of 
a communication made to him by a certain foreigner redding 
ttliroad, and invention hj himself for " certain improvement^ in 
the constructidn of a furnace or furnaces for generating heat, 
and in the apparatus for the applicalian of heat to various use- 
ful purposes," being farther Improvements upon a patent ob- 

' toined by him, dated the 4th day of November 1830. 

To JoaK EaicssoK of Liverpool, in the county palatine of Lan- 
caster, civil engineer, for an Invention of ''' an improved engine 
for communicating power to mechanical purposes." 
21. To James Thousoii of Gorbals, city of Glasgow, and county 0! 
Lanark, distiller, for an Invention of '■ an improvement on the 
construction of distilling apparatus, and particularly of the con- 
denser or worm." 
2G. To Petek Yodhq of Fenchurch Street, rope and sul maker, in 
consequence of a communication made to him by a certain 
foreigner residing abroad, for a new mode of " manufkcturing 
mangel wurzel, for the purpose of producing various known ar- 
ticles of commerce." 

To Elijah Gallowat of Carter Street, Walworth, in the county 
of Surrey, en^neer, for an invention of " certain improvements 
on paddle-wheels." 

To Henst Wabneb of Loughborough, in the county of Leices- 
ter, hosier, Chables Hood of the same place, frame smith 
and setter up, and Benjahin Abbot, also of the same place, 
frame-work knitter, for an invention of " certain improvements 
upon the machinery now in use for m;jking or manufacturing 
stockings, stocking-web, or frame-work, knitting.warp we)>, 
warp-net, and" 



Memoir of William Roacos, Esq. liy Dr Thomas Stsvabt 
Tbaill, F.R.S.E., Sec Communicated by the Author. 

" CUrorum Vironim beta moresque posteria tradere antiquitiu unta- 
tum, ne nostiis quidem temporibus, quanquam incurioaa fuonim 
KUa amirit, quoticoa magna aLqua ac Dobilii virtua vMt ac •I4>er- 
gicssa eat vitium, parrla magnU^ue Civitatibiu cominime, ignonm* 
tian recti et iavidiam." — Taciti Vita Ajpieoia. 

In the Benteuce now quoted, Titdtua hu justly indicated the 
true objects of bit^aphy ; and, although iu this humble notice 
of our late illuEtiious President*, Ido notptctfeBStheintentionof 
handitig down his character and vtrtuee to posterity (a task ioi- 
tunately confided to abler hands'f-), yet I feel satisfied, that this 
attempt will not be displeasing to a Society of which he was at 
once the ornament and the head. As our age cannot be justly 
aocuaed of want of curiosity respetiiDg our contemporaries, it 
does not deserve to be characteriaed as i^orant on envious of 
merit. If, in' tradng the career of Mr Roscoe, we find him ris- 

* Bead before the Literary and PhilosopfaicttI Suciety of Liverpool in^Oc- 
tober 1831. 

■f The public will soon hare the satisfecWon of receiving from the' pen irf 
Heni7 Rfwcoe, Esq. barrigter-at-law, a life of hb fktber, illuatrated by selec- 
tions from an ezteniire and interefltlng coirefpondence with many ilisLin- 
guished characters of bia age. 


I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

194 Memair of VTMam Roscoe, 'Esq. 

ing, by his own exertions, from obscurity to emmence^ that age 
and that country have some dsims to commendation in whioh 
the fmve of genius can overcome the obstacles of birth and for- 
tune and elevate its possessor to the society of ^ the n^Mest and 
wisest of the land. 

WiLLiAU R«S€(« was bom on the 8th of March 17SS, m 
the Old BowUng-green Housey which still exists in Mount 
Pleasant *, and is well known to many peraons by the engra- 
ving from a dmvtng by Ausdu. His paNnts, in- hundbid but 
comfortable circumstances, were little able to advance his edu- 
cUioD ; yet anxious for his imjHnvement, at the age of six they 
sent him to a scbool, kept by a Mr Mardn, for the elementaty 
instructicm of children ; whence, in about two years, he was re- 
.moved to the seminary of Mr Sykes, at that time a oxiKderaUe 
private school in Liverpool. 

The instruction which young Roscoe here recdved was con- 
fined to English reading, writing, arithmetic, and the elements 
of geometry. At ibe age> of twelve years he left school, from 
which pefiod he may be said to have been, in a great measure, 
his own instructor, until about the age of sixteen, whffli he was 
articled as derk to Mr John Eyes, a respectable attorney in this 
town. During the four years that elapsed between his leaving 
school and entering Mr Eyee*s office, he ooeupied himself with 
desultory English reading, in cultivating some 6elds rented by 
fais fothef, raid in frequenting the ps^ting-room of a porcriafea 
manofaetory in the neigf^bourhood, where he amused himsetf 
mth painting on china.' 

At that period of his Me his' Eoglisb reading 8[q>earE to have 
been rather confined. His favourite afutbors were ^ak^teare, 
Shenstooe, the poemtr of Mrs Cathnime I^i^M, and the Spec- 
tator. Prom tbe IbrtOet ht imbibed a decided predUeotioii f« 
poetry, and his taste tor EngH^ composition was [nobably no- 
d^ed on the el^ant examples contained in the latter. It is 
curious to trace his attachment to botany and the 6ae arts tathia 
«at1y period. The phencnaena of vegetaticHi, and the cultiva- 
tion of plants, appear to bare made a deep in^resnon on his 
youthful mind ; and in the little cultivate of his fktIterV fields^ 
• A. street in Idveipool 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

Memoir of Klffiam Aokw, £19. 396 

we wan tnwe^e eBd)r7o botmiit, to whoR ordeiit vbthunuoi 
in lAer yesra, v» owe our botanic gardes, Akf nvrZal the'Dcw 
■nrangemeot (rf Sdtanonen, and the nqterb botaaioal .{)drii- 
catioa on the same beautiful order of plants. The eariy tattjs 
in paintmg china-ware seem also to have first iaapired Innvi^ 
a lore of the fine arts, and drew him on to cultivate hk taste in 
th^ arts of de«gn, in which he not oiily diipli^ed the kiumiedge 
of an intellig^t amateur, but such practical pnifioienc!y,uiiiigbt 
have led to emiafnce, had his genius not been dincteditftodtar 
channels, as several slight but spirited etduogB by hia hami, 
yet in existence, amply testiiy. 

The rudiments of Latin he acquired between the age at n>- 
teen and twenty, by his own unassisted efforts, thou^ at a later 
period he read several of the best Latin authors in company 
■with his friends the late William Clarke and Richard Lowndes, 
two young men of Liverpool, equally intent with himself on 
menta] improvement. 

I may here men^n, it was not until a comparatively lat<t 
period of his life, and, if I mistake not, after ^e publication (^ 
the Life of Lorenzo had ^ven him celebrity, that he began to 
study Greek, In a copy of Homer in possession of Ins Caniily, 
we find the following note : — " Finished the Odyssey the day I 
came to Allerton, 18th March 1799.— W. K." 

From his fifteenth to his twentietb year, he appears, from 
some memoranda which be has left, to have studied very assidu- 
ously during his leisure hours ; and he luckily found some a&> 
oodates, with congenial tastes and habits, of whose fnendahip he 
always ^Kike, to his latest hour, with afiectionate regard. 
Among those the most conspicuous were Mr Edward Rogers, 
Mr WilUsm Clarke, Mr Richard Lowndes, Mr William Keil. 
son, and Mr Francis Holden. To the latter, whose various a«- 
qairetnents and extraordinary talents were in after life the ft«. 
quent theme of Roscoe's enthusiastic encomiums, he was di^tosf 
ed tn attribute his first inclination to the study of modem Jaii- 
guages; and he bad pleasure in acknowledging, that it was by 
the adviee and encouragement of this young friend, that h? de- 
voted himself assiduoasly to die study of Italian. In his ac- 
quisidon of the elements of Frraoh and Italian, he does not 
seem to have had any other asoGtance than the advice and en- 

196 Memoir of WtOxam Sotcoe, Esq. 

oouiagement of youog Holden, "who, seeing the aptitude and iiN 
duetry of his friend, rtrenuoudy urged him to pursue tbe path 
which his own genius had opened to hia aspirations after literary 

In fact, Ro«coe owed very little of his acquirements to any 
ihstnictor. What he drew from the conTersation of his early 
assooates, there is every reason to believe be amply repaid in 
kind ; and, with the ^gle exception of Buma, I do not know 
any *^ our dbdogiushed writers who is lets indebted to others 
for aBastance in the road to literary eminence than William 
RoscoE— <ertmnly few of them could with more truth exclaim, 
in the language of Pkemitu, when a suppliant to Ulysaes, — 

"AvTiiiiiiKrH flif"- 

During the time <^ his apfu'enticesbip, Mr Roscoe formed an 
agreement with his friends Clarke, Lowndes, and Holden, to 
meet early in the morning, before the hours of business, for the 
purpose of reading together some I^atin aqthor, and discours- 
ing on what they read. The example of these youthful stu- 
dents cannot be too earnestly inculcated on the rising generation 
of this place, while the success of one at least of them in tji^ 
fields of literature is a striking proof of what may be obtained 
by such appropriation of hours too often lust to mental improve- 
ment. While classic authors thus engaged his morning le^re, 
Roscoe continued earnestly to cultivate Italian literature. It 
would seem that, before his twentieth year, he had read, in the 
original, several of the Italian historians, and, at that time even, 
had set his mind on becoming the biographer of Lorefizo d^' 
Medici, the great patron of the early restorers of ancient leara- 

He had, from an early period of his life, felt the force of po&- 
tic inspiration, and had undoubtedly cultivated th^ Muses with 
high promise of brilliant success, ere he had attained his twen- 
tieth summer. A considerable number of hia eariy verses re- 
main, which breathe an ardent spirit of poetry. Some of these 
are addressed to a young lady of the same age, whose poetical 
genius had excited his warmest admiration, and wl}0 appears to 
have no less admired the talents of Roscoe. One of hcf MS. 
poems, written about 177^ contains the following line^, irbich 

Memoir of William Roxcoe, Esq. 197 

at once prove the poetic powers of the author (destined after- 
wards to b«come the mother of an emineDt poet), and shew her 
discernment ip detecting, in the unknown attorney's clerk, the 
genn of future eminence : — 

. f But cease, n; Muse, unequal to tbe task. 
Forbear t^e effort I and to noblei; hands 
Resign the lyre ! Thee Eoscoel every Muse 
■ Uncalled attends, and unlnvolied inspires: 
In blooming shades and amarantbioe bofrers 
They weave fjie future garland for thy brow, 
'And wut to. crown thee with inunortal fioie ;— 
Thee Wisdom leads in alt her lovely walks, 
Thee Genius fires, and moral beauty charms ; 
Be it thy task to touch the feelinj; heart, 
Correct its passiuni, and ciait its aims j 
Teach pride to own, and owning to obey 
Ftur Virtue's dictates, and her aacred laws ; 
To brighter worlds shew thou tbe gioilous read. 
And be thy life as moral as thy song." 
Congeniality of disposition and genius drew close the bands 
of friendship between this lady and Mr Uoscoe ; and it is worthy 
of notice, that his first published production, the poem entitled 
Mount Pleasant, written at the age of nineteen, was originally 
inscribed to her, although, when printed, the address was 

This poem, which exhibits, with considerable power of versi- 
iicatioh, a warm poetical feeling of the beauties of nature, is 
still more remarkable for the indignant apostrophe to Britons 
oh the slave-trade ; an expression of generous sympathy with 
tbe suffering sons of Africa, which it required no inconsiderable 
' share of moral courage to promulgate at that period, and in the 
chief seat of the odious traffic. 

" shame to mankind I But shame to Britons m{)gt, - 
Who all the sweets of IJberty can boast ; 
I- ■- Yot, deafto ev'ry human claim, deny 
■ - . i . ThKt Uin to otfaenwbich themselves enjoy : 
, ., . . l^e'i Utter draught with hor^H bitter fill. 
Blast ev'ryjoy, and add to ev'ry ill; 
The trembling limbs with galling iron bind. 
Nor loose tbe heavier bondage of tbe mind." 
'I'hese lines are here chiefly quoted to shew how early Roscoe 
denounced the traffic in human flesh ; and that the love of li- 
berty which marked his whole life, was in him, not the crea- 

198 JUemmr of WUliam Sotcoe, Etg. 

tkn <^ drcumBtaDces that brought him into public oo^ce, bnt 
bad gp-ownupiritfihia expe n di ng fitcoltiea^ and beoaat c oB fawe d 
hy the refiections of his maturer yearis. 

While Roscoe was thus improving his litflrary taste in the 
moments snatched from the fatigues of his precession, he devo- 
ted no incondderable portion of bn attaitioD to the stud; and 
promotion of the fine arts in his native town. He was the chief 
instigator, and most active member, of a small society formed 
here in 1772, "Jbr the encouragement qf desigmnff, drawing, 
and painting;'" and he nsad before that associadon,' at one of 
its first meetings, an ode, addressed to the institution, which was 
afterwards published with the poem of Mount Pleasant, in 

Soon after th« termination of his articles of clerkship, Mr 
BoBcoe entered ittto partnership as an attorney with Mr Aspi- 
nall ; and in this professibn be continued, first with that gentle- 
man, and afterwards with Mr Joshua Lace, until tbe year 179& 
It is proper to remark, that Mr Roscoe, though eminent a* a 
practitioner, never relished his profession, and had always ex- 
pressed his determination to retire from practice as an oUomey, 
whenever the possesion of a moderate competence should liable 
him to devote his attention to Uterary pursuits. He continued, 
however, for several years to attend sedulously to his budnese ; 
but it was not until the year 1781 that the profiu of his exer- 
tions enabled him to many ; when be was united to Jane, the 
second daughter of Mr William GriHies, a respectable trades- 
man of Liverpool. 

This union was productive of the utmost domestic happiness 
to the subject of this memoir, and made him the happy father 
of seven sons and three daughtere ; all of whom, except a 9m 
and a daughter, survive him. 

For s^eral years after his marriage, at intervals of leisare^ 
he omtrived to increase those rich treasures of literary infonna^ 
tion, and to cultivate that taste for the fine arts^wttidi gave a 
peculiar charm to his conversation, and paved the way to Ihb fu- 
ture celebrity. 

In the year 1787, the agitation of the abolition of the dave- 
trade drew Mr Roscoe into the field of political controverv^ ; 
and he became the author of two anonymous pam[^letB on that 

gDMt qricalicHt.'. The &ntwaiu9^KA " Original Vkuf^the 

Mnea»iSk;vf Trade^ demaivirating H$ i^fnitict ani ifjpafty.j 
mih kinit Umard a Bi&Ji^ m «M»tiot*^ . Tbe s«ooiul wan 
called foctfarb7'tb«.pid)lip£itiDQ «C the B£v. Bajrvonil £bm> 
entMad''' JkH^mf Ji«win^« «)* <A<iA:«f)Kv{^Me..$3«H«. 
3k«dr;^> rTbat tutl)Qf,4iad. ^wn t^auch deitenty^ft a^ ow>tll9- 
TCraUiBt >TtwgetMi«l.K«f>epf his a^ument is baaed op the 
pnotiKa «^,pa»sBtswg bmd-t^vanta \mog m^tiopecl in the 
Uld l;MlRiDeBt, ««boHt aoy. wodenui^Oi^ Cfuanient } wdinKii 
the noted injusetioB of St Paul to the dM)M of the New Teita- 
BwK^ '^ Be eie^iatt-to Aeta thtU art your mMterSt,aceording lo 
Atjk^ wtihjiar andiremblingi^ it tK-iaf«ricd, that Cbmtj*. 
taXy givei a vajraUt for holding our fellow mm in fAxtetj. 
The first pn^ioatioQ waa supported bj. the fac^ th«t Abraham 
and ether very exentpUry pamanoba purchased tlaves or boQii, 
servants w^iout any stigma being esX on their huDUoity oc 
rn^Hde ; and ^ aeoond was defended by the repeMediiguniN 
ttoBs of the apoBtlee to their omttxta to fewr those in authori^ ; 
A. mode of reasoning wlncb has been lately borrowed by two 
Frcd^rtenan divine»/nnn tbia levercnd Jesuit ; whose work, it 
is mdy was ooDndeFod, by the Oonnaoni'CoQncil of Xavei^xiQl.f^ 
that day, as worthy of a donatioQ of L. 200 to ^ authtv. , 

Harris's pamphlet caused a ccmstderabie eeniation ; but was 
SQOQ attacked by the Rev. Mr Sanoet, miaisteg of St Joba^» in 
Lirrerpod, who was erideotly inferior as a oontroTersialist to tus 
Catht^c c^ipoBent ; but the doctrines of the latter v«e abljr 
and warmly attacked in Mr Roscoe'a secood essay, which hvne 
the title of " Serif iwai Be^itkUion <^ a Poan-fMei latd^ pmb- 
Udu4 by A0 Rea- Ra^fmond Harrity «S^" an tbe Chjngtian.pna. 
Ofdes that " all men are equal in the sight aS God," luid tb^ b^ 
iKTokttttnjunctiicn<^thegreal:Fo(H>dero£ouc.religic», ":TJie|:e- 
&tt^l^ tUngs.wb«bBo»Ter ye would that nte^ should doto.yfw, 
doyeeven so to them." 

, Xbe Kjueetion of the sUvemade^ at, that period, ao'eagtasacd 
tht nind of iRoasoe,, that,iR the easie year, ha publirfied his wdl 
known poetic effusion, " The Wrongs of Ajries," in.t.T« ports ; 
titt ^e^m tam the aale.Qf wlitch be pUoed al the diqipaat of 
ths 'ComuMtlea tben.fiainpd for. {^-omobng Uie^wUlMH) of the 
alare-trade ,- . ■ 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,C.-'OOgIf 

306 Mempir ^'WiUiamSoBcot, E*f. 

■ t^e Sodet; ft(r the eiKOurrag«ttettt at the Arts ol Dnip 
had so6a nWhed Away;' but ^MrRotcoe, aiioat the tittK'iMW 
rfhldedto, succeeded' in forHiing a new aasocJAtion for a'Uiallar 
purpose; and to thar McrtHHis tiverpoot is iniebttd Jcnits 
fkH exhibitions of works (^ ait, whi^' were continued for sere* 
rtd years wHh great success. To this Sboirty.which bone lb* 
nain^'of " Livei^wf^ Academy for the Etfaoura^ement of ihfb 
Pftie Arts," Mr Roscoe dtlJvered a serietf of lectufferi-ODtbc 
Ph^ess and Vwisntudts of*T«Bte, whu* ren«m HittnaniMcrjpt^ 
And whk^i he^appMt^ ta have, at one timei oonteaipkitedi't* 
publish, as I'flndnniMig ihfVn a tide-page, >thui — " Ah Hieto- 
■rieal Itiguirg i*lto tke jRiw, firogrets^ and Ficwntadea of Taste, 
■s» exempti^d in' Wor!c» efLitera^reandfxtfAH. ■■ In Ani'SO- 
iuiHM. Fo/, /." The manincrfpt, hoWferfir, does not Mean to 
4nTfr received his- last correcWMB ; tbou^ ttany of the obi^Ka< 
'<k>Hs areonginilandinterestitig. ,.,,,,.. 

' He had alsoj-fdr some years, a^cmrespondeoce with -Mr StruW* 
the engraver asd antiquary, nftd author of ihevAuAleDtt^io- 
■nary ^Engravert. The leUfen of StmU adcnowledga tbsira- 
oeipt of Tuioua itnportuit dnqaiaddns onuthc-hntoif; dfiso- 
^liranng fwca Mr Baacoe.of which, if I mwtfikie 4iot,iMr Strutt 
. avfuled himself, and ineorporaiedtJveni intheprefiBmiaryenBys 
to'-hb Dictionary. 

About Che saaM period, Mr Rdaooe 'CMinocDced hia^iflne ool- 
lection of prints, vhich was parucularlyriofa •» paiotcrs^ietcb- 
ii^atid ragravings of the old masters. This ccAleCtion wis 
chiefly formed between ibe years 1780 and 1790; but aMttiauad 
for many years to receive valuable additions, by everyiourney 
■to London, which his professioRal business cdton rei)de>«i UCces- 
-sary. '■ ■••:<■•■ 

- At a lat«- period be began to collect drawings fay great «»■ 
'ters, and of these his odttection was r^marlcaUy cbpicfe ; 4iisitacte 
and judgment in that department being «xoelleiiL ■■■ ■ ■ " 

FnHn the time when his profewiond exenions pactt^'io his 
power to indulge his el^ant propmntin, the fornmtioa of a 
library became a prominent article in hie expenditure. Simple 
' and refined in his habits, these were his ebief expenses. He was 
' not, however, a mere collector. His bootis, his printst and o^r 

ifemoir ^Williata Rotcoe, Kaq. 201 

««rici.ot orr, were dOigo^y employed to store his miiid, or to 
nif>nwe his Uste, with the. wisdom and art oi toemer ages. 

Id the year 1789, after much previous study of It^ian litera^ 
ture, he begsn to devote hiiaself to the ot^cct of his early atalu- 
tkm, the Life of Lorensm the Maga^cent. In the course of 
that year he wmmuiiioated his intention to his Tidued friend 
William Ctarln (wbo, oq account of his health, in the autumn 
of 17S9»' had 4xed bis residence at Viesole, near Florence), and 
ceqanted his asastanoe in collecting manuscript documents re- 
latingjto the subjeot. The fruits of the friendly exertions of 
that amiable nun are bast ^ven in Koscoe's own words. 

— '" An istitDBte friend, with whom I had been many yearR 
united in studies and affection, had paid a visit to Italy, and 
bad fixed bis winter residence at Flm^nce-. I well knew that I 
had^oaly to request lus assistance, in order to obtain whatever 
information he had an opportunity of pro^itiog, from the very 
i^t which Was to be the scens of my intended history. My 
inquiries «er« paiticularly directed to the Laurendan and BU 
canK Uikranea, which I was convinced would afford much ori. 
■ffiai and interesting information, k would be unjust m^ely 
to s^ that my friend aJKirded me the assistiince I required ; be 
mnt for beytmd even the h^>e8 I had fonned, — and his return 
to bis native country was, if passible, rendered still moce grate- 
fol to tae, by the materials which he had collected for my use *." 

Of these documents several are published entire in the a[>< 
pendix to Boscoe's wcM'k, effiedally the poems of Lormao; the 
existence of which had escaped the knowledge of the ;fonner 
biographers of die Prince^ Merchant. 

From, a very early period, Mr Roscoe had taken a deep in- 
terest in political matters. In the year 1788, he took an active 
part at the meeting which, in LiverpoiJ, as well as in other 
puts of England, . assembled to commemorate the centenary of 
the Revolution that expelled the family of Stuart from the 
throne of these kmgdoms ; and he composed an ode, which was 
rcdted on that occanoo, 

, I« the ftdlowtng year the French Bevoluti<Hi broke out; and, 

in oommon with many warm and generous spirits, he hailed iu 

fair and auspicious dawn with all the devotitm of a friend to the 

• Prefere lo Lorenzo. 

huMniBce, the jKdour.ofa patiiot,. and tbe mlhaaama at m 
poet TB-tba§e vharcooUect die flattcriDg caaaaaiaeBtmt- at 
tb^ extraordinry nnvvnunt, h m TumeceBBary to obaerre^ that 
it vai tiewed with imiaiiaal laliafaorioa : by i a gnm lukjocity.of 
dte-pet^te o€this cOBntij, aa idbrdii^ the fmi^ieet of TBtiio* 
pmrcniMita in the isodal institutioDS of the EuMpeaa coEUnifln. 
wealth. In various places meetings rof ilie frimit o£ Jibertj 
wme bdd, similar to those of the [oeoedinj; ^ar, to cdebvste 
another triumph of a^ireat peofile over aa mgwt and tynuumd 
gOT Uiaw i rt ; and at one of tboae sssemUies Roscoe peodiMMl 
Us two odmirabl* lyrics— 

" O^ the Tine-coverM bflls ani gaj valleys of France," 

•• UnfiiU, Father Ttane, th^ bmg reeisds uoiiU." 
These brilliant and exulting strams were poured forth in the 
year 1789, while " the Genius of French freedom," m the ner- 
vous language of Carrie, "'appeared on our southern horizon with 
the countenance of an angel," — and ere she had yet " assumed 
the features of a demon, and vanished ia a shower of blood.*" 

Mr Roscoe had, on several occasions, made himself cons^ncu- 
ous by his attachment to the cause of civH and religious liberty, 
in such a degree as to attract the notice of several eminent states- 
men, and particularly dt the late Marquis of Lansdowne, with 
whom he maintained a close correspondence until the death of ' 
that nobleman. Literature, and especially politics, were the 
subjects of their correspondence ; and the letters show how con- 
siderable were the parliamentary reforms advocated by the Whig 
statesmen of that period. 

The violence of the second French National Assembly, in the 
two succeeding years, alienated a great many of their admirers 
in this country ; but many good men still hoped that the fei-- 
ment would subside into rational liberty, and deprecated the 
evident hostility which our government begun in 1792 to exhi- 
bit. Among the latter was Mr Roscoe. On the appearance of* 
Mr Pitt's famous proclamation against sedition, the minds 6t 
men were much agitated, and greatiy divided. The friends of 
the minister in Liverpool convened a meeting to thank his Ma- 
jesty for the proclamation. Mr Roscoe, semndedby the late 
William Rathbone, succeeded in carrying a counter-address ; 

Memoir of Wiitiam RoKoe, Esq. 20S 

bnt^ on the faUowiog di^, a mob nm . md doetroyed the «ouii- 
tcr«ddre».wbae it lay foe ngnatuK. 'PaxXy spirit, od that oc- 
cMion, nwe su faigfa id Liirarpool, that a mieU private litcrarji 
soaie^, df wbieh Mr Roscoe, Mr RatUnoe, and Dr Currie 
wcTC iDraibera*y thou^t it expedient to diacontiDue their mect^ 
ings, l«t tiidret^et^ should, hj petty nHbce^ be reprtseDted 
a« ieditjoue or reroludonaiy. 

'On theitHsakiug out of the war with France, Rosooe again ap- 
paaiB OS a political ^rriter. HeioTeigbed a^nst the unjust and 
impolitic interference of this goveinment with France ; and, in a 
pamphlet entitled " Thougltls on the late Failures," published 
in 179di he attributes the mercantile distress of that period to 
the ccmsequNices of our meddling pohcy, a sutgect which he re- 
sumed in 1796, in " Jn Expoivre of the FaUodesof Mr 
Burke't'^ ce)ebrated iuveciiTes against the French Revolution. 

We come now to the priocipal event in the liistory of our 
author, the publication of " the Life <:f^'LoretiZo de' Medtci," 
wjiich appeared in the winter of 1795, in two volumes quarto. 
The work was fainted by John M'Creery in Ijverpool, and is 
a fine e^ieamai of provincial typography, both for accuracy and 
elegance of executtOD. 

The sensation produced by this work was immense ; Uie first 
edition was rapidly exhausted, and a second was demanded by 
the public within a few months. Letters of the most gratifying 
kind were showea'ed on the author from high literary authorities 
in all quarters. Among others, the late Earl of Bristol, Bishop 
of Derry, then reddent at Rome, hailed with the highest en- 
comiums the appearance of an English work, which was the 
suEprise and envy of the Italians ^emselves ; and he imme. 
diately wrote to the publisher to know " what present of Italian 
books would be most acceptable to the accomplished author."' 
Ita success on the continent was no less gratifying. Besides a 
reprint pf the ori^nal, the work was speedily trandated into the 
Italian, French, and German languages ; ^d it procured for 
BoscQe the esteem and correspondence of some of the most emi- 
nent literaty men of Europe. 

* Besides these gentlemen, it connst«d of the Ksv. Josei^ Smith, the 
Bet. Jobb Yate^ Mi Balph KddovB, Mr Tottemll, the B«r. WilUun 
"Shepfcerd, (uid Dr Eutter. 

S04 Memoir of William Rogcoe, Esq. 

. fi. wotk which Ubb recmed euch .nuriud piihlic approbatioo* 
which has gone tbrtnigb bo many hiq^ editiona in Britain, which 
has been translated into the. most polished Umguee of the con^- 
nent, it is not my intention now to criticise. J flhaJl^witept my- 
self with remarking, that the author's intimate acqiciintwc« 
with the literature of Italy has excited the surpnEe even of 
ItalWs ; and I well recollect the incredulous stare with wbiob 
an Itahan nohleman, of great literary taste and lofoniutlipn, x^ 
ceived my assertion that Mr Roscoe. had never been out, of 

The success of the Life of Lorenzo spears to have cootirm- 
ed the author''B intention of relinquishing his practice as aa «u 
torney ; and, some time after that event, he entered his name 
as a member of Grey's Inn, with a view of bemg called to the 
bar. This determination, however, he alto reUn^uisbed, upon 
keeping a few terms. 

In the year 1797, while his name remained on,the books of 
Grey's Inn, he paid a visit of some length lo LondfHi. In con- 
sequence of his literary reputation, and his intimacy with Lord 
Lansdowne, he was introduced into.Oie first literary and various 
political drcles : in particular, he used to state, that be then had 
the pleasure of becoming personally acquainted with Mr. Fox 
and Mr, now Lord, Gr^y.; and he foriaed b^des many v^ued 
private frieridships, which were dissolyed on)y by death. An:v»3^ 
those who then more particularly gained his esteem he, often 
mentifHied Ur Moore, author of Zeluco, of the sprifed ". Fie*> 
of Manners in Italj/," and of a "Journal (^.a Residence m 
Framed — the father of the gallant and unf(Vtunat« Sir, Jphn 

Mr Rosc(^'s retirement from profesnonal labours e)udt4ed Mm 
to devote himself with iqcreased aa^duily tp JtaKao lit^rafjire. 
To relieve his mind from the fatigue of more intense researoh^s^ 
he this year translated into Ej^lish vej-se liie Ba^a^ Tsniilki 
in which the long neglected beauties of the Italian poetare 
brought home to British ears and Bfiti^b feelings with admir- 
able tact and spirit. His more arduous occupations were the 
vast stores of Italian history about the period of the restoration 

Memoir ^WOliam Rotcoe, E$q. 205 

of Letters, with a view to the Life of Leo X. ; a subject which 
had been recommended to him by Horace Wnlpol^e (Lord Or- 
ford), and some other literary friends, after hig successful publi- 
cation of the Life of Lorenzo the Magnificent. 

In the year 1798, the want of a public reading-room on a 
better footing than Liverpool then could boast, caused the 
foundation of our Athenseum. The plan suggested by Di: 
Rutter was warinty supported by Mr Roscoe, Dr Currie, Mr 
George Case, and aome'other genllenien, who, exerting their iii- 
fiueoce among th«r friends, obtained so general a subscription 
in Liverpool, that the foundations of our magnificent Consulta- 
tion Library and News-Boom were speedily laid, and a consi- 
derable coUectifm of books soon formed. In this institution, as 
credltaMe to his naiive town, Mr Roscoe always took muc^ de- 

The numerous strangers who were now attracted to ~Li\^. 
pool, chiefly by the reputation of dur disUnguished feltow-dtizcn, 
caused such encroachments on bis time, notwithstanding his re- 
tiretnetit from buMbess, that be resolved to retreat into the couo- 
tiy; and with this view he purchased lialf of the estate of AI- 
l^rton fn^ the representatives of Mrs Hardman, and removed 
to that beautiftil spot in 1199. In a playful letter to Fuseli the 
pubter, Mr Roscoe mentions his retnoval, and his intention of 
not agiun embarking in any kind of business, but of dedicating 
biitaBelf wholly to agricultural and literiuy pursuits. His tastes 
were simple, his views moderate, and bis means fully compet«it 
to realize his jdans ; from whidi it is greatly to be lamented 
that any circumstances should ever have induced him to deviate. 
While employed as a professional man to arrange' the involved 
amoems of- the bank of Messrs J. & W. Clarke, he was thus 
brought into contact with Sir Benjamin Hammet, a London 
Banker, who held acceptances <^ the Liverpool Bank to an im- 
maiK amount (I am informed for L. 800,000). Hammet was 
so struck with Roscde's alnKty in ari^nging the afbirs of his 
irinidB, that he inshed him to become a partner in the concern. 
This be r^)eatedly refused ; but -Hammet threatening, in case of 
bisrefuafd to JMn the concern, to make it bankriipt, Roscoe, satis, 
fieti 'that the assets were, in ordinary times, more than sufl^ent 
to eov» the demands against the bank, finally consented, and 

I ,-™:..C00^lc 

306 Mmoir (/ WMmi Svacoe, Ea^ 

for tTCDty jeoTB-tbe pdnaipBl part of Iss tiQ]e:was <)ecu{nediB 

the DwnageBent of that-impoitantestablahment. 

WfaUe thus employed, the hours tAuA he was now eaabled 
to devote to the history of Lea were abstraoted from the period 
usually dedicated to repose or Rcreation. Yet, mth' aU these 
demsnda oo .his sppticatJou, the interest he always fdt on grieat 
political questioos did not suffer him to viewin nlence the crisis 
di 180S ; but called fwth his pamphkt entitled " 0b9trvaiion» 
en the relative tituatkm of Great Britam and France f a tract 
in which be has recorded his detestation of war, and bis anxiety 
to see the two foremost na^ons of £uK>pe «igaged iti the leM 
guilty livalry tor pre-eminence in the arts of peace. 

In 180% the Botanic Giarden of Liverpool was estaMirfied, 
chiefly through the influence of Mr Boscoe, and, at its openmg, 
he delivered an address to the proprietors, which was pritited. 
In this establishment . he always took the interest of a parent 
in a &vouiite child. Under his auqiices, and d>e OHmnntnate 
skill of Mr J<^n Shepherd, the CuratOT of the garden, it speevb'' 
ly became conspicuous among boUnical establishments, arid it still 
ranks among the first in Europe. 

In 1805 he completed his history of " the h^e and Pmt^catt 
^Leo. XT' which appeared that year in four volumes 4to. 

This elaborate work had been the fruit of much researrlb, of 
intense previous stady, and ww always regarded by its snthor 
as superior to his Life of Lorenzo : yet it wasnot sD'^oamMy 
recaved by the British public ; a circumstance with some truth 
Bt£rU»ted to the violent attacks on it in several t£ our periodiod 

The boedHty of lome of the reviews was evidently p todwciefl 
by pt^tical ranoour toward Roscoe as an opponent of tbeioiilift- 
Bsrial measuRs i£ that evanlfot period; m^bAffs'it s|>tva^ 
from anger at the manner in which bebad-treMed dWcharaeter 
«f Ijuther as the fouodeTof anew dluKh. '' ' 

It appears to me that Roscoe bad soSdeUtly lAuded tbefabM^ 
iHBsand'ccniitancy of the man to whom w«cnre the asserlMn of 
private judgment in nhgioas and civil matters; tfattt he had giveb 
tbebistKffyo^Lutberwith theimpartiahty of a searcher af^ttvitbj 
admittii^ bis ftiliags and his errors, while he applauiiad'ltift 
courage and undoubttd talents; that the eariy patrons oflttoMure 

_ Cocwlc 

aiemair ffWmcan Roacoe, Eiq. 007 

•nii the 'feeifstfl daButdsd ouF muna j^robfttini. imd our gvali* 
tude, and that the historian of the Revival of Letters had wiiriy 
d»dt taan on the aiM[u(«tianabIt merits (rf Leo and his fiunSj^, in 
promoung that : gfieat ol^ect, than in vaking.up, from the grou 
HUrriUtyofaprDfligsteagcvimpoledcrimesoi'vniest which, after 
al},' real only on the doubtM aiithorit>f of acrinonious'and ^Aa- 
fbettre coi^nroeraiaints. v ■' 

Themeritsof theLiiedf Leo were, boweva-, diftrctitly etti- 
naftted oo the CDiltiaent It was speedily trandated into f^ndi, 
German, and Italian ; aaad the extensive sale of '«eT(#a} edidons 
(^ it in Italy, where, it may be fdrly presnmed, th« best judg- 
ment of its wants or its defects could be formed, sufficiently ot' 
tetCi tJie cliaiacter i^ich foreign mttCB-eDtal^ of this great 
work of our autlior. ' 

On the ^peanmce of die British critidsms, Mr Bosem prB> 
pared a full aoawer to the objections of the reviewers, but this 
reply he never published; contenting himself with inserting a 
iKort abstract of it in the pre&ce to the second editim, which 
appeared in 1806, within a year from the publication of the 
first The chief objections, io addition to the criticisms alxm 
stated, were, that he was fond <tf paradoxical opinions,— -as in- 
stanced in the chivalrous defence of the character of LuoretRi 
Borgia, — and in his doubdog wheth^ Pope Alexander VL was 
Itained with evo'y crime liud to bis charge by hia numenins 
^lemies, — that he was too f<Hid trf quotations from the:popta, — 
and that by ret^ning Italian orthography of f»oper namee^ he 
had made needless inaovaticms on our language. ' Theee charge^ 
are not voy important defects in such an elaborate wcork, £veB 
if we admit tbcir jusdoe. In my opinion, they are quffideatly 
answered by hia few remarks ; and th» Life and Pontificate o{ 
Leo X. ^ready rnvks, by the beauty of its style^ and Uk mluo' 
of neaeaKh, among our standard (nstoiical work*. 

While engaged in these oocupations, on the dissdjiltioa of 
Parliament in October 1806, Mr Boscoe wot to hunsclf most 
«Bexpectedly called on to become a oaadidate fir tiie r^preaoft' 
tatioa of his native totwn. The requisitwn was ligited oolyii 
few days previcau to the election :—«Ddt after a keen contaab 
for eight d^B, duriqg whichf there was a eoalitiion agmnat himt: 
between ihe friends of the rival candidates Genentls Tarktnt 

_ Cocwlc 

iEOS Memoir of WilUam Soscoe, Esq. 

and Goscoyne, he was placed at the head of the poll by a large 

majcffity. ■ ■ , - . i 

His parlmmentary career was of ^rt dnratkni but he bad 
the satiiAction, in that short period^ of dedmng his smtiiaMitt 
OR sevmd eubjectB in which he felt a deep intemt. He spoke 
and voted for Sir Samuel Romilly's bill ^r rendering real 
estates tubject to simple contract debts ; he had the happiness to 
lift his Toice m Farliwiieat for the abtJitimi of the ^ve-tnkde, 
and to Gee that great act of national justice triurapbiuitly eaN 
md; he had an opportunity of adVocstiog the clumst^ our 
Roataa Catholic brethren to an equality of pc4itJcal rights ; 
aad he delivered his sentiments with indignant eDet;gy on the 
dtsmissol of the Whig admkustnttion in 1807, on th^' axtemft 
to redeem the pledge givot by Pitt at the period of the Iridi 
Union; af^ge by themselves always considered as jnst and 

Mr Roscoe's chief parliamentary friends at that time, were, 
Mr Whitbread, ^r Samuel Rotnilly, and Mr William Smith ; 
but he never permanently attached himself to the ministry ; and 
waa l^ -tbetD regarded as a persmi who would rather act on his 
own views of what was r^ht, than enter into the traatniela of 

■ Oh the dissrihitlan of Parliament, he received another requi- 
sition tb'ofi^r hitnaelf for Liverpool, and was escorted into town 
by a very numerous and respectable cort^. His oppoooitt, 
however, had succeeded in pr^udicing many of the populace 
against him, espedAtly on the ground of his vote for the aboli- 
tion of the Slave-Trade — a traffic which they had been taught 
to consider as essential to the commercirf grestness of the pbrt ! 
and the rage of zealot^ was kindled against him for his speech 
on the'CathoNc Question. The consequence was, that, on'the 
arrival of the cofiege iti Castte Street, a serious riot tacAi pldce', 
and Mr Roscoewasindnced, from the fear df:hazarding the peace 
of the town, to^ decline allowing himself to he BgHii put in tftic 
minauon. I have reaacm to b^eve 'that this determlnationtW 
not cause him much regret ; a distaste for parliamentary duties 
was nut uimataral to a man- of his preriouS hAtnts, entering t>n 
a new caKeraf a rather Advanded pferi6d oMifc. >-TheB« consi- 
derations determined him (o withdraw from tht contest ; but he 

Memoir of WiUiam Roscoe, Esq. 209 

vas, without his coDCurrcnce, or that of his most inlimste friends, 
proposed asacamUdBte.on liiat occbhob, as w^ aam ItfIS, 
wbeabe.vaB put v» nMnioAticui in a similar mwiner at LetceBter 
witJiout tvs roownt, and, poUfd a very conudaniUe nuqabct «f 
votes. , , 

We have already noticed Mr Koscoe n the earnest advdcaite 
of peace. la 1808, he published " Co^»i^alion» on Uk 
Causer and Conteguencea f^the War with /'ronce,"— a pamphlet 
which excited much Btt«ntioD, sad spoedily vent through tight 
editioiifi. It was .followed in the swueyear by Another pu»i 
pUet, cettded " SenarJa on ^ Prtpotalttagde. to Grtat Bri- 
timjor opening Negoaatiotujhr Peace viUh'Frsnce,^ in which 
h& endeavoured to shew that the advanoe* of France huitipt 
been met with a sincere deaire on the part of our Go»en>< 
mflitto.put antend to-tbe missies of a riunouH and blod4y con- 
test,- .- '- .. 

Jp 18A0, Mr Hoscoe. published a Lett«r> to «be preietit Lonl 
CbancelkH-, thep Mr Broughamron tha quertion of Ptn-'iomcHf 
*9^M0^m- . In that tract he adrociUe&a nnHC'exil^uiTe B«. 
form than the partial measures then in contemplation by- thfi. 
(^pp(»jtion i and the qoingyeoce,.in mapy re(pe(:^bptWW»..¥9 
sHggHtuHi^ADd.a late meA^ure, has, w^bin thf IfiAt few moatlis, 
C4^f^. a r^pulplicatiofli.of Mr BowoeV paiRpble^ , , , ., 

This letter broi^t him into more ^mmfdiat^ .coii;etpoiid^kw 
wJth.Mi^iSjcau^bam; and when th^t gen^cRiWf.w^ invito '9. 
hecoDie El c»n4idatf for the repre^ntatioQ .qf LiveirponI in IS^^, 
Mr,fto8(»e,nojt. flply, entered., ffacmly into thp.cwtest to,sMpport 
Mr BrPVig^iW) ^lipt, on the, return of Mr Canning,, tb^ rival 
«aiidi4tite, wroje A WUstifJ, review lof the. eificSOTeeripg.speechw 
of.t)iAf at9tf«i)An*,:r.hipb.tbe.ep.iiimiafiii qf hJsAd^iEcrsltad cql.- 
Iecte4 v^,». b^lky pajpphlfl*. .,S*di ^i^nwr^al .*j?fii4mws of 
oratQcyshpuldf.po.all .^def,. be pecwitt^.lo ):fmtin,;^ less 
MobifJDija.^ges.ftf pi;oTwcifil;iejTS|Wperfr ..,:., 

, At eYMjrpefflod of MrBowwe .wa» mudv attached to 
the study of sPoUny. As w^ liave stated, .the esUUidanait of 
oqr Botanit; Gardoi was principally due to bis suggestimsi . fa 
VOL. Xlir, MO. iXVI.— OCTOBER 1832. _, o 

I ,l,z<,i:,.,GOOglC 

SIO Menutir i^ IftSiom Roseot, Esq. 

1809, he presented to the Linnean Society his valwdile paper 
" On a new arrangtment of the Scitamtnean order cf- piamts,"" 
which appeared in their Transactions, and established hit olaiin 
to the diaracter of an original thinker in this elegant depart- 
ment of natural history- His reputation, nill saore daan.tbe 
cltoms of private friendship, led Sir James Edward Smitih to 
institute the genus Sotcoea, which now contaiiu many speoWa of 
that beautiful order. 

A ^mihirity of polideal prinrifJes, and congraiabty <f taste 
for agricultural improvements, had for some time madeRoeeoe 
aequainted with Mr Coke of Norfolk. In 1814, be was in- 
tited to visit Holkhamy the splendid seat of that emimnl agri- 
culturist. There he found ample employmwt in the magni- 
ficent library, collected by the late Lord Leicesttf, nncle to 
the present possessor, a nobleman who, with vast wealth, fios- 
seseed a highly cultivated mind, end a passion for collecting 
books and manuscripts. It was well known that the collection 
was immensely rich in classical manuscripts and unpublished 
works on Italian history. Mr Roscoe readily undertook the 
examination of this superb oJlection, which .had afforded to 
Drakenborck the manuscript copies of lAvy employed in his 
valuable edition of the Roman Historian, and wtucb, among 
600 manuscript vtdumes of ecclesiastical anaals and Italian civU 
history, was discovered by Mr Hoscoe to contain one of the lost 
Volumes of Leonardo da Vind's Treatises on Mechanics, and 
the long d^tored and precious volume in which Baffaello, at 
the desire of the Pontiff, bad made pen drawing* of the re- 
mms of ancient Roman magnificence, illustrated by short de- 
scriptions in his own handwriting. Mr Roscoe undertook to 
make a cataloffug raiaonnie of the manuscripts of the colleaboa 
—a task which he some years afterwards, with the assistance c£ 
Mr Maddm, now one <^ the librarians of the British Museum, 
fully accomplished. This catalogue (of which a EJiort account 
was given to thu Society a few years ago) extmds to fbur or 
five iiaxk folio vcdumes, and . is enriched with engraved Jiic 
timiies and iUuminated ornaments. ' 

The manuscripts had been little attended to for many years. 
Most of them were in the original coarse paper covers, and 

Memoir ofWiUiatn Ho$coe, Esq. ill 

siHne were injured by damp and time. The whole were lome 
time afterwards amugned to Mr Roscoe's care, who put them into 
the hands of our eminent binder the late Mr Jdin Jones, who, 
by great industry and skil], succeeded in restoring cnimpkd vel- 
lum to its ori^at smoothness, in pasting torn leaves witbwon- 
derful neatness, nnd wbo bound the wh(Je cdlection in a du- 
rable and degant manna. An andent and admir^le Hebvew' 
manuscript of the Pentateuch *, written in a beautiful hand, on 
deer-skins, ftHiniDg a roll thirty-eight feet in loigth, was mount- 
ed, by the same ingniious an\st, on rollers ornamented with di- 
ver bells, under the direction of a learned Rabin, who believed 
the manuscript to be an eastern transcript of great antiquity. 

Toward the close of 1815, by one of our too frequent oocn- 
nmxiid convulnons, and by the extent of their acciHnmodations 
to persons engaged in bustness, the a^rs of the bank in which 
Mr Hoacoe was a partner became involved, and the bouse found 
it necessary to suspend payments. Vae four years Mr Roacoe 
devoted hims^ to the arrangement of their affairs ; entertaining 
throughout the most sanguine hopes of being able finally to 
dtscbarge all their engagements, as the joint property of the 
partneni was valued, at the time of the suspension of payments, 
at Gonuderably more than the amount of their debts. The de- 
preciatHH], however, of that property, combined with other cii- 
cumstances over which Mr Roscoe had no control, prevented 
the accomplishment of his most earnest wishes, and in 1890 be 
became a bankrupt. Previous to this (in the year 1816), his 
noble library, his fine collection of prints and drawings, and bis 
curious collection of poolings, were dispersed, and the proeeeds 
of the sale were applied to the payment of the debts of the 
house. It will convey some idea of the collection to state, that 
the books, consisting of about SOOO works, s(dd for no less a 
sum than Ij. 5150; the prints for L. 1886; the drawings for 
L.750; and the pictures for L. 3999; making a total of 
L. 11,025. 

The beautiful sonnet written by Mr Roscoe (Hi parting with 
bis library, was given to a friend, and handed about in manu- 
script ; but the Reverend William Heloe has since inserted it, 
■ Bdieved.tobemoretbuilOOOTeuvoliI. 

» ' '.OOglf 

' !tl3 Metiioir of WiWam Rotcoe, Esq. 

vithout my ackDoviedgmeutT in his autobiogmpb, as tbe. motto 
to one of the chapters of that conceited work*. 

Swenl d Mr Roscoe'a fiifinds^ uxioUB to presravc to hint 
vBiiout workt, whidi they knew he highly pized, either ftir 
their IntnnBic worth, at as the gift of tisteemed frieodi^ bou^t 
them up at the sale of his library, to the ammnit of L. 600, and 
presented tfasni to Mr Boscoe. The ^ft, however, was firinly 
but gratefully declined ; and the subscribers resolved to present 
the collection to the A^enseuni Library, to be kept together aa' ' 
a testimony of their esteem for theii respected friend ; and of that 
lUjrary the collecrion now forms a distinct part. 

A selection from his pictures, comprizing spedntens of art 
highly illustrative of the pr^ress of painting, was purchaaed by 
several of the same geoUemen, at a liberal price fixed by Mr 
Winstanley and myself, and presmted to Hike Royal Institution 
by those admirers of Roscoe. This collecta>n cost L. SO, and 
forms an interesting part of the objects which attract strangers' 
to our Institution. 

I may h^e remark, that the original plan of the Liverpotd- 
Soyal Institution originated, and' was drawn up bymeinl^lS;< 
aUbough it was carried into efiect^uring my absence on tbe Ccm-- 
tinent in 1814. Mr Roscoe took an active part ia this measure,; 
was l(Hig the Gboinnui of the Committees while it was strug- 
ghiig into existence; and, as its first Presidoit, read an elo-^ 
quent address (m the opening of the Institution in the year 1817- 
From an early period, Mr Roscoe had been a warm advocate 
tar a reformation of the sanguinary penal code of this country.. 
• Somite T_ 

** Aa one who destined fh>m bia friends to part, 
Begrets their loas, jet hopes again erewhile 
To share their converse, and enjo; their amile, 
And tempera as he nmy Affliction's dart, — 
1%UR, lov'd aasodatei ! cbiefe of elder art! 
Teadwn of wiadom, who could once beetle' 
tSj tedious houn, and bti^ten ev'17 toil, 
I no" resign 70U— nor with feinting heart ; 

For pasa a tew ihoit years, 01 daja, or hours. 
And happier seasons ma^ their dawn unfbld. 
And all jam facred ftllovriiips restore ; 

When, freed from earth, unlimited its powers 
Mhid shall with mind direct conmuiiion hold. 
And Undred spirit* meet to put no more." ( iKiolc 

Memoir of WilUam Rosax, Esq. S13 

HiBhiimanity and amiabie mind revolted from the ^-equency of 
executions; and he ei^erljr desired to see those statutes wliich 
awarded death for trifling (fences, and ore too bsrbaroui to be 
aifinved in die present day, expunged from the code of BritiA 
jurisprudeDce. -Shortly before the period of tue mUfortunes^ 
llis-attantion had been turned to the subject of penal law and 
]»ison discipline. In 1819 he published Ms traat, entitled ** Ob- 
aervations on Penal Jnriapritdencet and the JtefiirmatioR of 
Criminali ;" which was fcdiowed, between that peiiod and 1 83S^ 
' by two other dbserlations on the same subject 

The principle of the system which be advocates is, that the 
only legitimate ol^ect of punishment is the prevention of a 
repetition of the crime, by a reformatiwi of Uie ofTeoders ; which 
ettict be proposed to accomplish by hard labour in penitentianes, 
and by moral iustructiwL He d«iies that wehaveany right to 
punish fair the mere benefit to sodety of the example. He in- 
veighs «gaimt the barbarous maxim that revenge or expiatioit 
for the injury committed ought ever to be the principle of pen^ 
Je^alatJon; and cannot admit that retributitm to the injured 
party can be the [»:<^)oged end of puoisbment. In the thini 
part of his essay, he seems to doubt the propriety of the puo- 
ishment of death in any case,— Part iii. p- 106 ; but, al all 
events, he considers that it should be reserved for four or five 
crimes of the blackest dye. These essays contain the out- 
line of some principles which are now generally acknowledged ; 
U)d -if the humanity and generous spirit of the author have led 
him to form a too favourable estioiate of human nature, and to 
overlook some difficulties in the practical application of his prin- 
ciples of legislation, we cannot but admire tbe benevolent enthu- 
uasm and earnest appeal to the best fedinga of our nature whidi 
are stampt on every page of his treatise. 

In his second tract he had pointed out the evil consequences 
bkely to result from too great severity in prison dtscipline,.and had 
entered a warm protest against the horrid punishment of long-con- 
tinned solitwy confinement, as a general measure for effecting this 
reformation of offenders. He severely commented in the third 
part on tbe atrocities which appeared to have been perpetrated in 
the Auburn Peoiteatiaiy in the State <^ New York. This drew 
him into a long controversy with several American writers in the 

214 Memoir of WiUiam Soscoe, Esq. 

latter years of his Kfe ; dnd to the zeal with which he devoted hitn- 
aelf to plead the cause of the outcasts of society, we have to ascribe 
die first serious shock to his general health, as I shall by and 
by have occasion to notice ; but he had the bapf^ness to find, 
after much angry discussion in the newspapers of the westnti 
world, that his argumentB against solitary confinement, whidi he 
stigmatized as the utmost refinement of cruelty, and utt^ly in- 
^ectual as a punishment, w^e not lost on the Americans. The 
infirm staleof Mr Roscoe's health at that time brought me much 
into contact with my venerable friend ; and when he leomt Jrom 
various quitters that the change which was taking jdace in the 
prison discipline of America was in no small degree attributed to 
his expostulations, I heard him repeatedly declare, " that no 
lit^vry distinction had ever afforded him half the gratification 
he received from the reflection on the part he had taken on this 
great question ; and he expressed his satisfaction that he now 
mi^t be permitted to think that he had not lived altogether in 

I have, in notidng the conclusion of this controversy, onti- 
dpaled some events of his life to which we must now return. 

When released from the harassing cares of business, the 
mind of Mr Roscoe, with the elasticity and application of youth, 
diligently entered on various literary prefects. Since the first 
appearance of the Life of Lorenzo, he had obtained from Italy, 
and elsewhere, various documents illustrative of that work. 
These he prepared for pubhcation, together with some strictures 
on the manuOT in whitih the character and biography of Jm- 
reozo had been treated by Sismondi and some other writers: 
This work appeared in an 8vo. volume in 18S2, under the title 
of " IlkistnUioni of the Life o/* Lorenzo de' Medid^ The 
strong terms in which Sismondi accused Mr Roscoe of par^ 
tiality to ihe Medici Family, and of palliating th«r crimes, drew 
forth an able and indignant answer ; yet, it is {^easing toreflect^ 
that when Sismondi, a few years afterwards, visited Et^jlaiid, 
Mr Roscoe formed with him a personal acquaintance in no way 
affected by their literary controversy. 

About the same period, Mr Roscoe publt^ed an ambling 
" Memoir of Richard ' Roberts,"" a self-taught linguist, wdl 


Memoir of WilHam Roscoe, Etq. i\5 

known in Liverpool by tfae extisordinBT)' number of languages 
whidi he esa road, no leas tiuat hy the filth of his person. The 
profits of this publication Mr Boscoe humanely dedicated to the 
use of this singular person ; whose intellect, defective in every 
thing but language, renders him as helpless as a child ; and Ro- 
berts may now be seen in whole clothes, with his p(n'table U- 
Imiry stuffed, as in former times, between bis shirt and his skin ; 
for be disdains a Hzed abode. 

An {^f^ication having been made to Mr Roscoe to become the 
editor of a new edition of Pope's works, and to furnish a fresh 
life of the author, Mr Roscoe engaged in it with all die ardour of 
a poet, having ever been a warm admirer of Pope's genius. 
This, was no triflii^ task — for he added notes on the poems with 
much care ; and is the life, wbicb forms the first volume of that 
edition, defended the talents and character of Pope from 
sundry imputations cast on him by Mr Bowles and others. 
The date of publication was 1824. 

About the same time, he superintended a new edition of the 
Ltaes qf Lorenzo and Leo, to the latter of which he added 
many new notes. 

. In 1824i, Mr Roscoe was elected a " Royal Associate" of 
the Royal Sodety of Literature, founded by his late Majesty 
George IV. A pension of L.lOO a-year was awarded to each 
of ten associates, which Mr Roscoe enjoyed for three or four 
years ; but which, from the neglect of providing a permanent 
fimd for the purpose, would have ceased about the time of his 
decease. The great gold medal of the Society, value 50 guinea^ 
was also awarded to him as an historian, two years before he 
died ; and it remuns with bis family. 

It would be unjust to omit, that the misfortunes of our dis- 
tinguished fellpw-eitizeo, called forth the warm sympathy of 
bis munerous friends, and prompted them to take steps for secu- 
ring him ag^st their immediate consequences. It is more neces- 
sary to state this, because many unjust imputations have been 
Tented against the inhabitants of Liverpool, on account of th^ 
supposed neglect of Mr Roscoe in his adversity. There was consi- 
derable delicacy necessary in the steps which were taken to testify 
their esteem and attachment. Mr Roscoe had. a noble and jnde- 

216 Memoir of IViUiam Roscoe, Eaq. 

pendent mind. He bad steadily! ixfiised the proffered g^ft/'of a 
valuable selection fronr his Ubrary, eyep .after it had l>eeii for 
that purpose bought by his friends at the ealci and those who 
had the pleasure of being intimate with hiai, we)! knew bon" 
necessary it would be to keep him in ignorance oF what was in- 
tended, until it was accomplished. During a second visit wbteh 
he made to Holkham, a private fund was quickly subscribed 
among his friends, for the purchase of an annuity on the. lives of 
Mr and Mrs Roscoe. The delicate task of cotanumicating what 
was done devolved on me; and in the corresptH^kmce which 'en- 
sued between us, though his piide of independence' was at first 
alarmed, the example of his friend Charles James Fox, iiader 
similar circumstances, was successfully urged, to leconcile bis 
mind to receive this spontaneous homage to his tal^its and his 
wOTth, from ^ncerely attached friends. 

We have already noticed Mr Roscoe*s eariy t 
botany, and his critical l^xiurs on the wder ScUamine^e, to 
which he had long paid much attentitn, sdmulated by the.con- 
tinual additions thb order was receiving from the East and 
West Indies. The number of new species wludi the judidous 
. care of Mr Shepherd, the skiU'ul curator of our Botanic Gat- 
■den, had successfully cultivated, together with tiie dried speci- 
mens which Mr Boscoe rec^ved from various quarters, deteiv 
mined him to publish a work containing coloured figures of 
new or interesting species, with botanical dcscripbona. Tlus 
^ve rise to the moat splendid botanical work that ever issued 
from the provincial press of any country ; which occupied much 
of his time during the latter years of his life, and was only com- 
pleted shortly before his death. Of thb superb work, he [urint- 
«d too few copies ; and before the second number came out, 
there was a necessity of reprinting addititMial copies of the first. 
The work is highly prized by botanists ; and is porticul^lj 
valued on the Continent, where, fnnn Uie small number of im> 
pressioBs which Mr Boscoe could be induced to throw off, it is 
extremely scarce. Many of the beautiEul figures m his work 
-are from bis own spirited sketches ; but the minority of tben 
are the productions of the pencil of hb dat^htcF-in-law Mrs 
- Edward Roscoe, or of Miss R. Miller of this place. 

.Memoir of WUUam Ro»coe, Esq. 217 

My acquidDtance whir Mr Roscbe commeDced in 1806, and 
I soaa h»A the fdici^ of bfttog received as an iDtimate friend. 
Prom 1810 I was further honoured by b^ag consulted as his 
'physician, in which capacity I watched with much anxiety over 
his declining health. From the dine of the first derangement 
of the affmrs of the bank, the immense mental and bodily exer- 
tions which he made produced great inroads on a constituUoa 
naturally good. He then began, on much application to any 
fiUbJKt; to be am^ with octiasional faintness ; and once, in 
1816, he was attacked at the bank with a slight loss of memory, 
which speedily vote off. His habits of intense study, after 
this period, produced similar efiects ; and while engaged in the 
controversy on prison disdpline, after writing for the great- 
est part of a nl^t, to overtake a ship about to sail for America, 
he was affected in the winter of 1827 wiih partial paralj»s of 
the muscles of the mouth and tongue. I was immediately called ; 
the patient was freely bled-^^n which he recovered his speech : 
and the introduction of a seton in his neck removed the panu 
lytic affection of the mouth. Intense study was forbidden : 
and after a period of perfect relaxation from bix literary occu- 
pations, he recovered sufficiently to be able to complete his 
botanical work, the catalogue of Mr Coke's Hbrary, and to cor-' 
rect for the press his latest tracts on prison discipline. It was a 
great satisfaction to find his intellect quite entire, and it remained 
so until within an hour or two of his death. His bodily feeble- 
ness, however, gradually increased; yet, by the affectionate 
care of his family, his infirmities were little felt. His amuse- 
ments were vaiious reading, the illustration of his son's transla- 
tion of Lanzi's History of Italian Fainting, by a small collection 
of engravings, together wit^ putting the last hand to his botani- 
cal work. He was unable for the fatigue of receiving much 
company, or of seeing strangers, for some time before his death : 
yet he loved to converse, with a few friends, and took a lively 
into^st in the pcJitical events with which the last year (1830) was 
pregllant. On the French revolution of July, he wrote a long 
and earnest letter to M. La Fayette (with whom he had before 
oceasicnally ocHTespcHided), urging him to use the influence of 
his name and pt^Urity, to induce the French nation to spare 
■the lives of the ministers then under arrest; pointing out how a 

S18 Memoir of WiUiam- Roacoe, Esq. 

sa^uinary puniehinent would detract fniB -tW gkoy of the re- 
v^ution, and what a noble opportunity the French pec^^boT 
had of Betdng an example of mitigatioD of the criminal code to all 
the DfttioiM <^ £un^. This letter, and another of gntiUation 
to the present LordCbancellor, on lus attaining that high oS«e,. 
vere the last public acts of Ihs inde&tigable and uaefiid. life *. 

In tfae month of June 1^1, he was attacked with influoiza ; 
and his exhausted frame being unable to struggle with tbe^A- 
ease, effiinon into the chest took place, and he expired oa 4e, 
SOth of that month, in the 78th year of hia age. 

Betides his published works, Mr Roicoe has left behind him a 
large mass of papeis, and an extensive and valuable «orFeq)oiid- 

AmcHig the former are various dissertations on the &ie arts, 
some of which appear in a finished state. In the year 1814, 
Mr {Roscoe had proposed to the writer <^ this memoir to under- 
t^e the translation of Lanasi's Sioria PUtorica deUa SaRa, and 
he eng^ed to furnish notes, and a preliminary dissertation. I 
had made considerable progress in the translation, when Mr 
iRoscoe's misfortunes, and my own professional avocations, in- 
terrupted the work ; which has since been well executed by his 
son, Mr Thomas Roscoe. Among the papers of my venerable 
friend, I find a very interesting introductory dissertation, in- 
tended (or our joint work, tracing the history of the art of 
painting and sculpture to a much later period than their suppo- 
sed extinctioD in the west, indeed almost to within SOO years of 
their supposed revival by the Pisam and Cimabue. This trea. 
tise is in such a state that it might be putdisbed, and it would 
form an excellent introduction to Laniri^s work. It is entitled, 
** An Historical Sketch on the StiUe of the Fine Arts during 
ihe Middle Jget.'" 

I find abo a curious dissertation on Paiftters' Drawings ; 
another t/n the Origin qfjEkigranng on Wood 'attdo* Co^er; 
atimdontheEf^avitigtqftheEarlgGfrmanSehoot. There 

* A short while befin* his deatli, In a conversation vitb the writer of tbii 
uenuir, he tpoke aHadj of his increuing fi-nblenegg, and prabahle e&dy dis- 
Kdutiea. He " UiUbed the Almi^ty tbi having pennitt«d bim to ^m a 
life of mudi happiness, which though somewhat cli«ckered b; Tidaritude, 
Iwdbeenon the wliole one of great eqjojmeQt: and he trusted that he would 
licaiahled cheerftilij to resign it whenever it pleased tJod to caU him." 

Memoir of WU^m Roacoe, Esq. S19 

are large fragments qIso of a work on A^ Etdtmfft qf lif Ita- 
lian Painters, which contain much useful iofonnaticai ; and a 
Jeoture " on tlte use ofPrinls" another on lite " Practical Part 
qfPamtiti^,'" and tw6 "on tJte Origin and Prt^eu ^'TatteT' 
There is also a poem (Hi the origin of engraving, written in 1788, 
of whidi there are two copies in MS. 

I have already mentioned, that die lectures on the Origin and 
Fn^ress oS Taste were extended into a treaUse, which b not 
finished. This is. also the case with some dissertations on tht 
- state of letters and the arts anterior to the Greeks, and thrar 
pn^ress among that people. The whole seem to have bets 
ports of a great work on the fine arts, which he left imperfect, 

Among his papers are some MS. essays on moral and politi- 
cal subjects ; and a conaderable one " On the priruiple ^ Ve- 
getation and the Food of Plants."^ 

^His correspondence with various eminent cbaractra^s m very 
extranve, and comprizes a period of upwards of fifty y^w* 
during a succe^on of most interesting events. A selection of 
these letters will form an appendix to the Life of Mr RoKO^ 
now in preparation. 

The letters consist of, — 

1. Correspondence on political subjects, with the Duke df 
Gloucester, the late and the present Lord Lansdowne, Mr 
Whitbread, Sir Samuel Bomilly, Mr Creevy, Mr Coke, Lord 
Holland, the present Lord ChanceUor, and President Jefferson. 
% On penal jurisprudence and prison discipline, with Mr B»- 
ul Montague, M. de La Fayette, M. Van Praet, Mr Fow^ 
Biixtim; with Dr Mease, Mr Roberts Vaux, Mr StephcD'AU 
len, Mr Bradford, and other American gentlemen. 

fl. On literary subjects, with Lord Cariisle, Lord Orf(Hd, Sr 
Parr, Dr Symmons, Dr Aikin, Mr Samuel RogCTs, Mr Thomw 
Canapbell, Mr Montgomery, Miss Luey Aiken, Mr Dawson 
Turner, Mr William Clarke, Pnrfessor William Smyth, Prdfes- 
fNK:.Wilson, Mr Bmiwd BartM, Mr Capel L<^, Br Chan- 

4. Oo HMttffs relating to the fine arts, with Sir Joshua IU7- 
ndds, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Mr Stnitt, Mr Fuseli, Mr Jobs 
«ibson, &c. 

6. On botaoy and agricidture, with ^ Jate^ Puiksi Bir 

aaO Memoir of WiUiam Bosooe, Etq.- 

John Sincl^, Sir James E. Smith, DrWsltich, Dr Cdrey, Dp 


6. On his history of. the Medicd Family, with FafabroDi, 
Moreni, Mecherint, Professor Sprengel, Count Bob», and Mr 

In person, Mr Roscoe was talt, aad rather slender. - In early 
life he posGessed much bodily activity : his hair was light au- 
buru, almost iDcltning to red ; his full grey eye was ciew omI 
mild ; his face espressive and cheerful. Ab he odvancedia laici 
the benevoleut expressiou of his coimtenance remained, but the 
vivacity of the features was tempered iate a. noUe digaity, 
which it was impossible to see without respect and admicatioD ; 
while the mouth bespoke taste and feeling, and the clustering 
hoary hair round his temples gave. a veoeraUe mr to his manly 

There are several representations of him; but none et them 
appear to me so finely to express the characteristic touts of his 
head as John Gibson^s medallion. The portrait in the Insthu- 
tion, and Spence's busts, give us Mr Roscoe in bis dedine with 
great fidelity. Gibson^s marble bust is said to recall bis youth- 
ful appearance ; but the Terra Cotta medallion is Mr Rosooe, 
as I should wish to jemember him. I may add, that it has been 
exceedingly well copied in the fine medal, published by Mr Cle- 
ments of this town, from a die by Clint. 

Of Mr Roscoe's genius and acquirements, his puUisbed works 
present a better memorial than any panegyric can confer; but I 
may be permitted to state my conviction, after having examined 
a great mass of his unfinished manuscript dissertations, that, had 
he been'left to pursue his ori^al plan of literary retiremettl, 
instead of again plunging into the cares and anxieties. of busi- 
ness, he would have left behind a work on the History of the Fine 
Arts, far superior to any thing on that subject which British 
literature pwsesses. 

In public life, Mr Boscoe was a conasttot sad feMtless Aash- 
{non of civil and reli^us liberty ; the uni^Hnpromiang enenD^ 
cf oppression, and the buiuaae advocate of a'OUt^ticai of the 
6ev»ity of penal enactments. ■ ■ '■ 

Of the qualities of his heart, as a private individud, it is iia- ' 
'P(Mrible*to speak tooiiighly. In the relataons of hndwad, fa- 

Mminrt^ Wimam Soscoe, Esq. 281' 

th^, aod fHetid, bis coaduet was laost exemplary ; and' it vould 
be difficult to point out a man who possessed the fascinatiota of 
moDDer which attracts and livetfe attsehment, in a higher degree 


He had deep and solemn feeliogs of devotioD, which it was 
nvt his practice to (^rude on his acquaintances ; but which he 
oocauonally expressed to his intimate friends in the language of 
heotfelt {nety. The beautiful invocation to the Deity, which 
he sulMtituted for the intended dedication of hb great botanicai 
worli, breathes the deep fervour of his adoration of the Supreme 
Creator; and is also r»narkable as the actual suggestion of a 
poet^s dream at the advanced age <rf 76. 

An innate love of ^ncerity and truth ; simplicity, combined 
with a {dayful vivacity yet suavity of mannera ; a generous be- 
lief in the integrity of others, the consequence of his own recti- 
tude of purpose; an anxiety to dojustice to the merits of others;, 
a liberal and judicious pstnHiage of modest talent, struggUngto 
escape from obscurity, jcmed to ft natural cheerfulness of dispo-' 
ration ; idl united to ccmvert into devoted and enthusiastic admi.^ 
rere, those who first sought his friendslup from his literary re-c 

The fiune of Bosooe belongs to his country :— 4he memory of 
his inestimable qualities remains to his friends : 

« MvlUa iOe bonia BeUUs ocddit 

' ~~.< ~cui Pudar, et JustitiBE soroi 

Incorrupt^ Fide^ audaque Veritas . 

QuMido uUmn invenient parem?" Horat. 

On the Mode of delerminit^ Fossil Plants. By Professor 


W HEN a botanist proceeds to the examination of a recent speci- 
meD of on unknown plant, he directs his views to certain pecu- 
liiuitieG in the oi^ans, both of fructification and vegetation, ta- 
fcoi together ; and from what he finds to foe their structute,' he 
judges oi the class, order, or genus to which it belongs. But 
as jn fossil plaits neither cdyx, corolla, stamens, nor pistilluni 
are to be recognised, ui <^nton has to be fbmed, not from the 

ass Professor Lindley on the Mode of 

consideration of a complex combination of characters, in which 
the loss of (me organ is compensated for by the peculiarities of 
those which r«nain ; but &om a few isolated tatA rery iai'perttct 
data, exclusivelj aflbrded by the remuns of the organs of vege- 
tation. Id the latter, unfortunatdy, thie modes of organization 
are not sufficiently varied to enaUe us to draw any precise cod- 
cluuons from their examinMion ; but, on the contrary, we are 
often obliged to Ite satisBed with a general idea only of the na- 
■ tare of the object of our inquiry. This is, perhaps^ not attend- 
ed with BO muc^ practical inconvenience as might be espeeted, 
in a getdf^ical point of view, because the end of soence will be 
sufficiently answered, if we can, in the first place, determine the 
goieral t^aracters and affinities of the plants of the former eras ; 
and, in the second, so exactly classify their fosal remwna, as to 
be aUe to rect^iae them, with such precision, as to render them 
available for the ideotificatirai of strata. 

It usually happens that die only parts wfaic^ are capable of 
bfflng ^amined in a fbsal state, are the intenial structure of the 
Stan, and its external siu-tace ; ti^ther with the position, divi- 
^on, outline, and veining of the leaves. Of these it has never 
yet happened that any one specimen has afforded the whole ; 
more frequently it is only two or three of those characters that 
the botanist can em|doy. 

Suppose that he has a fragoaent of the fossil trunk of some 
unknown tree ; if no trace can be discovered of its exact anato- 
mical structure, it may be pos^hle, at least, to ascertain whether 
its wood was deported in concentric zones, or in a confused man- 
ner; in the former case, it would have been Dicotyledonous, or 
Exogenmis, in the latter Munocotyledonous, or Endogenous ; 
if a transverse section should shew the remains of siououa un- 
cotmected layers, resembling arcs with their ends directed out- 
wards, of a solid bomt^neous chmncter, and embedded among 
some softersubstances, then it may be considered certain that such 
a stcan belMiged to some arborescent Fern. Bnt if the state of 
a fossil stem will admit of an anatomical examinaticm, it is ^ways 
dedraUe that it should be instituted with the assistance of the 
miooBCope. Naturalists have shewn the possibility of this be- 
ing d<Hie ; and if it should prove that the condition of fbssil re- 
mains it io general favourable to this kind of examination, more 

dtlemittinfr fot^ PianOi. 2S3 

t^^tu likely to be thzovn u{»d tbe «Umct Fkni than oould 
be otberwise ootieipated. If tbe tissue of s sma dioald be 
fnind eatirely cellular^ and it couU be sBtkCKtoriy nade out 
dutt no vasGular tissue whatever was oombined with it, the sped- 
men would, in all probalulity, have belonged to that diviaon of 
tbe T«^etable Idngdom, which, bebg propagated without the 
agency ofeexes, is by botanists called Cr3rptoganiia. A spedaieit 
(^ this kind should, howerer, be examioed wilh the most rigorous 
aocorat^ ; because it might hare beeu a sucouleot portioo of 
aame Dicotyledoiiaus tree, ia which tbe vascular systen was so 
stattered among crilular substances as to be scarcely disccniible. 
If the tissue should have coBUSted of tubes placed parallel with 
each fitber, without any trace al rays passing from the centre to 
tbe wcmnference, it would hare been Monocotyledonous or En- 
d^enous, even if there should be an appearanoeof ooncentric cir- 
cles in the wood; but if any trace whatever can be discovered of 
tissue cnMBing the loi^tu^iial tubes at rigbt«ng)es, from the 
centre to the circundmnce, then such a specimen would have 
been IMcotyledcmous or Exogenous, whether concentric circles can 
be made out or not ; for such an arrangement of tissue would in- 
dicate the presence of medullary rays, which are the most certun 
ngn c£ a Dicotyledonous plant. If, in a specimen having these 
rays, the longitudinal tubes are all of the same size, a drcum- 
stanee obvious upon the inspection of a transverse secticm, the 
^ant will have been either Coniferous or Cycadeous ; but if, 
aioraig the smaller tubes, which in fact are woody fibres, some 
larger ones are intenpersed »( a definite manner \ it would, in 
that case, have bekmged to some other tribe of Dicotyledons. 
It is indspensahle that the arrangementofttie'largertubea should 
have been definite, for appearances of the same kind exist in 
mudi Coniferous wood ; but, in the latter, they are scattered in 
am indcAnito manner among the smaller tubes, and are not ves- 
aels but t^rfindrical oavities, for the collecdon of tbe rennous ae- 
owion peculiar to the Fir tribe. Again, if tbe walls of tbe lon< 
gitudaial tubes of any foeul specimen are found to exhibit ap- 
pearanora oS little warts, growing from thar sides, such a speci- 
toesy had ocrtaiiily belonged to smne Coniferous or Cycadeous 
plast, no other tribes whatever possessing sudi a structure at 
tbe preseatdi^. Finally, if a trace of ■pith can be diacovered. 

aS4r' Professor Lindky on the Mode of 

that cnoHonUiice tlone viU bc.a procf of tbe> plant -havingibeoi- 
IMmtjrledoDout, becMiMall other cla>iC3.>ai« doMatutfiof tfait 
centiHl ctllukr oolivnn ) it' must, ho««vfr, BVnftysias btwoDint 
iaiiKl,'tbatahflenoeof pitti dam.DsC j»«w that«ciinea :■&««()■ 
Dkotyledonoufi, becaiiaa the mots of tbdse plqidBhaqemapilb' r 
If astern IB in such, a state that nothiog: can be. datenminedi 
cucm)iag> it8«D»toDiy, weiiiiuat'then'iBrocsed.lqjudgs.of it bjii. 
aMtbrr set of oharaeters. In the first plwie, it elioikKl'be iD~>' 
quircd,'whethePitiuid<a diBtincdy separable bark, «r tftattaeai. 
iuteguciait that diflerad in Us crgauaatioo^from the wnod.intb- - 
out being separable from it ; or neither the one oat the «dier.. 
Ia.llkeirst instaDce, it wmild htne he&i Dic^tykdoDoas; in■lhe' 
8GaHld, MoDocotyledsnoua ; In the. thirdy AootyledotnuB or 
CrjiptogamiQ, supposing that it had'beev a trunk 'whubiiaany.- 
BilcoaaiiM yran bad eootrlbuled to form. The dutincbaa as<> 
appEtd'tO' the two latter: claBae8,lis not,' howevw, so pa«D«e«- 
aseouldbe msbed, beoauaa-tree feniB hiav« a oortieal'iategu-'' 
mffltfibut'tbayiare eaBU^ksowoby .the long r^ged- soars lefk' 
by 'their leaves.;, and no jetber.ciyptoganio plants 'itoasass the'' 
chamrtec of.having aispuriou»'bark.' "For<tliis> reaBon, •H.'UJ 
doAtful wbct^r GalemnilieB i»-relatcd to EquisetAceft, and if «• ' 
couM be.Bure|thatthpaoaly tnattet.&uBdeiiTdopingthaligeMas ■ 
was really theEemaiasiCif a.cortical iategudieHt, (t>eK'-fPOul|iibe>' 
nodoulrt of ita.affiaity being of a diflfarent kind, as, ibr iiisl^nce, 
inth Juncus. But.heee is.sdiffioultyiilfaoware we'to be siire - 
flat this ooaly matter is .ft^partbf the ordinal orgaoirtotiim .<)£-- 
tbei stem^aad that it is oet an tndepeidMM «arbonBcaoliB fomHi' - 
tion? Aaolber objOctof inqoiily will- be/ whether the stem mttt" 
aitifliUated (as indicated bytumid -nofi) or not ;.atid if tbc'fomiH-,' 
whe^ieritbadthe[nDper4y«ifditartMulatiiigf ThMectKnAi^lttB^'- 
cflftnenot'ofmuf^poative value in pointing out affl»iti«B," biit" ' 
theyfiffiwd ncgadvs evidence that mustob no Roe«unt' be' over'' ' 
looked. Forexample.ifthishadbeenpropet'tycotisideFediltrft'ei ' 
gud-tO'Cahunnitcsidiboiigfa tbe«ffiBiiy of Ihat geiiu« might' bbt 
h«Tel>een.di8Covei«4,yetitiieveroon)dh8vel^nr^n^'dtfldF - 
tO'Falneor. Baubusas, which, in «o instanee, ever dieartieuhtte. : 
A third end. ^raryinpaitant kind of evidenee is to be o^iMed-' 
ftoia. the. Bctuv left upon stems by the.fall of leaves.' Akhou^- 
dwee.will neothcr in&vm us of thf di«pe w.other 'l4)aracl«rB'<(f ' 

deterfmnioff Potdl BlaaU.- 9X5 

tlm leaves themsclTes, yet th^ iocKeatej wtthfireouiNij'tlHirpo' 
sitiaD, tke fen» of tiieir hue, inid loiuetimM alio their {mifaMUe 
dtRoriaa. We ean Lollvrhmhcr they wereopfueilearTCiticUlate, 
ahcmate.or. spirally di^osed, decnUious or penutcnt, aad im* 
biicBtfld or remote ; all ^aracters <^ great me as means of di»- 
crimiiiatifiD, and as often afiording important BegBtire eridence 
upon, doubtful, points. The geolagiBt vilLgfaoweTer, be. carcfol 
not to asoribe too mtioh .value to modificatioas ia the origiti of 
leaTCB^ and, in particular, to the spral mode, which fomM wo 
atnking a feature in mavy iaaxA remoini : he will bear in mwd^ 
that die latter is theoretically the nMiDal mode in wbicfa'd 
letvesorigiDHte, and that other modes are more or Waaobvioua 
modific«ti«i8 of it ; and, finally, be will emsider, that if be ia 
Dot faoailiar with ioetaooeai <tf it in recent plaata, it is becaoae 
the linee of BpireB are bndun by die leates ^t are interpoied 
between thnu and tbe eye. He will, poenbly, only remtnbfr 
that, .the leaves of firs, tbe fiuk of tbe pine-apfile, and the ioli- 
age «f the screw piae(Panda9ita)rai«'arrauged uptm this plaat 
but, if he draw a line £ron baee to base of the \e»in»al anyal. 
temate-leaved fdant, always proceedtag- in the sahae diratstiaa, 
he will find, ttuit that Une will dassribei a>«pire rebtid 'tbe ans 
from whicbr Ibe leaves origitiatc ; ao that a. ^iraltppeeDaacbwiU 
be apiMcent in proporttoti as leaves ara oppfwomated. 

In judgtBgof tWuideDtity offosnlsUntS'tbaii.aiie diaractev- 
ized by their external appearaiwes, care <aaatX' ht takea not to 
distia^u«h, as^diffiuwat species, these stems t^t bare.stilt tbdnr 
cortical int«gun«nt, upon. thqni' fren such ae fam&lcatiti In • 
thflffl tiTQ casts, the fli^>eafmics of aoWE will be di&ieMt those 
of t\te ionoer being saor« roaoded, broadev,' and pmbelbly mora 
deeply.furiiowed, than tbe latter; for ^e oB^isaiieal scar shew. 
ing .tjieoitUuw of the bw&pf the leaf* wIuIq die latter is' aokly^ 
cauBed by tJI^ passage of bundles of veisekeHt of Jbe Uedl into 
tbe petiole of. t^.leaf., : 

The tnumer in which atecss branch ia soaetimes well dasenr' 
uigegQtf4«fati0D. Wb^renotiaeeof leaves tan be fbund, their 
po«ition »<^:poe«bly beiadioat«d by the «i^of braDahas,&c 
the lattw being always axillavy to the leavt« can only originato 
as they dp: but, uofortunately, the value of this fact is ofteii 
reduced to potb'uig by die appearance of branciiea from the axiU* 

VOL. ZIII. NO. XXVI.-<r0CT0BSB 1832- r 

of fl'fitw lotvea <^; U'<diiugt -p8rt»>Df Mia-.slcsti' .SEb«'iB04t 
-mefiilt^araeMr tobelltUBdoiiveii, ii vAen lim-hnKitw ng^ 
Iie4y! tRfuroste,' 'for ibis kind af rmmlMtiao i* nftmng^tympuim 
of crypb^RiAio plant, eipednUy^ if AoBDmpamediby'antiilbafatid 
fi£age: ■ .-.■ 1. 

lB'£«Eive», we eannrdy recognise, ia a &^ie, mo(ie,tbab 
thor mode of (Mnofion, Atwntm, drran^cwutt^ «id ontfiiHVito 
irhn^ are twOMtineb aMei ihmn'iekimi lOoAJitT^mta^ .All 
these are of ' impoFtaMe, but in' uaoqual d^^»».i OC iWihiglt- 
eMvJitue'is tfaeMidcneeailbrded by th«:distnbiitioa<^tb»vdas, 
UtkeA tbgether with themode-of divieionof aleaf ;'if the-TBHlB 
«re all parallel, nnbrandicd, oronly wamboted-by littib tmns- 
vene ban, aiHl'tlte teavW lUNKvidod^the.'^aiitnias'iprQbabfy 
MODoCot^t^otoous ,- dfidiFtbt-TCataofii&uidiaka^iDMsnl^ 
runahig side by side'flwn'thebaseitB tkeii9)ta^,di«erge<AoB 
ibe midrib, and lose themsrivmiitdib nmffn^.tamiBg^m^tm 
senea of douUe corrves, tbe pint' was cetttlinly atiali^oiA to 
what ate noir called ScttMUikMt, SilMiMntBaetf, and ^Mnaaoi^; 
bm, nlpposlDg lbat^thrpanUri'>a»vi^Hlaitia£abBfl«iTdaaits 
eombhied wiA a pinnated 'foliage^ HUa^tite-jimtv^iiA-fiiobm- 
bly have belonged' to Cycadeee,' that cunoUa itiibe ithat aflndi 
•on' tbe TCTy Knits' of Hooooo^ledDoB' and ■■ I3lioo(7ledni^='aodt«f 
-flowering and doweriess plants^ -By 'Uuthi'Ch'ttkctfin-n'thffc 
-hovfever, thert^is do ntaaosof diniil^ahi^.certaiBvpdfeBs,<4f 
'ihafartilstatei f>*M'Cye4de«i. . ' ■.■■■■:h.-- -. 

'H veins ere ^1-of aquritliicknaBi, and 'diflbotoiiotl%i'#e )bA«e 
'an n^^CilUoA of- tbe ^'Fem tHbe^' 'wfaichi ia feeldcan-' 6tetipti^t. 
aerrMhekKSi itimuBt be- rMBcmbared^tbat llle ijjdMUifoie) 
'teams, hoth'tif Monec0tyiedallB>aod''DM»t7ledan%Jl*N^I(k)(»- 
'tjobally th^s kinit«rrTai4aliaB. ^ Btfefliftfae lrciaa^a»^BSt/dildl»- 
tf^MhWi if 'tl4y are (d( Afiiiieatfy aqfuat'tfaiokaKsa-apd'tBtylfiBc, 
'or divided' in a very simple OMnnef, U is ptttbaUeiitbat tWy 
indicate the Fan tribe, whethsr «d>{dei. as4D'ihi<fesiiii,genlis 
-^!VteDi(^)tini^ or reticulated^ as hi 'tha 'modern fgsnua IfenisMini. 
If veins ate of flbviMulyunCqaa) tbidtm^ and «o-ba»fliad 
te to resemble the vieBhes of '« net, vethave wagt vf'Oieaty- 
l«AMwiiB etractot^ thai aetdon nudaads UB. -' ' ,:-."-■> ^b---. f 
finally, #1)0 veins at allardtobe^foQac^ ^I't^miqp nnitt 
be'fbnnGd,'iiotfh^ their abseacb-bvt'fiMniiitli^eiMuniatBbMt. 

'deltrmiHimgffMiilPbmtt. SffiT 

Sf'<b»<Iilave8r«r*-aaull,'thero«biaMe 1017 be <due loioaoaiplvte 
d«Mlofadta»f but iPdv leatcsoi* laige«»dJrvaf)iliui^ divid- 
■4lt^'ira'««f'ln*e<Mi( tonie-liiDd of wuiM-plaot 
9Vl«i'ilmMB'itA-Ba«U<Knd '•ns'deoady imbriMtoi, ^theyjie 
genenltj coDsidered by fossit botaniau to belong to.cithtr 
iLytapo&toae, or Csmferaa; and tbcn is so little to diitiagBiA 
4heK'.te>i5csia^K'fMal<M«te, tbM theies.Msrcd>y.aiiy.iiieau 
ii^^eiiHMStratii^ to wbicb- sudi geaefti as Lyoopoditea, JjKi»d(h 
■dendraA; 3^iiiiipniteB, TaxiteB, and the like sctuftlly bdooff. 

It wonhi be easy to extand tbeie ^MervatiooB mudi furUmv 
tnt to dwell at kngth i^n this bran^ of the subjeet, yioi^ 
carry tut farbejund our prasant limita. We will, tbaiwfor*, 
tMng mtr remarica to a cttncluaioii, l^ calling atteDtioa to aome 
'trf'tfaOBe poiMs, to the ^uodalion of which, it is moat to be 
''Mibeii'»that gac^c^ats^ vbo have tjpportuailies of c^ljiTtfflg f(w- 
■il^plaafa) would.^i^y tfasmaelvas.. 

ifl'tbe first i^ace, raidence » wantad iu to fJ^Qts to irbKb 
A««eiiM caliad LcfvdoaUidi^, (be leaiK« calliBd X«[Hd(^yU<S md 
.tbeffniit^iiaiiKdiJardiDcarfm, respectively appertain. Ale tjhejr 
alt ^rtimM ofiapeeiea of.the same genuB„of| As,aw(Qs mora pro- 
Mde, 4» .iKd? CafdiocaqxiB a part oC a plant .of .» toitally. 4iS*>^ 
ent-^&mtj? ■ SaocHidly.iwbat wenlbe.leavtaof SigiUoriaaodof 
a^jDariaJ^' <0f the JatteE,i.gonwttaiigii known; .but tbe,l«ft«Ba 
'arealwffyaeocru^Kd^lbat no notion can be fonoed of their ex> 
act nature Mr Steinhauer says be has traoed them,to the ieogth 
«f'itOieet! ' ioitbethiid pkwe) tqdetevnuno th^ ka^ea oCaqyof 
iks^^aaaABlBnlsth^atpreBent anonJy inttwlaUer^te^-BUcbaa 
BD^nbek^-BucUandla, Cyoademdw^ Gaulc^terisr Xxogepites 
avdEoalagftiitesy would be;to«i^pi^ A^aatidtaiderauiDb .d^ain, 
wjhst «aBt]w.Kal.aatilre of tbeistew (^Calami tesfvWwUaaan- 
satl'^uol^proeeeding'fdEiiKa penenniaJl bomoatolo'hison^lifce 
|)l^aE4uoUHi^<fct[. ?>. Hadi^tbwy l(ia.vfl«] wdif so, w^ie-th^y^ 
'tbfifDature'Jof 'tbaBerfigatwdiin euawofk,ai* pro^wbly betoagbg to 
C tfci ii iB ii t iB oodaafOt but -ctKitidcred by fiteniberg Andfirta^niapt 
^fSBfliadt -gemia, .aibit^ itiiey.aallrYoUuaaMiiaP- Another, vary 
J0t«p^i^iig idl^ect ofinqviryniB jiUo tbe-aoatoaMcal ttfi^ure-ai 
Le[ndpdendroa, for die i^e of. t^tlii^ «rhetber fjba^ ^Kl/^faive 
ioitil^gtaiui'bciongpd .to.,C(»a«tsB,,er:,.tqiI.j«»p«Ka««p(:.»3r to 
Brither<' Ws kaow nothingof tbeleaves beloigtog to the<fa^ 

38& Rev. 'Edward Stanley ok tht VHaStyef Toodt. 
sit fraitc cdlad Aaonracarpon MasBcarpoctf &&,ocaE'Ao.ft*i^ 
of CycadetMdea, Anniikria, MteMpktyiitei aod jjHinp ■ oAwifcj 
litewtbOTe are diffioultkathat pKiaWy may'bejeniowd witht- 
diligeot Ta»earah among ihe bed* in whicb«udi foBwlsocoarj' 
md whk'h, if reatond, would contribute mudi fflore tOfixidg 
ttw ficieoee upon a solid baw^ than the diwMwe?y of spuaes Bet- 
before deKribed.— Lindfoy «nd Hvttotii FiuM Flora of ^SreOt 

On ^ Fite% of Toadi. By the Rev.* Edwaed ' STAKLEr/ 
F.L.S., f.G.S., &c. Communicaeedbythe Auihoi'. 

SlE, . .-,.■- 

In Na 25 of your valuaMe Journal, pa^ SO, you have insert; 
ed an interesting paper on the vitality of toads by Professo*' 
Bocktand. If other experiments, partly siirlilar, btlended with 
fflimlaT results, are worthy of recording, you tflay Insert the fol- 

On the aad June 1830, I placed threetoads No. 1, weighing 
6 draehms ; No. 3, weighing 17^ drachms ; No. 3, wdghing St^' 
drachnra, in separate flower-pots, covering the surface with a 
ble, as well as the b<de at the bottom. They were then burie<3 
about four feet deep in garden soil, and dug up on the 21st 
March 16S1, all desd. It appeared, ttowever, from the state 
of their mnalns, that they had died at diflb-eut times, the body 
of one being in nearly a perfect state, whereas of another noi 
tiling rennioed bnt the bones. Conceiving that the damp stat4 
f£ the soil might -have aJfected them, I placed a 4th in a vride 
mouthed bottle, cofk^ down, in a dry place, inserted a qulfl 
through the cork for the admission of air, and a 5th in a simi- 
iarbottle, well' corked, eotirdy exdudiftg air, whith died before 
I'was aware of it, in 48 hours*; proving very decidedly that 
air is ae eseenliat to tfcdr existeWce as to any other class of living 
enisiBls. No, 4, continued in apparency good health for about 
a fottoigbt : k tlien, how^vei', began to ^ew dgns of weakness^ 
" It is Bcarcely necessary to add, that the air In the bottle was totsllj uafiU 
ted ftr rapicatiini or combustion ; a lighted Upei plunged into It was immc 
dietelj estjoguiriied. 

l" ,l,;<,i:..,G00gk' 

ak»u.'EdwuxbSlflnl<or. tmiitf VHalify of Toadt: 9a» 
aMl^itBi^aE.bec8aie dinii in &ct, it appeared n ntarly «zlutiBt- 
e4t«agi d^io^ ifaat I rdeaaed it fmm iu taaGaeimmi, and |dao* 
4itt uadfr. a floweivpot on moist gardoi earth, wber« it could 
qMrtiriUi wonna and suall iBBeds, and enjoy a uiffidoKiy of 
4a ' The conaeqiwnoe was, that in the coune of a day or two it 
liad dtnapletely recovered ita natural ctdour, briUiancy of eye, 
wd.fuN isotion of its limbs^. and, when finally relmacd, I bad 
the pleasure of seeing it crawl off under evny symptom of ea- 
tire convalescence. One fact I remarked worthy of notice. I 
have mentioDed that Nos. 4 and 5 were placed in bottles in a 
dry situation. In oonseijuence probably of this, at the end o£ 
about 13 hoars, I observed them to be in a Mate of violent per- 
^iration as if every pore was exuding moisture, to such a de- 
gree, indeed, that the sides of the glass were covered with a 
syxtpg dew» wbich .aocunuil^ted till it /QriDed.dro|«,'coU«etui( 
af. the bottom to the amount of about one-fourth of .a.teasppM^ 
fill., or the preciK nature of this liquid, I am ignorwitt but 
it probably contained a portion of some powerful itcid,, a«, ia ft 
very short time I observed the ink to disappear from the nwU 
^^Is I had enclosed in the bottles, omUiiniog - the weights , of 
the toads and da^s of their confinement. It it dear, from 
these several experiments, that the commonly received b^ief 
fbat these reptiles qtn,exist in blocka of sUuie and steqia,<tf. adQ^ 
Toud, is perfectly lalse ; notwithstanding the almost numberleta 
instances on record, apparently ,well attefited, c^ thek vitaJity 
under the joint additional nngularity of exclusion of, wr and 
privatipn of food. My ^xjierim^ts. are, indeed, more to tha 
point of their inability to esist for any length of time unless 
amply supplied with air and food cf th^ own sel«clim), Xban 
Dr Buckland's ; for I should observe, that althou^ in the in- 
stance oiFNo, 5, absolute exclMsion of ^r, exclunoo of ibod it 
also implied, in the cases No. 1, ^ 3, both food and wr were 
both more or less amply supplied, for, in the flower'-pou I not 
only fpund several small scolopendra, but quantities of more 
minute inserts, cansistiqg chieSy of the Podura^fimetarta^ .Now* 
it is evident, that to that4eplh, air .must have penetrated,. or 
the insects themselves could not have existed ; and that it must 
have been to a degree quite sufficient for animal life, is equally- 
certain from these insects having descended so far from chtuce. 
There is still, however, considerable mystery in the history of 

jeSO Rev. Btiward Stanley on the VUatiliif ff Toads, 
tbeut creauuea remunlog to be cleared up, and ab m^ch con-' 
fliotiqg evidence, that I CRDOOt bring my ptind to any very ^goA^ 
live conclunona *. I certwoly have never been fortunate 
enough to meet with one of the many instances of toade sdid to 
bave hem fouad bemtetkaUy immured in wood or stooe, whejs 
ibey must have existed for several years at least ; but I have 
met with tbetn in situatioDS, each as bottoms t^ shafts, caverns, 
ceUutf and orevioea, where I could nut easily account, for a 
due Buj^ly of their known usual food, and, in fact, 1 selected 
tfiB'iihprisonmeDt under flower-pota, as the nearest mode iif 
oombiaii^ their natural habits with the supposed theory of ex- 
itteace undiN- ahsolwta «»4uiioa. That No. ff, pla^ in the 
bottky^edfroniexdBwn of air J think there can he no doubt ; 
tfnd tdiM No. 4, tbt)Ugh supplied with air, would have died ia 
BDOtbett Sl'bour^ ie most probBble ; but I think it qot impos^ 
Btlrie hot Aat aoote otb«r causes might have operated, for wheO;' 
»m I'flbseihral then, I «ould notpercdve th^ slightest appear- 
ance of uneasiness or dense of restraint.; they appeared ^xactly 
annrdktg to their usual balnts, in a sort of dull dormant qipe< 
veOt state, jutt as »hea found in aome secluded chink in rocks 
tr wada stoAes, when the only predomioant feeling appear to 
be diKotijAutiDB at any interruptioD to their sluggt^ life, ac- 
eom^nied'by ftn unnatural excitement (I will not call it activi- 
ty) of- llkur limbs, occaoooed by fear, and anxiety to make 
then' netreat with all speed to some amftur abode under some 
tithtw ** cold- fltone,^ .wher^ again to resume their '| iron 
rfiep." In a word, the awkward dull movements and letWrgio 
tje 6t a diaturbed toad, aeem to express the ver^ Gen&nents of 
tbeSaaiidinavJan pto^etets to Odin : 

" Bow my vetrj ejts I doss, ■ . ^ 

httrm mo, kave ma, to TqwBa" . , . ' 

, ■ AttheexperimentBof Heriisant iDl777,BDdI>rEdw^raBtB ISI^Mfiy 
not be generally knoim, I shall briefly ttxte, tiitt tbe fiirraat i^u}^ t^hree 
ioadBin Bed^boEeRln phster, whidii after hkrii^bew depotUed'fbcLdgli* 
teenmniUlg in die AeaAenty of Sciencct, were opettad and two of the b^ 
wnv £iaod.b). be Uvlncona alone haring died. Br Edwards eUDtoAiJwB* 
toada totally In plaster, and absolutely, as far as he c«M, Ae]^rrv«d1kMa 
of tir : they all lived many days, and ittudi longH tlon Ihllaii ■IimjiJbsh 
fin-ced to temain under water. This angular reAU. t»a cnly b« awgustsd/or 
an the tupporitinn that air miut have penettflted throu^ the plaster! 

'■■ ■ ■ r-. ■< ^^ > -. .. 

Qfi a Production of Najththaline tn on Oii-Ga» AppUfatu*-' 
By A,. ComiELL, Esq. F- It. S. E. ' Communicated t^ the 

Poui^ white crystalliDe matter, said to have been d^xwtad hyi 
(ulygas, waa lately given me by Professor Jameson for Ghenucal 
exaojination. This matter ^as crystallized in thin taMes ad>.. 
tenDg^tosether id fi;roups, and possesiJiig a fine pe«ly huir», 
A partial dtscolorafioti was otcaMdned by the klteltnixti^ c^ k 
littfe impurity, confflsliiig of dxide of iron, mth some a^faeriug 
carbon^eous matter, which gare an empyreomatib mell wheo 
heated. The white crystals were fiMiod-to posseM thewiiU 
known chemical properties of naphthaline; and I tfaouJd'Kat 
have" thought it necessary to takesny ferther Kottce ef ihem, 
ba4 it not been that the source from which they pPbdeeded, and 
the drcuOistances under which tfiey were' forawdy were some* 
\)rliat peculiar, and may afford some ilhtstratioti of the ooDdidma 
necessary to the produenon of this body. ' 
. T)pon making inquiry at the place where Hw orjn^s wore 
produced, I was informed that they were &«t ' observed ia «r 
old iron pipe several feet in length], and a few inches iaintsmal 
diameter, winch had iive years ' before formed part of a ptivatb 
oil-gas apparatus. This pipe had been situated between the n- 
tort on the one hand, and the condenser and gasometer on> the 
other ; and when the apparatus was in operation, an taipyieM- 
matic oil used to be deposited in it, but no formation sf the 
white crystals had ever Ijeen observed during that peiSod. ' Tbe 
biaterial which had been employed for the production of thegas 
was at first whale-oil ; then palm-oil had been used ; aud^atter^ 
ly wjiale-oil had been ag^' employed. Some of the crystals 
which 1 saw tak«i out of the pipe ff«« nixed with a black soft 
pkdiy^Wkiag niM^^, which seemed t^ line its inside. 

When this dark, matter was heiated on platinum foil over the 

spirit-tamp, it fused at a moderate heat, and gave off dcnae 

white vapoursi When the flame of the lamp was brought in 

.Ktxnlact with it, it took fire and burned away, leaving a consinfe- 

•:ndd« icndue, wbicb was.atfACted by the magnet, and was it^n 

' more of' less oxUized. When some of the dark matte; wpn 

832 Mr Connell on a ProduB^on t^ NapkihaHtu. 
heated in a tube, it gave off at a moderate temperature a little 
napbtbalme, which condensed iu Uie upper partof thetitfbe,-««di^> 
as the heat was increased, a yellow fluid cfHiddnted «n the:^idea 
of the tube, which was to a great extent soluble in nloohd. > 

Several views maj be taken of the mode of productioo «£ the 
naphthaline in the gas apparatus. We mig^t suppose that" it 
bad been formed during the destnictiie distillation of 'one Sar 
both of the oils emjdoyed and depouted in crystals at the time 
of its formation ; but this view is opposed by the circumstance, 
that no naphthaline was observed whilst the gas apparatus was 
in operation ; and it is also improbable, that crystals of the nze 
obtained and so weO defined, should have remained during so 
long a period in a situation to which there was access of air, 
when the great volatility of naphthaline is considered. We may 
conceive, in the next place, that the naphthaline, after it had 
been formed by a new arrangement of elements during the des- 
tnic^ve distiilatioQ of the oil, was condensed along with some of 
the other products and held dissolved by them, until the solvent 
was decomposed or dissipated by the slow operation of time and 
the external air. Or, lastly, we may suppose that it was not 
formed during the distillation, but first existed only through the 
slow and spontaneous decomposition of some of those products, 
with access of air, after the apparatus had been laid aside. The 
last view is perhaps on the whole the most probable. 

The influence of external air in the |Huducti<Ht, or at least 
development, of naphthaline, baa been lately observed by M. 
Laurent, who found that naphthaline was not obtained in aU 
cases by the distillation of coal tar, and that its produt^ion was 
most certain when the coal tar had been long exposed to the 
air *. M. Reichenbach did not succeed at all in getting t\a^~ 
tholine by the distillation of coal tar, but the tar employed by 
him had been apparently recendy prepared +. M. Laurent al- 
so found that the action of atmospheric air was superseded by 
that of chlorine. 

■ AmialH de Chimje et de Fbjdque, xUx. 22a 
■f- lb. xUx. ae. 


( «B8 ) ■ 

On Ae Ckaractere and Affbiitiet of cerimn Genera, cHi^ be- 
longing- to the Flora Peruviana. By Mr David Don, Li- 
brarian of the Ltnneati Society'; Member of the Imperial 
Academy Naturae Curiosoram ; of the Imperial Society of 
Naturalista of Moscow ; of the Bdyal Botanical Society of 
Ratisbon ; and of the Wemerian Society of Edinburgh, Sec' 
^Continued from No. for Oct. 18S1, p. S80.) 



Ori JVai. MELANTHAC£^ Kr, . 

Feriaa&iuM 6-p>rtitum : leemeniit koceoliitis, acuminatia, ban b^aUadiilo^ 
J'iJinRenn SubulsU, basl diktata. ^n/A«ri»Tenirorine9, biloculares; lacvUt 
conflueDlibuB. Otarmn (e foUicuGB 3 eonnttii camtxiiituin) trilucUUre : 
oiru/u indefinitis. Stigmala nimplicia, canaliculata, pnilnina, recurn 
Captmla msmbisnacea, ttii^otu, S-locutaril : locitiit dl-poljapemiis. 
nina adscendeDtU, complanata, ba«l poriim alUa.i - -' 
laxft, nudeo tjuadem migari. 

Serine (Amer. Septentr.) emilbat ramoiit. Folia HntoTi-laneealala, • 
naia, twriHUa, marginibut carmtyue fcoMf. BacCDtUt diriMu, f 
1. Z.fiigidia, ovario semiinfero! loculia poljapenuiSj st/lis uilutis abbK- 


Veratrum fH^dum, Deppe et Schiede tn Schkcht. Litmmi, 6. p. 46. 
ytzculmpatli tertia, jRemand. Mex. p. 307. 

Bt^ In pntia elevatis Oijzabee mantis, alt. 10,000 ^i—Selaede H 
Deppe. If, (V. &. sp. in Herb. LunU) 

AAuHMu bulbo-tuber nvato-oblooguin, foUorum estarcidpnTO ludimra^ vm> 
titum. CanRt erectua, ramoBus, teres, la^ris, viridia, Seih onminti loUdus, 
bl- T. tiipeiUUa, calami scriptMii «rMiitia. F^Ua ratlkMa Uuearik, acuta, 

condaplicala, glabra, ma Cfjine msnil" ~"' ' " " ' . .. i . 

CuCTBtojnUBtU, ii«rvia pluriada pi 
yaldt dilatata; caufina bcevMin, e_._ 
elongatus, paniculatus. Flore) albi. 
' i«e>Dhni)aone,ban euctdIat3peduncDloavag1ti*nt«a,li«deii]qiid'liit^iores. 
ForioniAtun 6-partitum, basi turbinate ^dluermw: teoMw. kneegliltai HUtl^ 
aeqUalibUE. Stmana 6, periaotbii laciniis oppoeltat fihrnofta fvbulata, 
complaiutai f{labni. ban .iiiiti»t., 4tque in unutom loeTiniiinm con- 
nata: anOoro muformea, luloculim: Joeufit cfufluentibtu^ riiaA ua& 
qu* diUKcUtttua. Oearium aemlllnfmim I e folllculla 9 conflatuin t 
MuH) iDdefinitis. j^V*^ c«<iV^ dMbi«cl«,'nc<»*sti^ ghbvl, tneresJ 
SOgmata cucuIUta, pruioasa. Ciquula orata, verabranaeet, ftjocuiuii: 
ttadiii primamk. Stmina dmnpressa, acobifonnia, marglue altero trun- 
cato I fnid laxl, tenuiariini membranaceL , 

This genus a so closely allied to tbe following, that, besides 
the glands at the base of the segments of the periantfaiuio, and the 
brmclted inflorescence, there is little else to separate them. The 
spedes is well distinguished by its half-inferior orarium, and 
by the Sorter and unconnected styles. 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

"',.. HEIiONIAS, JfficA.' " " ' "'7"";''^ 

I(ffl.QVIff tp. Um. . ^, ,.,,,- 


• O^ jy«^ IJELANTHACEiE, Br. 

JVivnAium S-partitumi H^nMnJii obtuais, iubKqudibus. SlamiifajGi, fila-' 
menta Bubulata, baa p^m dUatata :' anikeri rtnifannea : faMiAb CMfllit' 

Snninii campressa : tetl& membranaceL 
Herbte {Amei-. But.) pabdotm. Scajri -Jim^MMfcut.' Baceiul* ipMOtutvawdf 

„„-, Cyi]pulB»tL,.„„ :.,... .■ , 

Om. 1* JteeofhyUm antbent loe({li« ilia^ctKfila*N*)t«- i-A «^ djl^tm 

ffb>l)thil s^ineDta 3 inUiriora laliara, racemus corjmbciaus bracteatuj^ cau. 

Id HeloniA lutefiri^gfe. mHi in novum, gmuu ifonititmi. iU.;I}^c^^o(le, 
floro aunt dioici, filamenta et gtigmata clavata, anthers oblongs, i'pice ma» 
gtnaUe, loculia parallelu dlstlnctu, Dec coDflueatibus, racemus ebracteatua, 
caijlui lolioauB. , . 1 ■ - 

1. H. ogUAtwli*, foliia Ilnearlbiia pnelongis cuinatit maivine Kabiii^ ra. 
cono elotigsto, Kcnintbua compfesils aplce aUtts. 

Teiitnim ofaciMk, SaWMU tniLUo^e. p.4fi.. 
Ytacidmpatli aecunda, Htnumd. Mex. p. Wl. 
\ . Ilalh In granunoslij ad Inters montiuin Hacienda de Laguiia et Btirhiini 
de Tiurelo in provinciiE Terae Cruris r^onibus tempe^tU^ iSAinfa 
tt Deppe, If. (V. »■ sp. in Herb. Jjunb.) ' " 

A^up oaaaa, aabbulboM, Sbraa cooiplure!) Jongisgiip*! baai enul^ena : 
toth aleagato, ludimentis foliorum emarcidorum fibroais Id nrcu- 
' ' Ua cn no tntiida di^toutia obrpluto. iSnapcu.efblioruia madia aolita- 
rittt, Uaqne multlt alciMV erectiu, teres, Isvii, Kolldua, ir ' "* ' 
UiMt ftcetaai'peonta oerriaK cranitlet. - /Vifia pkiiiDu, k 
cai^Bt<Hi*'*litiB< timaria, acuta, canData, vatfpae dtaiit 
ueia aerrulato-scabra, aerria plurimis [vriUeliB pnunlaull 
QUB >IBlidkiKi peiafiiata, lotoe-viridia, tfictu Biiilitri(aa, K 

ddiaiSMiiaaqlata. J8aowftaj:toft'*< tcpBtnaliinecectua, ,^, 

fnaliftnit prnlongahWi-peilabiiet ultra. JUonu parri, lalbi, e^iicca- 
tione lutescentes, undique versi, conferti, erecti. Fedunct^ teretea, 
cdldi, leves, brerijaimi. Braiteala iecerretes ttutKtfte^ Mha||lDe 
«cari<»te,Un^teQil^perrt)<tente3. P^iVaTtfHBiiiMBreewefi^SipAtitum: 
Mgnentu £iiiplid o):^'"* aqualihus,- linearibui, apice opaako^j^tumi^ 
bud disco parilm elevato ca)losa auctis. StammiA, aegftieDUa perian- 
' UiB impddlta,'iBiiuftlia: .^iffiffnla''inibuhtS,'KlabR^>.|iAyitai«A, basi 
iwziiid dilatata : anOtera renifonoeB, media tilaintiDtia adnata i JpJi* 
aplce 'doaSaenmiis ■ ' giilUt« ittidfi^u^ -deHibbentibDrti^bnUacAMllagi- 
neid. . iftofbii. pqLvepuiif Owrfma (i follinilia^camM " ' 
'are, permn'thlo fHamentisque marcescentibtis'l 

ibt^pfTtdit. Di i i^ mu n la a maiginibinwdltBtBrMfiPtrrfaiillrtat- 
atitoO. SerniTta coamieasei, apice complaitato-alata.-' Mf^l bien]lirana- 
cfd), tiroft)B<lf.>iltidS,albumW arcta-adteerentl: aftiUAt' od)W a M» . 
canil^eum, album. EatTyo famut teBM»JB*W":'^l>fflH^ *§*<=- 
tui, concolor^ .< i 



There is, I think, mu^ lessoq.fqr believing this to be the 
second kind of the Ytzcmmpatli referred to by Hernandez, 
for it can Bcarody be the staae with his 6rst tort, if the figure 
and deacriptiaD of the leaves can be rdiedon. Whether this 
last is identical mth the plant figured by l^scourdlB, or whidk- 
of them is actually the CevadiUa of Monardes,, are q^eationB 
vimh I have not niaberiitls to decide. ""'.'[. , ''' ' ; ' 
' Asattithe^phmts of this fetnii^ peaseM- iimi4}( the «Bnie pR>< 
perti^ icis cot iioprdMble that diOereqt species have beenag* 
plied in different couolriM toi tihe like purpose. Ttie &iAudUla 
ttl^CeVrad^a tbvmaiy held' an important pWe ib thie Fhaapa- 
copeeia, but hapfuly. the jwogiresMve habits of tb9 
p^gle Bip tendered it now no longer seiressHy. . . 

^IPaiDlUM, Lafi. 

'"' '' ' ' ' 'SjrtlAm. THIANpEIAlMONOGYNI^ 
Ord^ITtt. HAliUDOBACEe, Br. 

^Rprfaq^Uwf fh^fffO.\^,i_f^if Z interiirnhus pinlw nm'unhus. .!jfW"<i >, 

,." , ' KiB oppoalU i fe™ m^Jpre, fikmento tripB tatiore. complanatp- AtiAerm 

stuic«, buAculares, n-ectK : iiicu/u distiactls parallel^ aaturifoi^tudl- 

i|all ilelii«certibus. Ovariam globosuiu, 3-lDculare, amniDb ffljenim : 

...-.__.^— _._ _„,._^. ^..^ _,.__. ijj^y^ *qp*irIbiHT*- 

impHdB, Bieubnm*c««. PUt- 
. . ^<msaM;nMeql«atM,ipn)CeHU 

Iras Ebram undique tubCKulat^. Stmina dspTMM>«agulaCp, apicft 
'- HtKO (BlKtitto cenotTluscalo I iMa eartUaf^ncai oUumm iiaiii>c«nm, 

niveuin. EwibrfB minutoi. 
HerbcE (Amer. Merid.} Veratri fiuit. Ba^x jUrfwi, n^nu. Fnli^ oOmifi 

Brscteolse teoriiMa, tmoMiiMi, - Bmo* viefuM. - 
. L. X ntirKM, folUa er««Us mv^m denticiil^U^ psoit^ n^^)^ p^ 
•ntliii fuliolu OTsto-oblop^ obtusif, autheids ovttUJ^uB. , , 
OrnltiK^lum rubnim. Rnuiel Paeoti MSB. 
a&k in Feruvid. Rai»4t Paaon. 'it- (V. s. sp. In H^th I>B)b.) 
. iJotwithatanding iu fre?, ovanww, thi? fiCBjim ^vi^tl^ !». 
longs to the Hamodoracexy to which it had been doubtfully re- 
fcrted by. tbe .<^tingaished author of the Prqdr«nm*. Florte 
[^ovm ffoUon^iai to **6m the isintctiirt' df Its frutt^ (^pears to 
liBV»been thcR'wkiMwn^ The evunuqi walso fWejn ^achett. 
^orfiot'miiititevm aofong MbllOcotytod6noiu;pthi]t$19ifr<^MW^ 
ter MiiM«f|nai»f Vi4iie. ■ ...i, -i-. 

:,, Google 

UrJ>-,])im m.'Ae GlutaelerAandJgigitks 

Ord. JVot ASPHODELE^, Br. Trib. B. Coi[i»Taxa^JS»iit,-' 

tniauperum, nonoidij'tlum, wMi7pocfat«rtfbrme, c6lontutn, da. 

petenti: lagmtntit eillptiDo-oblMieis, 7- 
tnotb) ; esleriotibu* paollt) uigustiollbuB, 
low apiculstls. Stamiaa 6, laud periitnt 

ioto apiculstls. Stamiaa 6, laud periitnthli inserts ; 2 lon^ora, sterilia! 

peiidiculatie, valvulJs Ucet longitudinaliter solutls e fbTamlnibuB 2 tennU 
□alibua tantdm polleti eSundentibus ; leeulo tdtero (iDterioK) bau ih ctiT' 
niculum brevlBBimum producUi. Oitariam 3-loculare : cvu/ii pluribiu. 
Slyiu* tenuis. Stigma pimctum prulnfwuni. Captiii]«i;i fi)»tairara non- 
Aiiia TldL 
Berba (FeruviBiw)«Jiy«u. BlilBonu MtMnin'^ Cauln trMiA, mmotl, pfaM, 
nudtuJCuZf, iiui rudimeniu tcarioiii nMiAraruunj /oBonm imjietficli nofu- 
limuB aicofuji, pnbiursi. FoUa radlcalia oiiAi ipiute ; caullsa fwnnunao, 
ruJiiMnJona, iiiuari-/an<ic>>lBf«, oowBimiJa, oiuw/inilate, ntnita, giabru, 
p(enanque adpnua, via unaalia. ¥\me& fatmemi, pamadaA, ainirii. Pe- 

Sractfobe (udiJiiliB, viriiis*, pedicellu breniom, Feriaathium 10 lineat 
1. Z- eieffua.. 

This interesting genus accords entirely in habit and in the atrao. 
ture of its perianthium wlih Cumtmngia, from which it ii, bow- 
ever, essentially distinguished by the circumstance of two. of the 
Btamens being sterile, and the absence of the membranous ptxots 
from the antliers, one of the cells of which is developed at. the 
base into a short spur-like process. The specimens whence th^ 
above description w&sderiv^, formed partof a small but valuable 
collection of plants made by Mr Bollaert, formerly ch^cal «h 
tastant at the Royal InsUtution, in the course of his travels in 
the interior of Peru. The Bingular circumstance of two of the 
Btamens \mag sterile, leaving four fertile, is worthy of particii-: 
lar notice, as fonning a remarkable exception to the law of de- 
velopment <^ organs among Uie Mottocotj/kdanex. 



Ord. Ifat- A8PHODELA£, Br. Trib. 9. Comuthiibxx, NiiUt.. 

rjiiiwtfiiiMt oinnui& supenim I proftindi S-putltum ; faRdHi inEcquilateii. 
atJot^^ nmenauia BubcucuDato, papiUoio apiculatl^ S-neiriit ; inUrioti- 
' Wktlotlbiu. iSI — ina 9, bam condW innrUi jO a imi t tt nibulata, com. 
pllMts, i^fdmi aitfl«M limaiWi loouiBbmtM I tdloculana : JbmfEt p«nd- 

^cir:taiH GMera^iit'the -Pldra PifuTiiamx. SS^ 

lellf, bari Bolutis, lonffitudinatiteT dehiiceotibut. Ovmhtm 3-laculu« i 

otmlii indeflnitla, Slglm filifcannl), gfaliar. SUffma triflduni : laeMu re- 

cuTvis, oblusia, pruinosi?. Capmia. 

Seitia (Chileuais) tf^patu- Radix ftachuiala-Jltrma. CviUM-trteliu, mntim, 
teres, glater, bi-v. tripedalis. Folia radicoBa, caulU/ere longilux&nt, huiitw 
mtmbraitaceii egaitanli-inibricatii ditlicha, Tecmvato-pattila. hnearia, acunti- 
- ., . nata, pkhta, nervua, griamiai, aiirat^abtatnacta, n#rw injonanfi* ms^ fr«w 
mirutlo, tvpri baim vertut laitA diiatal& alii, aolala, tnaTgma tartilaginea, 
lievi; aemipoUicetn v. poilicem latat caulina tintariJoiiimiata, acaimnatm, ml- 
adpreata, 2-i-unciaHa. Flnrea d^mi paniailati, ofanei. PedieeUl JUi. 
fimaet, inarficuiiCi, ninuna opicc dSata^ Bracleolse /onaeolnlo, onnmniifie, 
frrevissifRie, memiranacii*. PeriauUdum ion uimunciHd ifa«iduun>. Ovtriuin 
ajnei pedicels firi immermai. 

1> P. eteniletu 

Anlhericura cffiruleum, Svix tt Ftmoa FL Pento. et CAit X o, OJ, 

t. Z99. f. b. 
Bermudisiia coBrulea, Phalaugii runod fade, vulab /itet Faal£L Ftnn. 


ilB& in Chili lods umbrarii. FaMU, IM» el Fmon, Cmnhig. V 
f«^ Ilku. (V. «. ^ in Herb. I^mb.) 

Besides the present, several other plants have been referred 
to Anthericti/m by the authors of the Flora Peruviana, which 
dearly do not belong to that genus; and among Aem thMr 
Anthericum phimosum and coarctatum are deserving of pardcu- 
lar notice, ae constituUng the rudiments of two new genera ap< 
pareDtly belonging to the normal group of Asphodelea. The, 
inferior or half-inferior ovarium, and the simple, inarticulate 
pedicels, have induced me to r^ard the Conunthereie as forming 
ft separate section of the order. The incumbent anthers and the 
^fid stigma essentially distinguish Pasithea, both from Conan- 
thera and 'Cumvdngia. 

It canndt ftil to be remarked, that the triple stigma and the 
completely inferior ovarium bring this genus very near to the 
Hi/poandea, affording one among many other proofs that might 
be adduced of the extreme difRculty, or rather utter imposubi- 
hty, of establishing absolute characters in Natural History. 

KBClLhA, Jd. Juts. 

Ord. Nat. PHYTOLACE^, JVoftw. 

Ca^ S^^yllu^ bwi 3-bracteoktuji ; /oftoK» oviJibus, concavla, membnuM- 
ceif. Petai9 0. Stamima 10, perlKym ; alltnta eiijat foliiilia opposita i 
JOamenta capillaria, glabra : imthent incumbeoteB, bilocukrea : loeviit pa. 
lallelia, distinctia, mediaiite apke Uamentoruaa conDaCla, utrdque ez-'> 
tremitate solutia, obtuiis. Oatrivm breritcF pcdiotiUttiDi, S^omim, 
S-loculare. £^ 6, BubitlatL ;8«wnato.t<)Udn^alB]pUda,'aUtUa,f«cur. 

JiSrD.fKniAitk^ Qhatactlirii^iitd^'J^atiii 

. . mi vi«) «:«tc8a : tweb moflospermisi anjralo" ^ 
' ttrtfa, CMieriWe M^ftudtiibfitn- dchiscentlbiis: 
Frutex (Chileiuis) voluHia, giaierrimut. Foliu pona, peMaUt, «oSS^ bbtiita, 

aaUa. Bacemt AfWam / teliiarii, Muiapicati, pendtili, fApdlieartt. Flares 
oBn. Bncteolce elRpHeo-obloi^ix, ameaem, Biemtranacea. 

1. Etcilla vblubiUs, Ad. ie Jau. in Amu dei fiUm. Sat, 25. p.'lL 

t:a-f. 1. .-.,.- -r -r 

. Ctiminff. I7 i. 

■ The intimate' affihity of this genus to Phytolacca leaves no 
doubt of its being-a l^rtimate meinber of the same natural 
family, notwithstanding the opnion to the contrary heEd by M. 
A(^n d» JoBoaii, wbo, in the taenxia aiMMrcinenUDiMd,' bas 
proposed to refer it to'the Menispermea, from which, it appears 
to me, the genus differs widely, especially in the anthbraboi^ 
incumbent with distinct parallel cells,i in its-.loag iililOT^.ptig- 
mata, in the4tructureofitheo<ranaf and'inithe-IeaTesbaog'fiir- 
nisbed withasolitary midrib^ witb trAnsvsrsS'bnyMbcift. I^bAd 
already<ilescnbtd- th»gcnU9, aDdiiiaCarredact6i%^fttiMt(>w6eii 
the,leamed nwraoirof M. Adriende Juisieu:ieEiBtaihy faaads. 
Ifhfr tvjnii^ b^t and I |}k» axillary 'inflorcaaeiM»^!ai*ilbC'«lily 
characters with which itagrees with the MenUperm^^t ; but 
these are mere pmnts of analogy, and I a^persoadtd duftliCTe 
exists no. affinity whaterer betveen Ercilla and that famUy. 
The habit of the plant appears to have misled Jtiiii usoia'^Hs 
gard-to its affinity. 

■ ANKOMEBU.' '■<''■■■■ ■'■'-■'■^■'^ 

,'' OrO-Nai. riirTO^'cE^ifr.',,, ,//,:,,,,,. . _^,-,,, 

Cat«>fiduia:JU>J»H6'taEwi<ud%iia. nttun&Ui, nibroriat^t a ^ f mAM iwf 
■d kbit miperitu auuvgenlia, subaecuBdBr^mfnM'iUKin^iBj gItbM, 

HgW j iB h ii U •<liid«i ^ wt<<<^flfcw,*tWlijMM^*w<lr«ft*^'^^ 

^£eji<v^. Genera m j{fe FlffTA iV»wi*w«. 

..--> ./JM^oi'CMli ■dVal^Brabo. naming: V- (V.'».tp.iit Ber^-Lunb.) 

This ought perhaps to be considered as merely a species (^ 
i^^teimcca, reUier thtm as a distinct genus. It differs fVom 
Phytolacca chiefly in the inequality of the lobes of the calyx, 
the ascending stainina/ahd the absence of an elevated central 
axis, leaving the ovaria entirely free at (hdr inner edge. 



Ord. Nat. BOEAGINE£, Jan. Trib. 3. LiraOBP^If^ej:, AToAu. 

Cf^iH' alt^ C-partilut, pnrtun iiueq^«Ji&.. CoraSa infuiutilraHCTniidB, .d^ret 
mutti loQgior, limbo 6.1nbo : liAia acutiusuuUa, erectU. Stamina 5, «ub- 
' tfqu^ I fitmmm t j, «fpiUatift, glabra i imtA«ra Ilneai1-iib1dng«{ Bllociila- 
lea, iQcumbentei, TemtUes : itwuJii puraUelU, lon^ud^liter 4chitCH)r 
Ubus. Stj/bia faplltarb, gkher. Stigma punctum prumoauio. Ovaria 4, 

HerbiG (Meincaiue) feretata. C«ules frwfi, jin^icunmi. folia aUena. «m- 
^ ' (Uiii,' laitBa^Mi, narimsi: Bacemi pmuijhri, bracledtL Cal^cia BHrmentts 
....-)JiM«rfiN<,.<ncAi, JK"'^ •'WM'iAMk' .Corolla aUoH.M^wlHlM^n'bl^ 
to^wr, S-3^fia>ru : tubus ion atfenuaAo .- faux dilaiata : limbiu p-htnus 
• l(d>ia oibiy^ «m^ BiffBaAirw jnHBna K ifRMcaJb. 
l> K. b>w{|lm>,*^«b laoeeoUtls loumliutU IwvluandU; geMtftlibHi ifidillM 
lithugpermum lonpfloruia. Hrri. Snm tt-Maantno, . , .f 

Mat, in Hezico. Sttie el 3fDrin»o. Tf (v. s, sp. lii Herb. Lambl) 
9. M. ttmrta^t^Oi tineeoktis mucrcnatis *cabri^ genttalibus kmg^ exiertia, 
caule bi^ilo. i ... 

EcUum Bp. Httti. Seite if Mocinno. 
.■ HaiKmMvtiKO. Strntl HoikKno.'U (t. i.^ tB HInb. LMubi) 

The flowers are by far the largest of the whole family, of 
which it may justly be reckoned the tnost showy.genus. The 
long 6laments essentially distinguish it from Litkospermum and 
BataclMai to which it otbefffbt oom^'qearest in affinity. The 
Soraginea may be divided into five very natural groups, dift. 
tinguislied % the form and Structure of their corolla. The 
_)IrW, consisting of 'SoTiigB; Trhchyslemon*, TricJiodes^, aad 
periisptttltso Rindera, clia*icterised' by a deeply-partbd coi^ia; 
with poiated.ficgQieiitis, asserted abamiiuiy'aud a diffuse ioflo- 
Kscente, Way hi^^med'Saragece. T^he second m&y'}K 3emi- 

'',, • T^^nus u founded on 'Air((ffo orimlalit, wlflct ^en .eawntiallr 
from BtragB, ]fy it* lengthened baiiy fllamentt i by iti iiicuiiibenb,r]iMBtlen 
iMhmj mmI l*(Mr bj tlU'URitt abteeviated pncMM Of tke tmUW' '^ 

""■■■'■ -''■ '" "■ ■■■" ■ C.h;:>ic 

MO Mr D. Don on the Oiarttdgn and J0nUka 
vAntuA Symph^eat comprehending Sympkytutn, Ohogma, 
Onosmodium, CeritiUte, Mertenna and PidnumariiL, having a 
tabular, irtHicate corolla, v'iik very abort lobes, ;anjd,.the, infio- 
rescence rarely rerolute. The third are the Lithospermea^ hor- 
Ting an opeo tubular corolla, with broad, mostly rounded lobes, 
and the stamina often txserted, consisting o£ Lithospermum, 
Messerachmidia, Baltchia, the present genus, MoltkUi, Echium 
and I^copsia. I^efourth are the Bugiossew, having a salver- 
shaped coroDa, with the mouth closed with vaulted proceeaes, 
GomprisiDg Anchuaa, Mj/vtotis, Omphaiodety Cj^nc^loMum, aod 
Aapervgo. The^f/JA are the Hellotropea, consisting of HeUo- 
tropium, Taumefartia, and Tiaridhim^ agreeing hi the focm of 
th^r flower, with the ls»t group, but remarkable for the plicnte 
limb of their corolla, and for ibeir connate fruit, approaching the 
nmple drupe of CordiacecE, to vhicfa they may very properly 
be con«dered as forming the tranation. To the latter family 
belongs Cortetia of Cavanilles, which does not seem to be gene- 
rically different from Beurrerta of Jacquin. The mode of in- 
florescence in Cordiacra, their parted style, and the nature of 
their albumen, connects thein on the one hand with ConvolvU' 
laeeee, and on the other with HydroUaeea, and from this last tv 
the PokmoniacecB the transition is pretty evident. 

NIERBMBEROIA, Ruiz tt Paeon. 

VicoiiA^x, ap. Auct. 
OnL Ifat. SOLSlSEX, Br. 
Ca^ profundi S-fldua : lebit lu^Utis, foliaceis. Corolla hjpocratetiforeifsi 
faaee nunc ventricos£: limbo patentt, 5-Iobo, d-plicalo. Stanuna S, tubo 
inserts, pariim \i\xi\ya£a: filamenta capfllaria, glabnt, inferne adnata: 
mn6wr9 eubrn|tiud)e, bilolae, bilocuUmt i laajia ^mi paikm diteixeuti- 
btu, auice diatuictu,Tiin£ lon|;itucUi)aU ezteriuB-^hisoentibUh Ovarium 
HltKulare, baai diaco cjathilarml cinctum. Siyba ailcipiU-compre88u% 

cidum,nuric minutiMimi papillosum: toHsconnalo-applicatiajiiiiirglnere- 
vdIuUs, subinde qimsi sulco medio naratii. Captala ovata, biloculaiWi 
eafcWit bifldis. DimepinmBtum conlrarium (facie ad caulem), uodiqu^ 
rumpetn, tandem solutum. PlaeenUe 2, acpt^i adnata. Semina BubivnU 
fbnnia 1 ieita cnutauet, scTobiculata : albumea Mraoaum. Embryo teres, 
vcuatui, ajbua : coljiledima linesrf-obloiiipe,plaili>-oaarBzie : TatHiMt& eyW 
drid, cotjrledonibua paiilfi Inngiorl, obtusi, bilo ^roximl. Herbie (Amer. 
Auitr.) atandaleia, radice fibrctSt, aa p ii t onmUL Folia ^aria, tntegenvaa, 
nuns rati n^opfomta- Fhtea toHkuii, ptduneulati, tpectad, atti «• purpnftL 

^^<c«r4nJB ihe,jFiera<flfiriit>kUta. 

A careful examination of the various species of Nierembergia 
and Petunia, which have fallen under my notice, has led ine to 

' the conclusion that they constitute but one genus, which is 
' scarcely of itself to be dtstingiiished from Nicotiana, except by 

' the foliaceons st^ments of its calyx. The tube of the corolla is 
found to be more or less dilated in different species, but thb 

. character cannot be regarded as of more than specific import- 
ance. The Nicotiana minima of Molina ft identical with Nie- 
rembergia repens. SatptgloisM agrees with Nicotiana in the 

' 8tnictui«'oP its calyx, and is only distinguished from' it ami 
Nieremiergia hy its sbme*hat irregular coroHa. 

PITAVIA, Mol.' ■■'■■- 

Galvezia, Ritix et Fanim. non Jiua. 
Ord-Kat. RUTACE,E, Nobit. 

Co/^'4-fidus: laciniis lestlvalioiie imbilcatif. Pelalai, caljcinja laciuiu al. 
terna. Stamina 8, pengyna^ insqualiB,: allema petalia opposita, brevi- 
. .ora : jliamenia compiessa, a^hta : anthera. tariiatai', bUoculiresi kaJii 
exteriiis longitudlnaliter deuiscentibus, apice vix confluentibus. Qvariu/n 
4.1oculare, loculerum apictbua partlm broduetis, 3isco- elfevato cjEndraeeo 
Impoutum: ovuiu snlitariig. Splits (e i conflatus) 4-9uli»tu% ban fia. 
SUM dehisccna. Sligma eubcapitatum, obsolete 4-lobiiiii, minut^ papillo- 
sum. Bacea abortu vepi laongcoccu,! ««e(«.maqMpeat]U. 

Arbor (Chileosia) lempetvimu, 6-orgyalU. ^muli iTicarinaH. Folia lema, 
petioiala, lanceolala, abluia, crenata, cotiacea, glabra, pelluado-punclata, 3-5, 
unctolio, bad aaiia. Petioli tiiblus oblvsi oarinatif aemipollii!aTe4. Plorei 
aia, paniaJali Paniculce pana, arillarei. Pedunculi pubeacerilei. Caly- 
ds lacinue. wtrvtundai, tt^canf. . Pet(ila evaii-ablomga, aoncava, peUucidv- 
ptmetata, ikargine tenvistiiai cHiata. 

■ !, P. punctata, Afni. Cftii ed. a p. Sffj. 

"" " GiilveziapfincUta,iIvizelP(n<t^$ial. r«ff. /"t Partw. (^ CAU l.p. 97. 

.„ I _ //. ^ert». torn. 4. jiiei t. 344. , 

■ HaUi I» CoDceplJouiB Obili TiMTinci* in atagnatis et ad rirulorum 
maiglnm. ' AvimetPMOH Y\. Floret' Octobri et NoTehibii Ter. 
" iMCUlifc PItM. (V. » ep. Ill Herb. L*mh.) 

' Obs. Oenug Calodeiidro Thiinb.. prozimum, umilitsi folia opposita t. 
tpna, atque liabitu alipqui i^iivi;nit. Folia inter manue cantrita tr^ran- 

. This genus clearly appertains to the Hutacea. Its habit is 
entirely that of Caladendnim. The descriptions hitherto pub- 

yoL. XIII. .NO. XXVI.— OCTOBER 183S. . ft 

:,, Google 

S4ft Mr D. Don on the Chamctert and .^Mties 
lished of the genus are very imperfect, and it is hoped the yn- 
Mnt vill supply many of their defects, although we have stilt to 
regret the waal of perfect seeds to complete our koowledge of 
its structure. The name applied to the genus by Molina is here 
adopted, in preference to that of Ruiz and Favon, as being oaa^ 
siderably anterior to the latter, and there being already another 
Galvesia among the Scrophularince. 

AITOMA, Lim. fi. 


Ont tfat. EUTACX^ Nobu. 

Calga 4-fidu0. Ptl^a 4, cal;^ ladnUs alten». St mmm m 8, conlU longiony 
decUnsta : JUamenta gUirR, bMi dilatata, conQata : anient incumbentes, 
lineare^ bin apiceque ubtims, bilocutares : tacuRt pantUeUl^ dutinctis. 

S^/titt flUAnnii, declinatiu, slaber. Stigma claTStiun, difco ptriUn de. 
preanim. Co/mUa 4-alats, 4Jueularia : Isoujit dispemiiB. Senina otUcu- 
Uta, ccmprewL i (out ca^teei, fiucfl, eztiiB tubercuUtl, Intiii peUiculS 

t TGititS : albumen nitUum. JEaifyo erectua : talfltdBMi foU^ 
cen: nuflouM bU tripl6 breviori, aubeoni<4. Pftmuli) inconspicua ? 
Fnitex (Capen^a) nnnarit«imiii> ft-peilalit. Foils Mtratt, {mwri-tonMofiiU, in- 
tegerrima, pdtuddO'punciata, tTouridit nondim evolviu plermnqae fm^ctdt^a. 
StipulEe nuli^ Flores in ramuUt rutndim epohtiw tenmnaUt^ sa&iarny pedun- 
euMfi, fwnifuA. Corolla companuiata, tortMi parfmna. Cspsula magna, 
memliTanaEea, infiala, eoiorata, rtticulakMtenotifma. 

e et capauU prosim^ affine. FJorea rarb A- 

. A. Capensis, Litm. fiL SuppL PI. p. 303. 

Hob. Ad Fromontorium Bonte Spei in Karro dcMTte inter ripaa flu. 

M. de JuBsieu has referred this genus to the Meliaceee, and ' 
in this opinion he has been followed by most subsequent wri- 
ters.: it appears to rae, however, to approach much nearar 
to the Eulacete than to any other family ; and I am led to be- 
lieve, after a careful comparison of their several characters, that 
few will question the propriety of ihe-place that is here asc%ned 
to it The genus has been omitted by M. De Candolle, in the 
published volumes of his invaluable Prodromus; so it is pro- 
bable that distinguished botanist had not made up his mind 
with respect to its affinities. Notwithstanding the ditference in 
habit and the structure of their leaves, I am inclined to think 
that Aitonia and Melianthus may he included in the same na- 

_ t'.ooslc 

. of c«rbun Qenera m Ai. Flora Ferwiana, 249 

tural family, agreong, as they^ appuemly do, id the more eeaou ' 
tal parts of tfa«r etructure ; nor do 1- tliink tbe presoice or ab- 
sence of stipules alone sufBcient to separate the ZtfgophffUetE 
from the Rutaceee, to whom they are otherwise so intimately al- 
lied. These iqipendages in some famihea are evidently of ae- > 
condary importance only. 


TiLLABXUA, Auw «t Paeon, FL Feme, non Fnd. nee Sgit. ttnmd. 

CiTBI, Sp. Mol. 


Ord. Nat. AQUIFOLIACFLE, Ad. de Jtai. 

Cidgx d-partitUB. Petala 6, calycia laciniis alterna, disco lineS elevatl (qusai 

filametita slia iisdem adnata I } bicarinata aucta. Sianama 5, petalia al- 

tenu : filainenta planiuscula, f^labra, supr^ leviter canaliculate, infem^ 

dilatata : orWAene Tenitbrmei, biloculares : loou/u tuT^dia, dialjnctla, loD- 

Studinaliter debiscentibus. Poi^granulbsum. OmHub Uberuoi, eub- 
loculare : mmiia subsolitariia, pendulls. Stj/lui brevlsslmus. Stignui 
obUqi]6 CBpitatum, minute papiUosum. Drupa maiuwpennt. Atitrntn 
carnoSum. Embryv minutus. Radim^ aupen, cotyledanibui ortuculatu 
duplb lon^or. 
Arbor (Chilenais) praxra, itrnpervireni, mm& fnmdotitiimd, ctirtice araaiutailo, 
ruffom. "Raiauli pubeioeniea. Folia alletna, peHolaia, eUipHca, muonmala, 
tialdi eoriaeea, glabra, viridia, lioeUate aniffinoia r. JUwicantia, lupri ludda, 
loMi opacd, poiMion^' tnargine eattata, inAjwmmo, nunc rariiu dentato. 
Ipinviam, boH TOlKTUtala ; in arbore juveoi etrdaia, mart/ine ropioti deTtlaio- 
ipmasa, undviata. Floies panri, albi, eapUalL Capilula bmgiiu pedtmev- 
lata, axi amenaii elongalo, puheacenti, raoemiuo-pamei^ala, termiaalia, Ca- 
Ijcis lacinise aiirotunda, metabranaeea, amcava, cUialtif asHvatione imbri- 
cala. Petala aliovato-oblonga, amcaaa, marffine ienuitiimi Mrrulala. Drupa 
parva, Lauri nobilis tnagTului^ne. 
■ 1. C iDucronata. 

Villareaia mucronata. Bid* it Fmon Fl. Perm, el Chii. 3- p. 9. t, 231. 

f. 6. Ad. de Jim. in ^nn. des Scietu JiaL 35. p. 14. t. 3. £ 2. 
Qtnis chilensia, Mol. CM. ed. 2. p. 2S3. 
Sa£. in. Chili iSjrIvia. Molma, Staa et Pavon, Ctaaing. Yi. Indigenit Gt:i^ 

patagua a. GuiUin ; Hiipani$ vernacule NaraiylUa. (V. a. ap. in Heib. 

The species on which ViUaresia was originally founded by 
the authors of the Flora Peruviana, namely V. emarginata, 
evidently belonging to a very different genus, apparently akin 
to Celastrus, from which it appears to be principally distin-. 
guished by the bivalvular dehiscence of its capsule, has ren- 
dered another generic appellation necessary for their F. mvcro- 
nata ; I hare, therefore, proposed to call it CitroneUa, being a 
version of its Spanish name in Chili. The genus I consider to 
be nearly related to Casmte. Ruiz and Pavon stale their Vil- 

S44 Mr S. Don on the Charactert and JJinities, <$«. 
larena emargmata to be a shrub about two yards hig^, «aA a 
native of PiUao id Peru ; and the descriptions of the plant in 
their Prvdromas and Systetaa shew it to belopg to a very dif- 
ferent genus from the one subsequently adopted by them in 
tbe'third Mtmne of tlimr Fiara. The ^peameDs and drawing 
K^ the former were dotibtless lost in the shipmeek of the San 
Pedro de Alcantara. Among a small coUectioa from South 
Atneriea, I hare seen specimens at a plant, which v^j even- 
tually prove to be a congener of VUktrei^ anm-gittata. 


I have to add the fbllowmg description of another new spe- 
cies to this interesting genus, for samples of which' I am in- 
debted to my enterprising friend Mr Bollaert, who collected 
them in Southern Peru. The flowers of this new species are pink, 
and the root is apparently amiual. It is readily distinguished 
from al! those hitherto described by its almost pinnate leaves. ' 
s Unearibus, pemntbiia tu- 

Hab. Iq Feruvic provinciA auitnlloH Tftntuacenm sd 

D. Bottatri. Floret FebniMlo. Vu^ Agi de Zom, i. e. Cap- 
^um Alopeds. (V. a. ap. in Herb. Lamb.) 
Htria annua, puhe aubtUiaaima, prjeBertlni in statu juveoHl canescens. Cotf. 
let erecti, ihdids!, terete^, {wmu^ vis pcawaii] forviiuim crasBllie ad* 
tequantes. RamuS axillares, uniHoiJ, Hubfastigiati. Folia alterna, pro- 
fundi pin natiflda, fer^ omninb pinnata, undalla: n;Ri«nfu Iiiiewi-angu»< 
tiasimiB, obtuaia, integerrimiB, canaliculatia. Pgduneuli bievissifpi, apice^ 
genlculatL PerianOman tubuloaum, eeaquiunciale, rubicundum, minul^ 
puberulum: tubm 10-nerviua : Hmba tO-partltoi teffnmlir6 arlerioiHt» 
elliptico-dblon^ obtus^ mucronul^tig, fi.nerviia (ncrvia raniosi^, alter- 
nis 2 BUbsimplieibua, vii ultra me^uni manifestis) ; 5 mCerioribva peii. 
loldOB, svalibufi, tditmia, tiinerriii (ncrvia ramoiis), basi parilm anfplM- 
tatia. Coztma simplex, tennissim^ membranacea, limbo brevior, nwvine 
inciao-lobattt, eroa^qiie dentata. Stamina 6: .Komeiiia compressa, ^bra i 
HntAerj) incuinbetiteB, lineari-oblone^ bilocularei : fiiDufupBraUalis,:loib- 
gitudlnaliter dehiscentibua. St^i 3, lateialea, longiasimi, filiformes 
glabri, areiiato-patentea. SOgnala flimpHeia, oblusa. Cofwuii trfgoB% 
pallicana: vojiru lanceoIaUa, acutia, ultra Umbum petiantbii pro^uuuiip- 
Semina plura, ovoidee, g^lva, sulcia pluriniis notata. 

=d by Google 

('945 ) 

Observatums upon iHe Structure and Development of the h^u- 
soria. 'By Dr Rudolph Wagner of Erlangen. 

Xhb fblloviiig obecTTBlioDs were made in the Hiiuner oC 16ftl» 
and I have to regret that the MUcnMcope vbich wu aafiffytd 
<iuiiK)t be compared nith that by means of which FroCasaor 
Bhrenbesg of Berlin was enabled to nuke his masterly resewrobaH 
into this department of nature. The iastrument employed w$f 
good, but of the old construction. The object-lenses were ma- 
nufactured by Utzschrmdtf and Frauenhofer ; and, although 
their defining power was excellent, they did not magnify more 
than from forty-eight to aisty diameters. 

I, Development of the Ht/dalina Senta '. 
: The ffytiatitia Smta is not uofrequently found in the neigh- 
bourhood, of Erlangen, in pools and morsheg, the surface qf 
which is covered with duck- weed, but it is not common in these 
situations, being more frequently obtained by keeping water 
«acloiad in eovei^ glwsee in the bouse for some days after the 
successive production and disappearance of other infusorial 
forms. This was the case with a natural infusion in which I de- 
tected, on the 3d November, a tolerable number of. the Hydatina. 
.These were of all sizes ; some were viable to the naked eye, 
but Btil> more distinctly with a common pocket lens. Some of 
tbe animals swun about in the water, but the greater number 
attached themselves by their posterior extremity to the walls of 
the vessel and vibrated freely the anterior part of their bodies, 
in all directions, in the fluid. On the sides of the ghiss, and 
still mare abundantly towards the surface of the water, was a 
brownish pulverulent mass, interspersed with small globular 
greenish grain^ — the dead bodies of the EugUna viridis, Ehren- 
berg. When a portion of this mass was placed under the field 
of the microscope, I observed a number of darker coloured and 
more distinctly defined oval or rounded bodies, which I imme- 
diately recognised to be ova, and there was visible besides a 
number of empty sacks, split up the middle, which had evi- 
dently been the envelopes of former ova. On the following 
• Figures illuHntiTe of the external fonn and intemal gtruclure of the 
.ifrdafuMMBfaaieglveiiinFLiy. of Ihe preceding volume of this Joumtd. 

246 l>r Wagner on the Structure and 

day, the 4th November, the number of tbe animalcules had in. 
creased, as well as that of the empty sacks adhering to the sides 
of the glass. A number of new eggs had also been laid, which 
were chiefly collected towards the surface of the water. A glass 
wiU) a magnifying power of three, distinctly shewed, in tbe 
grown animals, a neariy ripe ovum ; <^ers were destitute of tbe 
round dark point bende the intestinal canal ; these had probably 
a short time befiwe evacuated their ova. Besides ijas Jtydatma, 
there were many still smaller infusoria, which swam about n^ 
much vigour, and appeared, under the microscope, Kke the 
VoriieeUa larva, Miiller; their e^s seemed to be much smaller 
and more spherical, interspersed among the larger ova. On the 
6th Novembtf , still more ^gs bad been laid, and new animals 
excluded ; the numbers of the VorticeUa larva had much dimi- 
niiJied. On the 6th, many more animals seemed to have been 
excluded, but no new eggs had been laid. The Vort. larva had 
almost entirely disappeared from the infusion. On the 8th, the 
number of animalcules remaining was comparatively small. It 
continued nearly stationary to the 11th, tm which day no new 
eggs were found on the sides of the vessel, although the dark 
spot (ovarium) beade the intestinal canal, was very distinct. 
On the SOth November very few individuals remained, and no 
new eggs had been laid. 

With regard to the size of the animal, my observations are 
not quite in accordance with those of Ehrenberg. In his table, 
he states it at from J™ to ^"'. I usually found them larger; 
the largest individuals were very commonly \"', some almost 
J™, more exactly j^"'. The ova could be detected with the 
naked eye, when tbe glass was held up to the light, like small 
dark points adhering to its sides ; and my eye is capable of dts- 
tinguishing objects of the size of j'g"', when close to the eye, 
and in active motion like the infusoria. With a lens magmfy- 
ing three times, the eggs appeared like small disks, and tbe 
empty sacks could be distinctly perceived adhering to the sides 
of the glass. Under the microscope, their ^zes varied from 
^j^'" to go'", without, however, their magnitude appearing to 
depend upon their internal developm«it; for I found ripe etn. 
bryos both in the small and large ova. Their form was geue- 
i-ally oval, approaching more or less to a drde. Their colour 
was often dark, yellowish-brown, and opaque ; some were par- 

Developmeni t^f&u li^vx>na. S47 

tially of a ii^tw colosr, partiouUriy. at the maighiB ; others 
throaghout of a lighter o^ur. No trace of motion was t^ifier- 
Table in the dark. ones, v4ule in the latter the embryo .oftea 
made vigorniu movements, wid the ciliie w»e seen distinctly 
wibrabng in the interior of the ^g. The fonu^ were therefore 
evidently die least developed ova. We may ttmvfore pertu^ 
form th^ following scale of their devek^imeDt : 

1. The dark opaque ova I reckon the most unripe ; they 
VBiy in size, and are more or leas elongated. Wh»i praised 
btiween platai of mica, the granular homt^^eneous-lookuig sub- 
stance' in the interitu- is dischai^ed (the yolk), and the en^y 
transparent envelope remuns (the cIkkioo). I could never ob- 
serve' any thing more than this granular substance, .and itaoHi- 
taining membrane. I could never detect a second coat, the 
amnion of Bhrenbei^. The chorion had a remarkable t^ 
pearance, bc4ng beset with shtn^t, fine, dense hairs, resembling 
the closest fur. This hairy covering is very apt to escape no- 
tice. I did not observe it at first ; but, after having «noe seen 
it, I fbuiid it present in every case. This villous coverii^, 
which reminds us so closely of the chorion of the higher ani^ 
nuls, is most distinct in unbroken opaque ova. It is, however, 
vimble, though much less dirtinctly, when their contents aze dis- 
charged. This structure is the more interesting, as Meyer in- 
forms us (Okens Isis, 18:^8, p. 1285), that the envelope of the 
e^ (chorion) of the Alc^oneSa is beset with talice. Grant 
' found it on the ova of the sponge, and Carus views it as the 
niK^eus of the respiratory vessels or gills of the chorim. 

S. An ^g has sometimes an opaque nucleus and border, 
when the rest of the granular mass is transparent This also 
was beset with hain. I am not sure whether this is the second 
stage of the development or a dead ovum. 

3. The ova <^ this stage are much more transparent, filled 
with a browniih-yellow, granular substance (yolk) ; some spots 
are dariter, and resemble turbid flocci in the midst of the ovum. 
Stxne <n;ganization is discernible in the interior, but there is no 
(fistiiKt sepm-ation. of orgiuis. Some resemblance seems to exkt 
to the embryo of the common leed), where the first change per. 
ccptible in the gbbular ovum is the formation of cedls and ve- 

D,=,i,z<,d ../Google 

SIS- Dt Vfagn^ 9n,.U» Stmctur£ and 

i.. TlfjbJKlaiyjnft eggs,amthe most tnasparmif partiouMy. 
on tbeii maifgiu> The enbrjco is.often pwfefitliir forsMd, qwte 
trao^wreiUt aod.the cilue are in twbve moMoo. in .the iatcnor of 
the^tg. Tine, head of ^ei.aiuiaa],.oD.th9. nntMery ot^wt ia 
generally Uirned ttMitards one oc other (rf.thee|Ml»fllf.f(he;WrM- 
eggi. Fi«qu«itly the embryo turns ()uUc rounii kk ike eggtiii^i 
means of a sudden. i motion bringing -iu wtiUory organ to-the; 
opponte ^tr^nity. I gently prossed «evfzal of the.ova iiflweett 
plate»of Biica, and waa.&rtiuwteeaough to sptit-tbe eavdofKy 
so that the eroteyck started out; it was vammvaly vsrytawAn 
contracted, Ute tail drawn in, 09 that I imagine the embtjo doe* 
not lia curved on itself, but oontraoted ; but I mybe deoaved, 
u this as in other caaes. I tiwugbt that I observ«d a tutateii - 
posture. The. teeth and the mouth seemed .to be the first 
formed ; for, on one occauaa, I pressed wU of the egg a.ietiw< 
whi<ih had not yet b^un to vibrate its cilise^ but in wbom those 
organs, as w«ll as the bifurcated tail, were quite.di^inct.. la 
those who had begun to move their rotatory oi^a in the eg^ 
I recognised, in addition, the pedectly formed colourless inteet- 
tine and the ovary. Twice I saw the exclusiao of the embryo* 
The^iell split transversely, and the anijoal immediately |xo> 
trud^ its rotatory organ, and in about a .minute slowly extri- 
cated itself from the e^, extended itself at full lengthj.and t»- 
gan to swim slowly forwards. All its parts were perfectly 
ibrmed; it was quite transparent, and was only at first a.little 
curved. But the intestine was constantly quite cc^urJe$s. The 
largest was. about j'" long. The remnant of the envek^ of 
the egg was traBspareot and fissured in diSWeot direotions. 

The develi^raent of the ova in the ovarium was another sub- 
ject of lay observations. Even in animals just excluded fiwta .. 
the^gg, I could obsn've the individual ova in theiE interi<»< B^ 
sli^t pressure o£ the animalcule between i4at^ of mica, ,tbe ova. 
riutp, as veil OS. the intestine, was rendered very disunct, and 
by attentive inspection, there could be detected seven, very small j 
oval ovules, which had a black spot in their middle, which I 
reckon their yolk. Similar ovules were penseptibte in an aui- 
m^cule about y.' h>Dg« which having alceady eat,, had ita in» 
testine t£ a.greenisb colour.. In a grown, animalcule cf J™, w 
whidi the intestine was quite filled with dead £uglenm, I Aw. 

the'owary toidoatam nine eggs, of diffiirent d^ees of ripMeSE 
as veil as'Mze. The smnller had a distinctly granular mtericff, 
and' s' dark* fotaK in ■&ie centre, the larger were quite opak«. 
The amtaal emcuated the oonCents of its intestiDe by an anuq, 
andalso exdaded the ova by means of the cloaca and the mme 
opeEADg. Ddrmg this operatioD I observed the distitict con- 
Uactioo of the veticntar organ seated belovr the organs of gene- 
ra^on, and which Ehrenberg views as the musculas fjaculator 
semviia. The smdl ova escaped most easily, the larger wema 
somewhat longer time of making their exit, and usually broke 
during the passage, and evacuated their granular contents. If 
the uterus was distinctly two-horned, as in Ehrenberg^s figure, 
each honi contained lour eggs, the lowest one was the largest 
(5^5"), most transparent at the edges, and with the dark granu- 
lar mass still in the interior. The three uppermost ^^ weK 
commonly oval, and had also a central darker nucleus. The 
ovarium thus contained simultaneously ova in ver^ different 
stages of development. 

Much nmilarity will be found to exist between these fri^ 
ments of a history of the development of a Hifdalina and' the 
tables which Cams has given of the Latinularia JltiviaHUt. 
Here the egg is formed of a chorion and tai albuminous mass 
(yolk), which forms the embryo. The rogatory organ here also 
moves in the egg, from which Carus concludes this oscillalion 
to be the respiratory act, whi(^ thus takes place in the fetus be- 
fore any nutrition can be cohcaved to take place by the moutb. 
I am also disposed to adbpt the same view't^ the rotatory oi^aa 
being theapparatus for respiration, but its complete estaUish- 
ment would require some connection to be traced between the 
reepirotory and the circulatory sysfems, and a more complete 
demtHistnrtian of the Existence df the latter than we us yet po^ 
sesit ' Something similar seems to occur in the embryos of the 
leech, winch, according to Weber, move about and swsdlow al- 
buitffitbus matter." 

II- EggM qftke Voriitetla lana, MiiU. 
. I have already mentionfid^haf there existed- totemporafteously 
v/ith the Hydaiina aenta'm tht water, a smaller animd, wiridi 
exae% agreed with Ihe Voriicdla larva, as figured in the Eh- 

SSO Dr Wagner on ^ SirwAa-e and 

ejfOt^ie-Me&ediquey Fl. SI, Fig. 9. Tbe aakud^ iBcMi^ 
its tidl, vu iV" ^iig' ^"^ exhibited in its interior a distinot uk 
testine and ovonum. In the midit of the egga <^ the hydatina 
there were now a number of BoiaUer, rounder, saoce transparent 
bodies, but also filled with the granular waaa > PreoiseiLj mea- 
sured, they were about ^'g'", and in some I couM perceive tbe 
motions of tbe embrya I never saw the act of exclu«tHi, bat 
have no hesitatioo in setting down these bodieft as tbe e^i of 
the Vorf. larva. 

III. Inleilitte, and Experiments on Nulrition with Carmine in some 
other Infusoria. 

Feeding by means of a soluUon of carmine, completely suc- 
c«cd«l with ine in the larger Infuscuia. In the smaller, sucfa 
as the Monads, Cydidium glaucoma, &c. &c. I could not re- 
peat Ehreoberg^B experiments, as I had not tbe means oS em- 
ploying sufiSdent magnifying powers, although the animals tbenw 
selves, even the little VUnio aceH were quite distinct under my 
microscope. In the Paramecium, TracheHut, Kerona, EupUea 
and Vortieelia, however, with a power of £0-60, their filling 
with red colouring matter was C|uite apparent. Ehrenberg re- 
commends for this purpose tbe pedunculated Vorticellae; but I 
could never succeed with them so well as with some of the 
others, probably because I never found the Vort. amvallaria so 
Jaige as Ehrenberg mentions in his table (s'l"')- I seldom found 
th^n to exceed ^n"', but here without feeding, I could distinctly 
fee the stomachs like round vesicles, and when filled with car- 
mine I counted tburteen. In tbe Eupl^a I counted twenty red 
points filled with carmine. But the experiment succeeded ia 
the most beautiful and perfect manner with a P(a'am€ecium, 
probably the cktysalis, which, on one oa:asion, I found of un- 
usual «ze, from I'" to ^'q'". The red-coloured sacks were 
^uite apparent with a power of S4, and very distinct with one 
oi 48. The animalcule' itself can ea^ly be seen with tbe naked 
eye. When the intestine is once filled, it remains for several 
days equally distinct. I therefore recommend this infusory ani- 
mal to any one who is deurous of examining their structure, 
aoi of exhibitiog it distinctly to others. 

Just aa little as Ehrenberg could I ev« succeed in indoaog 

DevehpmetU <^ihe Infusoria. 3B\ 

Ae green-Goloured infusoria to swallow colouring mattw. ' In 
the Etigtena viridis, Ehr. (Cercaria mridia, Miill), I recog- 
nised distinctly the red eyes, but could never detect any other 
red point, however long it was left in the solution of carmine. 
The remarkable VorHcella versatilis or Ophrydiunt veraat. Ehr. 
could never either be induced to take the colouring matter. I 
found this species in great numbers towards the end of October, 
fbrming gelatinous balls of an inch and a half in diameter; 
they were best adapted for experiment, when their ^ze was about 
iV". This wonderful animal is of a beautiful greea colour, 
paler, and more transparent near the edges : their interior con- 
sists of a granular matter, or of small round vesicles (?) 

IV. On the Change of Form, and the Succetsiont cf Injutorin in 
It appears very probable, from the observatious of Ehrenberg, 
that the genus Monaa, and several of the allied genera, are not 
distinct animal forms, but merely the young state of the Kolpo- 
da, ParamadOf &c., which are unable to reach maturity widi- 
out a division like the Rhizomorpha and Byaaus among the 
Fungi. This idea has been subsequently adopted by Dr Esbh- 
wdler. I have myself do continued observations on the primi- 
tive generation of the Infusoria, but for several summers the 
appearance mentioned by Eschweiler * has appeared to me very 
remarkable. I have seen monads and other small infusoria ap- 
pear in infusions which disappeared in a few days, and gave 
place to other genera. Thus the water above mentioned as 
containhig-the Hydaiina, on the seoond day after being taken 
^m the pool, formed a green crust on its surface, particularly 
near the margin of the glass in which it was kept. When I 
examined thb green mass with the microscope on the 23d Octo- 
ber, it swarmed with the Euglena viridis and Enchdyi pulvis- 
Ctdus, which swam about with much activity. Some of the first 
species were seen in the act of expiring, and others quite dfead. 
During this curious phenomenon the elongated form of the ani- 
mals was changed into a globular. They died in whole massei^ 
particularly near the margin of the vessel ; the gre^ dust Uien 
forming the so-cfdied Priestley's matter, although it may arisfr 
• I^1S31, Heft. iv. p. 403. iinnlr 

S^ Dr WagDeT on the Stna^ure and 

as veil from other green Infusoria. Anothu- animalcule seen 
in considerable quantity was the Volvoa! giobator of different 
sizes. On the S7th October the green mass df dead inftlsotia 
was stilt present, and formed a pulverulent Itjrer on the'^deof 
the glass turned towBrds the Ught. On the surface there was a 
pellicle which exhibited numbers of the Kerone pustulata of ^"' 
m size. Some bad a transverse fissure, as figured by Ehren- 
bCTg; and there were a few examples of Vorticella larva, Mul- 
ler. On the 3d November, not only the Evgkna, but also 
the Kerone pustj^afa, bad entirely disappeared. A new set of 
organisms had sprung up ; the dead Euglentx still retained thrir 
green colour and rounded form, aud lay on the sides of the 
glass; many of the green masses, however, had become brown 
and yellow, and had aggregated together. Here and there I saw 
a ParamtBcium, and more commonly the Vorticella larva, the 
interior cS which was filled with dead Euglenx. There were 
also a few of the Hydatina senta. The VnrtkeUa larva gra- 
dually disappeared as the Hydatina increased ; and the latter at 
last vanished, so that, on the 10th November, the water was 
quite destitute of infusoria. Similar successions, though not in 
■ the particular order of this example, I have seen on different 
occasions. At other times I have observed several infusoria co- 
temporaneously existing together, as the Monas, Vorticel^ 
Trackeliug, Kolpoda, Kerone, ParanuEaum, all of which disap- 
peared at once. Certainly these transient swarms of living be- 
ings within the compass of a ungle glass, is an object of very 
great interest. We are quite ignorant of its cause. At first 
sight it might aeem to favour the idea of the generatw equivoca, 
but my belief in this hypothesis has been pretty well shaken by 
Ehrenberg''s numerous observations, as well as by the few which 
I have been able to institute in the course of a single summer. 
Nowhere in nature do we see any animal arrive at once at its 
perfect state ; there is always a sort of dormant state previous 
to their properly independent existence. , The invisible ani- 
mating power of the Creator every where in animated nature aU 
taches itself to the state of the egg, and at this state of existence 
more especially, does he seem to breathe into living beings tbe 
breath of fife. The dorfnant state of the ovum seems to be the 
tranution from the empire of mind to that of matter. The old 

Devdopment <^tbe In^iuoria. S53 

maxitn " Ompe.viTum ex ovo," is for me, aa well as Ebren- 
betg, equally bLadJng upon the infusorial tribes. I certain]/ 
think .it very, possible that there may be a generatio equivaca of 
^gs, but not of perfect animals ; but our data are aa yet quite 
insuflideat for the demonttration of the question. 

V. On the supposed Connection betteeen the Vegetable and Animal 

It is very commonly an admitted fact, that vegetables and 
animals touch one another in their lower degrees — that they ev^ 
pa^ into each other, — that not only in one genus do we find 
both animals and plants, therefore species from the two king- 
doms of nature which can be separated by no generic distinc- 
tion, but that even a plant often produces an animal which, du- 
ring its growth, again changes into a plant. I must admit that 
these notions were once very attractive to me ; that the globi^les 
of the blood were simple monads, which were formed from the 
living animal matter, like the infusoria from dead animal mat- 
ter; that the Ectosperma produced monads which disappeared 
after t^e short life of an hoiir, and grew up to Confervse. I 
not merely believed dm myself, but have publicly taught it aa 
an acknowledged fact, till I took the microscope in my hand and 
experimented for myself I have now perhaps fallen into the 
other extreme; fw, certainly, I have never succeeded in obser- 
ving the separation of the globules of the blood from the paren- 
chyma, alUiough I do not pretend to deny its possibility ; nor 
have ] at any time seen how animals change into plants ; and, 
notwithstanding Spallanzani^s often repeated experiments, doubt 
■very much of the resurrection of Furcularia after having been 
dried up for more than a year. When Treviranus, Bory St 
Vincent, and others, have seen globules issue from the tubes of 
the Confervse and swim freely about like infusory animalcules ; 
when Edwards has seen ConfervEe again spring from these 
globules after settling; when XJnger and others have seen ac- 
tive globules, which he calls Monads, issue from the £ctaaper- 
ma clavata ; I do riot doubt the fact of globules having issued 
from these crjptogamic plants, which sprung about in different 
"directions : theise motions seem voluntary, therefore they are ani- 
mals'; they are very small and roundi therefore they aremo< 

'954 Dr Wagner on Uu Structure and 

nad*. Here, therefore, a moving globule and s mcmad are ood^ 
■idercd as identically the same. In order, hovever, to establish 
tlui, they should have been seen to take in colotiring matt^, 
and to contain internal cavities, which Ehrenberg has done with 
i^ard to all the true mmads. Ingenhous, Treviranus, Mocns- 
chuch and Nees VoniEsenbeck, if I mistake not, have said that 
the Priestley's matter consists of dead infusoria, and that from 
this congealed vegetable mass, as it is called, Confervse, Ulvw, 
Tremelke, nay even the Hypnum riparia, have all been formed. 
Here I do not doubt the fact ; times without number have I seen 
the Priestley's matter take its origin from green iafusoria, sudi 
as the Englena viridis, and the green pellicle in pools and iu- 
fusions very generally consists of the dead bodies of infusoria, 
but never have I seen plants formed from this green matter; 
it continued long fresh, and became afterwards yellow, brows, 
run together, and fell to the bottom. When Confervte grew 
in the infusion, or in the midst of these masses, there was never 
a tntnmtion between the dead infusoria and the living f^ants. 
Whether these plants arose'from the spontaneous developideflt 
of globules, or from the presence of infinitely smell seeds in the 
water when drawn, I will not pretend to determine. StiU less 
can I believe in the observations of Wiegmann, that the En- 
tomoatracif Cyprij and Cyclops are generated in putrid water 
from Priestley's matter, and after their death are changed into 
confervte. He even asserts that he has seen confervte springing 
out of the feet and antennae. It is very possible that these ani- 
mals have arisen on confervte, but not^^wm them. 

VI. Structure ^ the Cercaria. 
The exact observations and inimitable drawings which have 
been given of the Cercariie by Nitsch, must be known to every 
one who has occupied himself with researches into the infusoria. 
Subsequently Baer has made some higlily important observa- 
tions on their formation, after Bojanus had called our attenutm 
to the subject During last summer I had an opportunity of 
observing the living Cercaria; in some water which had been 
drawn from a pool for the purpose of examining the infusoria, 
and which had been at rest in a glass. It contained also many 

Dev^opment qftftt Infiuorifi. 9Bfi 

plaoOTbe*, and a» I think the PI. catinattu. On e x am in in g tlie 
water in a few days, I observed with the naked eje Bome very 
active animalcules, which I immediately recogaifled as canatw 
by their vtry rapid motions. Their numbers iocreaied on tl^e 
fbUowing daye. My observations were afterwards interrupted. 
On dmer ezaminatJoQ the ammal appeared to be the Cercaria 
Zemno, Muller (Eacyclop. Method. Fl. 8. Eg. 8. IS.), a E^ecies 
which, as NitBch supposes, is probably identical with the Cararia 
ma;or (Beytr. but Infusorienkunde, Tab. ii. fig. 1-8,)^ for it re. 
aemUes it exactly ; only I oou|d detect none of the fine hairs m 
the tail, which, however, only appeared to Nitsch with veiy 
high powera, and with the Geld of vision half illuminated- I 
employed a power of 4:8. For a long time I was quite de. 
lighted with the singular movem^u of these Cercariie, but X 
turned my attention principally to their internal structure, which 
is not sufficiently known. 

The cercaiia which I observed was about J'" in length. The 
tul and the body were nearly of the same thickness ; the latter 
was longitudiD^Uy striated. The substance of the animal wm 
bomogeneouE, transparent, and of a milk<white colour. At 
the anterior extremity was the round extensile <^Ding of the 
mouth, from which it appears to be surrounded with a wreath 
which, was notched. This mouth is succeeded by a smaller 
very distinct oesophagus, between which and the mouth the in- 
testinal canal seemed to be somewhat narrowed, I saw no 
trace of the forked organ noticed by both Nitsch and Baa- ; not 
was the course of the intestinal canal here marked by any dark 
spot, but it appeared to me merely to resemble a broad band 
extending Jrom the mouth to the anus. The ovaria were very 
conspicuous, placed on the two sides of the body. When the 
animal was moderately extended, they made several convolutiona 
in the form of an S, from the two sides of the oesoph^us to the 
cloaca. The convolutions were less distinct vhen'^he animal 
was much extended. The hinder extremity was very short and 
broad, where the ovaria formed two irregular masses. Thar 
texture appeared granular, and had a beautiful appearance, 
th«r dark colour being contrasted with the transparency of the 
rest of the body. Their exit into the cloaca I could not dis- 
tinguish. Their origin towards the anterior part of the body 


256 Dr 'Wagaet on the Structure of the Infusoria. 
was very distinct by two dark spots. Nitsch took these spots 
ft* eyes, whidi they certainly are not, Imt th* ongiD (Jf ncit the 
exit, against which, however, we have all analr^) of the 
ovarii, which are here destitute of the granular tissue.' Tliese 
spots sometimes assumed a spiral, sometimes a Tot^ced or double 
forked, form. With regard to the organs of motion, the month 
is large, more or less extensile, and surrounded with a notched 
or plain'margin or ring ; it is bell-shaped, and is attached to tlie 
body by a narrow pedicel. The tail has lateral itideritatfon^ 
and longitudinal strise or fibres towards its middle. I am in- 
clined to suppose a union of transverse and longitudinal fibres, 
true muscular tissue, for I am convinced that these animals pos- 
sess muscles quite analogous to those of the higher animals, and 
Ehrenberg has demonstrated it with regard to the hydaliha. 
How the tail is fixed to the body, I have not been able ftd 
dsely to determine, but it is probable that a sort of pTrdonga^ 
tion is fixed into a notch in the hinder part of the U-utik. 

These few observations on the iorusoria cannot be compared 
with those of Nitsch, Baer, and Ehrenberg; they are onlyk 
fragment towards the completion of the history' of tkia vaW 
kingdom of nature. In conclu^oa, I must add a word to ex- 
plain why I have taken no notice oftwb recent observers of in- 
flisoria — Bory St Vincent and Muncke ; but so triuch do I vfilue 
the labours of O. P. MuUer and Schrank, that loweitlo'tfUtfJ 
to assert that I consider the communications of the format' ai 
quite lost for science. When Muncke says that he hrt'd deVot^ 
from three to four hours every day for three weeks ' to the t^ 
Bervations which were laid before the meeting of Natli^tstb '^f 
Hamburg, we can only lament that a man of acknowledgt^S re- 
putation as a natural phttosopher has spent so much' time' tlSei 
lessly upon matters irith which he was quite unacquainted. It 
Is worse with Bory; for it is quite incomprehetisible hotv any 
man can be considered as a naturalist of Cminenee, whb •dvii 
plays in his writings an inaccuracy, superficiafity, and igiiotatice', 
that must be frightful to every orie w'ho examin^'closely his 
works, and As revolting as the frivolity of which liis Hlstbir^ 
Naturdle de PHomme is so striking an Example. 


jfn Expoeilion tf «ome <tf the Leaos and Phenomena q/" Mjo^ 

ifgTic IfiDuCTioSy tpi^ original lUustraiwe Experimeatt. 

By the Bev. William Scokessy, F.K.S. Load, k EdiiL, 

Cwrespondent of tbe Institute of France, &c..&c. Gcc. Com- 

' municftted by the Author. 

Xh£ magnetic principle, like the electric, to which it is nearly 
allied] is OQt a ipere' attribute of a particular class of (xxlies, 
but a prindple or influence pervading, doubtless, the whole 
of the terrestnal creatioo. For it, is not likely that such an 
influence has be^a qnUuned by Infinite Wisdom for the com- 
paratively. Toiiiox ptirposes to wbich men are &]^[e to apply it ; 
but rath«r that it is an essential constituent in tbe economy of 
the globe, — and not of thb globe only, but of the entire systen^ 
perhaps, of created Oftturp. Wherever the explorji^ traveller 
has urged bis way, there . its influences have been marked; 
wherever the adventurous mariner has traversed the ocean, there 
its agency has availed him; wherever the laborious miner has 
penetrated the earth, there its energy has been found undi- 
minished ; apd wherever Uie daring aeronaut has ascended into 
the atmosphere, thence its power has been extended. 

Though a universal agent;, however, and a part of the consti- 
tution of our globe, it is chie^y in fesruginous bodies, qnd Iq 
bodies in a peculiar dectric condition, where its phenomena be- 
come ^naible,! and. Its iofiuenoee capable of being .controlled. 
Id t^uginous bodies, its atrongest and most pennanent ener^es 
are ^bibit^d, . 

In irpn, die.magn^c prindple has evidently permanent re* 
ndeTKe,-T^pab]e, indeed, of exerting external influences, but 
sot capable of being lAutracted pr incteased. Each portion and 
description of iron has its own constaptiand unelterable quim- 
Uty, abiding, appar^dy in its iqdividual particle^^ — the two 
qualities paesesuqg nocthem aad southern poktity existing in 
ev«ry particle. Xhe usual condition of tbe magnetisms is.^ 
mrally. neutral, or nearly so, so, that buL a slight and imperfect 
energy is naturally evinced. Yet .the latent energies, eqtecially 
in tha aoflest kinds of iron and steel, are readily developed by 
electric influence, or by the touch, or even the mere juxta-posi- 

vol.. Xm, NO, XXVI. — OCTOBER 1832, E 

S58 Rev. Mr Score«by'oft totne Of Ha Lawt 

tioQ of an active nugnet. For though the natunil qiAtntity df 
inherent magnetism cannot be altered, yet an «cdn awj tttO^ 
stant influence may be, and is, externally exerted, irithout in 
the smallest dej^ee diminishing Uie (mpaai pbwer of the 'ttc^ 
tuatiog magnet. That this is the case, a wdl kndwn tact Boffi- 
ciently proves, — that a magnet may dcit the mdgne^ eondi^ 
tion in ten thousand bars of steel, and yet retain its bri^n^ 
strength perfectly unimpiured. . And that the' nUEgnetis)»H r^ 
side inalienably in their own particles of the metal, is ^uaHy 
evident from another familiar fact,— that if a bar in a itiagTieUe 
condition be broken in the centre, so as to separate apf>areAtly 
the northern and southern polarities, each portion, insttad of 
comprising one quality only, will be found to be a distinct laa^ 
net, exhibiting, like the original mass, die two diffin-ent polari- 
ties at the eKtremities. 

These general principles bang pronised, we are ]»epared for 
the condderation of the particular objects (^ this Essay. 

Cbap. I^-Expoution of sohb ov thb Laws an9 Pbchohkna 

OF Maomhtic Inouctiom. 
Induction is that welt known property of n^inets,' of pro- 
ducing in contiguous ferruginous substances the nkagnetic oon- 
dittOR; It is not, however, strictly speaking, tbe commumoa- 
tion of any thing prevtotisly foreign to the ferm^Dous bodies, 
as nothing (as we have ^ewn) is abstracted from the inducii^ 
magnet, and nothing in reality infused into the iron thua magi- 
nedzed. Induced magnetism, therefere, may be de&Md,-J-<^ 
development <ff the latent magnetum in iron or ateel, ^i ^ 
juxtapo^on of any siAgtmvx in a magmetie conditton^ For 
this property is etitnted not raily by actual magnets, but byoll 
electro-magnetic or theimo-mognetic - arTangei»ent& And the 
inductive effect is [Hodnced upon all subetanceB capable ct a 
magnetic condilioii, according to their rapootivr susceptibility 
The degrees of ct^xidty of different ferruginous bodies &te no^ 
netism by induction may be raiq^, be^nning frith the least Mt»> 
c^dble, in the following order ; iron-ores, hnnd cast iron, hod 
cast steel, hard blistered steel, soft steel, conRBOD malleidile inm, 
best Swedish iron,— the most suscepdble of all being the^softeat 
and most ductile iron. Hence it is probable, thattWiiuiiKm of 

mm) PkeMimem .^Magnetic IndncUon. 460 

tbe,TdaiiTe a^whilitiet-of icon for induced magnetitn), may be 
emfiojed as a satigTactory test of qu^ty in its Bcveral kinds. 

At sma]l dietancee fnxn a powerful magnet the inductive 
energy is very striking, and productive of a number of well 
koown and ioleretting pheoomcna. a f»ece of soft iron, 
for instance, such as a common key, be placed near the extre- 
mity of a-bar-magnet, either in continuation of the eame line or 
inclined tp each other at any angle, provided either of the ex- 
tremities of the key and magnet are the parts nearest to each 
other, an(^ the key so placed will instantly acquire such a mag- 
netic condition as to be able to support anotber smaller key or 
otlierportionofiron St either of its extremities. And though the 
magnet be placed beneath the table, or under a slab of marble 
pr 4uy other solid substanoe, the induc^ve influence will be pre- 
cisely the same, so as the distance and portion of the masses 
are similar. 

Biit these pbeDomena, which have usually been observed only 
in ciFcumstances of juxtapositicKi, may be satisfactorily exhibited 
at^cbnrideFable distances, as shewn by the foHowing experiment, 

A pair of very fine bar-magnets, S feet in length, S^ inches 
is iM^adth,'. and j^tb (^ an iooh in thickness, being placed over 
each other, a quarter of an inch asunder, and with similar poles 
adjacent, were nnployed, with a view to their inductive effects, 
at different distances, <hi the nearest end of a soft, bar of square 
irso^ ISfMDches loagv and 1 indt in thickness. In order that 
tha induetive influence ought be separated from any magnetism 
of position derived from the earth, the iron bar was placed in 
tfad east aad west magnetic line, and in a horizontal position ; 
aad, that' the bumki delicate experimenta might not be affected 
by the magoetisai aocjuired under the toqk powerful influences^ 
the most' instant and weakest inductions were first tried, and 
each expecimait verified by taking the mean power of each eni 
o£ the bar alternately presented to the magnets. The iron bar 
thus situated (Platell. Fig. 1.) su6t4UDed, by the ^tremity 
warert to the magnets (when all the points, of contact were po- 
fatbed}.tbe aubsUttces, and weights, at the distances respectively 
annexed to eaidl, ,as given in- the first three columu^ of the fol- 
lowing table: — j 

»9 ' _ ' 
L _ . Cooglf 

Rev. Mr Scoresby on aome qfthe. Lam* 




PoIblKd nail, 
















But these results, if ve consider the nature of the polarities 
induced in the bar and the suspended substance in their rela- 
tion to each <Mher, will be seen to be less than what might be 
obtained by umple induction at the respective distances. For, 
let the acting end of the magueta be the north pole, then the 
Diagnetism induced in the nearest end of the iron bar TviU be 
the contrary, or southern polarity ; but the tendency of the 
magneU on the end of the nail, or other suspended substance, 
in contact with the bar, will be to produce also southern pola- 
rity,— because of this end of the nail, under the circumstances, 
being nearer to the magnets than Uie lower end ; consequently, 
the induced m^netisms c^ the parts of contact of the bar &nd 
nail, being, as far as derived from the magnet, of the same kind, 
must have a tendency to diminish the acdou of the bar on the 

' Id order to compensate this defect in the results, another 
sories of experiments was made with the same apparatus, id 
which the iron bar, whilst kept in the same vertical plane, Was 
raised on each trial so much above the level of thie magnets,— 
namely, one half the length of each suspended nail, — that the 
in6u»ce of the magnets upon the suspended body might be 
nmilfir at both its extremities, and consequently neutral. Un- 
dfr this arrangement (Plate II. Fig. 2.) the inductive power, 
HP had been antidpated, was much greater, so that the different 
substances were now suspended according to the distances in 
the li^t column of the, table. 


arid Phenomena of Magnetic Induction, 261 

Whilst theae striking results were obtained bj tbc rcUod of 

tfae end of the bar nearest to the magoets, tbe influence at the 

distant end was but feeble — tuetaining only nulg of fO grmns, 

mid 37 grains, at the two last distauces of the third column. 

In exparinwots merdy illustrMive of tjte jnukt of inductioa, 
tbe arrangement of the last column of the table may be still 
farther improved by raising the bar so high that tbe lower ex- 
tremity of the suspended substance may be on the fame faori' 
zoDtal level aa tbe magnets. In this poution the lower extre- 
mity of ttie nail beug nearest to the magnets, becomes a south 
pole, with a north pole, by consequence, at the upper end, 
which, bein£ aUractable by the southern polarity induped in tbe 
bar, augments its suspensive power. And such was tbe increase 
obtained by experiment, that tbe nail of 482 -grains was now 
suspended (by either end of the bar, when presented in succes- 
sion to the magnet), at tbe distance of nine inches, and the key 
at the distance of 7.S inches, the inlerral between the bar and 
the .magnets. 

Subsequent experiments were made with a fiat iron bar, a 
quarter of an inch in thickness, but amilar in all its other di- 
mensions nnd qitality to tbe bar prenously employed. The 
distances of suspension obtained by this bar, indicated a smaller 
quantity of inductive influence, corresponding pretty nearly with 
its proportion of surface. 

These, however, are but proximate results : the inductive et 
feet as measured by the deviations produced on the needle of a 
compass was therefore resorted to for a more satisfactory ratla 

The apparatus employed in this investigation consisted of 
four similar bar-magnets, each 18J inches long, 1 inch broad, 
and ^th ofau inch, thick; the square bar of soft iron used in the 
foregoing experiments, being of the same length and breadth as 
the magnets; and a delicate compass of four inches diameter. 
The magnets were placed parallel to each other on a board, half 
an inch asunder, in order both that their combined influence 
might be employed for affording more decisive results, and that 
they might be presented at diflerent distances from the bar In the 
same relative poatlon and equality of magnetic power. Tht irOB 
bar was place<I in a horizontal position, in the first iristaiice b^ 
twixt the magnets and the compass, and ib an'eksi'&iKt yft/st 

26S Uev Mr Scoresby on qftonu ^Vie tout 

magnetic direction, There, bdng in the plane of the magnetic 
equator, it was free from any disturbing influence from terre*^ 
trial magnetism. The magnets were then placed at various 
successive distances in the line of the bar, according to ihe ar- 
rangement represented in Fl. II. Fig. 3. The distance of the 
bar from the compass, which throughout the series of experi- 
ments was always precisely the same, was 5| indies, and the 
distance of the magnets from the bar was first 12 inches, and 
then at equal successive intervals, as far as four fert. The ob^ 
ject of STong upon intervals o( \it inches was,- beeause tb«t dis- 
tance was very nearly ihejbcal length of the magnets, or the 
lengUi betwixt the two fod w caitres of attraction in either half 
of the magnets, to which the wbc4e of the varying magoetic'in- 
fluences, in such segm^its, might be referred. The empli>y- 
ment of intervals, therefore, of focal lengths of the magnet and 
iron bar, was calculated to simplify the investigation, and taaf- 
ford more satisfactory results. Though I had a mouve for fix- 
ing upon the portion given to the iron bar, the distance of iu 
focal pcdnt from the centre of the compass bring about one-half 
of Its focal length ; yet, whilst its position was, on every trial, 
always the same, the particular distance was of httle importance 
In this position of the liar, the first situation of the magnets 
was (6 J + ISj + 12) = 81 inches from the centre of the con(- 
pass ; tbe second 43 ; the third' 55 ; and the fourth 67 inches. 
Placing now the magnets, in the general line, with their south 
poles directed towards the east, at the shortest interval, tbe bar not 
being yet placed intermediately, the power of the magnets alone, 
as determined by tbeii action on the needle of the compass, was 
first observed, and found to be 2T 42". The iron-bar, the mag- 
netism of which had been carefully neutralized, was then inler- 
posed in its asugned position (according to Fig. 8.), each end 
of tbe bar being alternately presented towards the compass, 
when the mean deviation, by adouble set of careful observations^ 
proved to be 38° S^'. The unassisted action of the magnets 
was then verified by another trial after the bar was removed, 
and found to be unaltered ; consequently the increase of devia- 
tion of (38° SJ' — 2r 42") = 10^ 21i', indicated the proportion 
of action due to the magnetism induced, under the particular 
drcumstances, into ^e bar <^ iron ; or rather, (baag directly in- 

, find ^Kenomena ^Magnetic ItiducHon-* Sf^ 

4>l«ed into Uk eoiJ ^f tbe bar nearest to the magnets),, trans- 
iQiU£4 CKWB^qi^ntiitUy to the cf>poNt« extremity. For although 
(bexe is a direct iuduetive actum on the remote extremity, it is 
tbe transmf)tted iaQuen^, it is to be observed, which predomi- 

. In a aiipiW ipanur, the rehttive effects of induction were af- 
berwords detennioodi at the several iatervals of two, three, and 
four feet between tbe BUg^ts and the bar. The results were 
wibllow: — 





■«"■"■■■■ 1 









Ft. [n. 
8 7 





\% 91 1 




S 7 

12 46 


16 16} 





, 3 

* 7 



8 22 


1 Ml 




6 7 





1 1| 


Now, ^nce a magnetic force or forces of variable intensity, 
acting upon a compass needle in a direction at right angles to 
terrestrial magnetism (as in the foregoing experiment), will pro- 
duce deviations the tangents of which will be proportional to 
the actual intennties ; the tangents of the angles of deviation, as 
above determined, will aSbrd a measure of the relative forces 
acting upon the needle in the several positions of the magnets 
and iron-bar ; whilst the differences of the tangents of deviations 
will indicate the quantity and proportion of magnetbm induced 
and developed in the end nearest the compass, at the several di^ 
tanc^ of one, two, three, and four feet. Were the magnetism 
induced upon one end of a soft iron-bar exhibited, as if by A 
perfect conductor, to the other end, then would these diAerenc^s 
exhibit the actual effects of induction; and the lawofindiictioti, 
as to distance, might be experimentally determined. But this, 
as will hereafter be shewn, appears not to be the case. There- 
fore the differences iiidicative of the actual induction at tbe rt 
mote end of tKe liar are probably not proportional to the relil 
live forces known to be acting upon ihe end nearest to the mag- 

9M Rev. lir-Soorttby o» gone ^Ae LtMt 

bets. Stffl, hoverer, the di&ratices of Ijie tai^Mits in^tlib fNW- 
ceding table afford a ratio not very incongruous vith the knom 
law of magnetic influence as to divtance. Cslliiig ibe nearest 
difierenoe {SS780), indicttive of the quantity «ff induced nti^gmh 
lasni 100, then the other dHFereaces afford anitio o^9&.%\\J6, 
and 7.0, whicfa, expressed fractioBelly, are very Dearly ly ^Us 
^tb, aod i^th, exhibiting the proporljoaof induced magnetiiDi 
at the several distances of 1, % fl, and 4 lengths. \ 

Whilst the foregoing experiment affords an indicatiim of t^e 
relative force of ma^ietic inductitHi at di^rent distances, a|>- 
proximating the knowa law of direct attraction and repulsion, jn 
which the forces are inversely proportional to the Equaree of tfie 
distance ; it likewise shows the facility with which the magne^c 
energy induced at one end of a bar of soft iron is conveyed to the 
other. There was nothing in the experiment, however, which 
could afford any data for ascertfuning whether the transmiesi^ 
of the magnetic energy from end to end of the bar was perfeot ; , 
or, if not, what proportion of reustance there might be in a bar 
of sol) inm to liie free commuivcation of induced magnetism to 
the remote end of the bar. 

With the view of obtaining information on this point, I pro- 
ceeded to vary the experiment, by ascertaining the deviations 
, produced by ilte tame end of the iron-liar as that on which the 
influence of the magnets was immediately acting; and this was 
accomplished hy the following, arrangement. 

With the four magnets pUced on a tray, exactly as in (he 
former series of experiments, their inductive influence aa the bar 
of soft iron was now examined, when arranged after the maAJier 
represented in Fig. 4. . ^ : 

The compass, in this case, being betwixt the magp^tg.and the 
iron, was placed, as in the former experiment, at the distance of 
5j inches from the bar ; and the intervals were now measured 
across the oHupass, aod noted at 1, S, 3, and 4 feet, as bt^ore. 
Under this wrangement, the south poles of the magnets being 
presented towards the compass, caused the deviation of its north 
pole, as before, to be towards the west ; and this deviation, on 
the applicatitH) of the iron-bar, was augmepted,.. because the 
nearer end of the bar becoming a north < pble by isdiBetioD, as- 


mtd Mummetm ififii^mlk IndtKtim. tOI 

■•■fcd'byiitt'HpAiiwilctioBy'tiHitvksi^ dsfklka tf -^ nMdi 
>end of the nMdta. < ' > ., 

-I'-'SilOcertiTe'trijrislwemtbeti^iiMllvoaths UnndBd ootiDn-of'te 
-fli^Mtb on Ite MDiputBt tbb fespective diatoneei, as vall'w of 
ibtiiMredEe pntduced by the naeaD .aatioD^of the dMTvnaiaD^ 
of tb« irawbar: Ullw recults sm ihaM-esfcAnted.' ' 







C(* it * T 














S 61 
I « 







■ 25W» 

■ 8.8 ' ■ 


aw ■ 


Now, ihe comparative forces, as represented hy the difference 
of tangents, of the magnetism induced into the iron-liar, pnder 
the two conditions of direct induction on the nearest fpd^and 
of developed induction on the end most remote from the.mag- 
netB, were as follows : — 






([h Length. 

ilittD^ji»ll»raeliw*ti . 






• The great difference of the results of the first length betwixt the two 

''iiaiSi'Ot Aptlnmenia'tm tlie direct 'induction on the nearest enflof tbeiar, 

"Hi^idNtfflt^^itiMU- It BMyirftMrtiMVVwnoaise^Ae^ifficultvc^ placing 


',JW|)infl|i^fg^,,yhefl^the distance betweep the tr^ of ijiSgnetaaiici 

piss waa so small, and the importance n^ the smallest error of observation 

' "irlieii the tanfjent^ of deviation aie so great. The first cause, howevei^ 

'''-Mifg- e4Msider«d''aB'tb« prin^pal one, tt« 8itt expeitowbtiifillte Nmnd 

-'.ifVieHmwi m^^i^ ■*■ diffei^,j»npntni *Ji «i««iiginR tte wegn^ ♦•■• v#rtl. 

cal parallel series, so la to concentrate their action more strictly into the 

' Houa it afipean that tlw dneot BtdMUiw:is.Tiutly goeM«i 
than ibe Infiuence oommuDicated lo tJw remoii^ ead of the bwi 
bcin^.iMarly fire^tutlihB grBMeratthe.i(Ktnh]<iigtbt,sbout.twioa 
M great at tbe third teagih, about .thoge as ^reat »t ths>aacoa4 
length, and about quadruple at tbe fourth. l«)ftb. 

The relstireioroe of the indiiatiTe ipflumoeiundifrtbp. first 
atnoffxaeat, — that is, as devialciiMd at she iwrthe^t epd vf .tbe 
bar, has beea abown to be in tbe ntio of 1, ^th, (lib, I'^tb, 
Dearly, at the respective distances of 1, % 3 aqd 4 focak lengths 
a£ the bu and uagiiet. But, under the latlter arrangeraeot, w 
whidi the magnetian U directly induced oo the same end of thtt 
bar as that whose BttraelKTC energy is measured, a dil^«at xiUiia 
is obtained. Taking tbe fijst tangent^difiWeoce of the £rat 
serin at 10(^ the relative energy oi- indactton at the ofber dis^ 
taoDBs BuCcenvdy become as 9Q.0, S£ aod^ikS, wttida^ «^>^eaeed 
ftact)«ially> exhibit this series, in which the Snt is uqity. f , -^ f « 
^i, ^, nearly. But, caliiqg the first tangeRt c^.the second serieS: 
(1101(M>) 100, th^ ratio beoomes lOQ, ^, SS^ or, fractionally,^ 
as I, J, 5»n nearly. 

These results, exhibiting sudi considerable difierenceB, may 
be oonndered perhaps radier as perplratiug than sadsfat^wy. 
They might seem to intimate, that, where the law of attraction 
is so nmple, the experimente not aeocn-iSng with this law muBt 
be erroneous. But simple as the law as to a single, separate 
attraction is, tbe estimation of the variety of influences wlucfa 
a}me into account, in these investigations, is far from being so 
easy as at first ngfat it may appear. For, wlaist tbe pofrcx of; 
the nearest p0l* tends to develope in the.neaier ead bf the-irui.- 
bar a magneusm contrary to its own, the tendency of the re- 
motest'pcde of the magnet, being of a contrary pobKk;y, is^ m- 
tbe inverse pnqrottion of the squue of its distance, to alter the 
magnedsm developed hj the other pole. But this is not alk > 
For each of the poles of the roago^ have, at the isame dm,' 
their direct influence, however dimimriied in eoet^ byinereaae: 
of distance, upon the remote end of the bdr, whieh"iBdtien(le ih 

cut tmd wett line of the compoM. Still, however, the Bmallett error of ob- 
temtiou or poaltlon, where the angle is ho great, neeeasarily produceli vetj 
«MM(iKmttde dlAteAoc^'lnJtbe tAn)!cntk, w u to Tedaer (Ae 'dWAWWMltf 

imd PherumeHa tjf Magmlie IMuetitn. tSI 

OecesSHrily trsDBnittvd m motCficatioo of the direct aodott (^ 
the ' magnet on the nearest extremity of the bw- Thew difi^ 
rent foroee, indeed, may be cauly calculated, but the manwr ia 
which ther act recfprocally uader.the different ■rraogODMnta nr 
muDS to be determined. 

Notwithfltanding what has now been stated, the re«ultad«iwed 
from the toregmog eicperineiKs nay be conndercd, parba|St aa 
so far satisfactory, as afibrding a compaiiscn of the qu^^ty el 
tn^;netinn directly induced upon the nearar aid of a bar, and 
of that developed at the remote extremity, aod indicating alao 
the proportion of resistaooo in the iron itielf to tlie perfect traa»- 
miasion of the inductive eaergy from end to end. 

Another mode of experimeoting, hosever, which subaequriotly 
occurred to roe, is nincb more practical, satisfaetory and lurful, 
afibrding, by direct experimeDt, the actual quaotity of mpgnt- 
tism induced into any iron or steel bar or bars of diimBt cm- 
padty, in reference to the energy of the indumg m^net iteelf, 
blether with the exact proporticai of influence prodoeetl on each 
at any g^ven distance. 

The arrangement, in this case, which was peculiarly smfie, 
reqidnd only this adaptation, that the bars of iron or steel used 
far trying the quantity of ioduction should be cf the same 
length, or neariy of the saine length, as Uie magnet employed. 
And when comparative experimoilB were made on the relative 
cspacaties of dif^rent kinds of iron and steel, or iron and steet 
(tf different tempers or degrees of tuurdneia, it further required 
0a order to obtain at once direct and final results) that each bar 
should be of the same dimensions as the ma^^et ssade use ai. 

Fig. fi. Plate II. represents this new arrangement. M is a . 
magnet [Jaced in the direction of the east or west point of the 
oompau C at m^ distance,— say at tvojbcal lengths from the 
centre of the compass, when the deviation by either pole is carc^ 
fuUy observed. An iron bar, I, of the same dimensionG as th> 
magnet, is thep placed exactly over it, separated by two little 
blodcs of wood, or other substances of equal thickness, adapted 
to the distance required for the experimenL As the magnetism 
now induced through the whole length of the iron bar is of the 
c^posite kind to that of the inductive magnet, its action on the 
compass must also be oppo»te; the deviation is consequently 
found to be diminished, and that (measuring by the tangents) 

^ HeV. Mr Siote^y'^m-MmeqfihiLawt 

exactly ID the' proportion vlilch the Magnetism induced in 
the iron bears to the actual energy of the magnet itself. The 
relation of the induced magnetism with that of the inductive 
Energy being thus at one distaiK^ simply and experimentally 
ascertained, the proportion of induction due to any other dis- 
tance in as easily determiiiable. 

On this plan a series of «xperinieiits on the power'of induc- 
don wilh'a bar of soft iron of the same dimensioos as the m^- 
n'^t, #as made at aTariety of disUnces from contact up to five 
inches, together with' two comparaore series,' at the same di^ 
Unces, with two other soft iron-bars of similar length and 
breadth, but differing in thickness, one being ^'^th of an inch 
thick, and the other an inch, whilst the magnet itself was ^th of 
an itidi tinck. 

The folLowing Table exhibits the Btean^devi^on of both ends 
nf each iron-bar, in juxtaposition with the magnet, as placed at 
17 different distances, (he magnet, which was 13;| inches long, 
being uniformly at the distance of 24 inches from the centre of 
the compass, where, by its sole action, it produced a deviation 

of Iff 14'. ; 

Table nftke Effects t^ Induced Magnelum on Ikrte' different Bar* 
of Sqfl Iron, at various dUlancee. 





of IMD 

1 — 

Bsr above 


Die of u- 

am. otic- 







of bom 





Iff H'. 



6i . 






— I— 








. 0.* 









■3.3 . 





2i , 


. 3.19 















a.a* , 




















14. IS 





13. £9 






















. .».48 























and Phenomena ^Magnetic /ndHdJOft- 8fl0 

Hence the ratio of iBfiueoce m the Goft iroit-bsr'.i of sp iDcii 
thick (being precisely of similar dimensions to those of the vasig^ 
net) was as follows, newly : At the distance of S inches^.the 
irMi-lwr ac(]uired g'gth of the power of the magnet ; at 4 Jnchea 
distance the inductive influence of the magnet, wse , pth of ita 
own power ; at 3 inches y'jth ; at S inc^ ^th ; at 1 inch jth i 
at ^th of; an inch I i and at ^',th of an. inch , |. 

B^^ the proportional influenoes st th« ▼siious distaocet will 
be more evident, by a refereoce to tJie annexed additional Table, 
of dedtictwm^ from the middle secies of experimeDta made with; 
the quarter-inch bar, which was umilar in all its dimensions tA 
the p 

Deductions from Experiments with the bar of soft iron ISJ mcAm hitg 
.-- fi^ 1 inch brwid and } hteh tAict, a»d Magnet ijf laJite sixe. 

DW. of 


















4 . 









































18. 3 






















14. 8 


4. « 



■ 1 





























■ l"! 







■ ■ 9688 



IHie last ctKlumn of thjs tald^ represents the proportionate 
force aCvthe: indueed EMgae^ism. at the several distance* of 1, g, 

% 4^ and' 5'iiH9he«t the fbroejot d* incb Mug 

In this method of detemmiiDg the praportioliB \a{ the m9f^. 
netkm indaoed, botii tnthTeferenCv to the power of the uwgHl) 
made use of, and with reBpect to the ditlaaniof the bsr (xoft^ 
tbe magnet, ft was astomed that these propertioaBwjHild he the 
same at whatever diduca fiDm the magnet the CQiB^9Ba,«qH 
plowed for the drriatioDs might beplaoed. In.order, to !i(erify.thi» 
aBSumptkm, as weU aa tot aoertain the dcgroe of «(unMeDcy ttf 
he expected in. aiiniUr experiments, elsewhere vouAb, ■ aoo^wi 
8«ies of deviations, under a «miiar arrangeoientti and .withb^A 
magnet aad an iron-bar of tbe same dimensions as the (oimer^ 
was observed some months after the foregoing deductions had 
be«Q cakalated. The distance ctf tbe bars from tbe compass 
was, in this instance, changed — ^being now IS inches instead of 
two feet. 

The fbllcfwing were ^e deviatiinn and results obtained front 
this saies, as to thtt pn^rtions of induced magoetiua at the 
different distances of 1, ^ 3, 4, and 5 inches; the magnet alone 
produdng a deviation of 61° Ifi'. 














62. 'S 












: 64.6 






















Comparing tbe last two columns, we have a coincidence avd- 
6deDtly near to verifv the assumed pnnciples,— '..that the mea- 
sure of the actual, as well ae proportionate forces of induced 
magnetism, is correctly derived from the tangents of tbe devia- 
tions, and. that the proportions are not dependent on, or influ- 
enced by, the distance at which' the compass is phKedfroiK-the 
magnet and iron-bar. The differences, indeed^ in theratuxtf m- 

_ t'.ooslc 

imdPkmomenikofMagndaebidiidim. Ml 

d|Mti*n, itiri&TeiKe'tadBtaacet we,anl]r:midiA» m^xeaaos^ 
ably be aacribed to the errors in the measurementB o( tha dUH 
Hate betwist the im^et tad tbc inm-bw— tbtte di$taiice» not 
having been adjuated.with that attentioD to perleet accunMiyi 
#hidi SB abtolute ooiiindence would:ha[ve raquired. 

' Vorioas (u the precedipg modes of. czaisiDiiig the induotivo 
pmrer o£ the tnagnet aie, aad ample and conentsnt as the w- 
eults of the last method have proved, yet we do not find that the 
hm of nagmtic mductioa as to dirtaaoe is satiifactoiily shown 
by any of them. Whikt the Jaw itaelf ia unqueatioDably uoilbrin 
and consistisit, the efibctK of that law are found to T«ry accords 
ing W the mode «f directmg the indutiive eoer)^. Whao tba 
inSuaiceis thatch a magnet opon a bar of- iron lying in thesant& 
Blndgbt line, the induced eno-gy, aa eOimated by the taDg«nt» 
dfdeviatlenof the eompaas^ approximates the inverse raido of ^ 
squares of the distance ; but when the influence is that derived 
from the whole mase vS (he magnet into the whole moss of the 
bar, lying m pandlel juxtapontioo, then the ratio appear* to be 
totaliy dttfereut. For when, in the latter case, measures of an 
inch are made the integer of distance, then the ratio of energy be* 
comes \y ^, \, \, and \ nearly. But when the {fucknesa of the 
m^net, or of the bar (both b^ng the same), b made the int^^ 
of distance, thm, the energy at ^ of an inch interval, the fiast 
distance, bring caUed 100, the series becomes 100; 79-^; 64^5; 
04.4; 47.1 ; 40.5; 34.4; 29.7; «5.3; 31.9; 19.4; mA 1&1,~ 
at the 12th interval. 

Unsatisfactory as some of these onvesligationG may- appear to 
be) I have been encouraged Xa proceed thus far with tiie subject 
—(lot only because of the interest necessarily belonging to any 
of the laws with which the Wisdom of God has endowed the va- 
rious forms of created elements ; but because, likewise^ of an ipi- 
portant practical application of the influence under constdera- 
fins, to'vinoh it appears to b« peouliarly adaptied. I refer to 
the employment of magnetism of induction for estimatiBg tb? 
fnofid^ of irM^ aa to the Btrength or dttetility of which we have 
no satisfactory test but that of positive' trial.- 

Thfl'duotility of iron being that pn^terty .which moat chiefly 
determines its value ia commeHe and maniuEaetures, it is av a 
BeaauKof this quality that the magnetic influenas, I coii»d», 

_ Cocwlc 

972 Rev. Mr Scoresby on tome of the Imjbx 

may be applied. For liiere seems to be a particular relation be- 
tween the ducuUty of iron, and its capacity for magnetism— 
the soDest and moat ductile iron having the greatest capacity 
for the magnetic influence. Hence it is considered, that the 
experimental determination of the capadiy of different speci- 
mens <^ iron by the method adopted in the last experiment, 
might (as already su^ested) aSbrd a simple anif decided test 
and measure of their relative quality and value in commerce. 

For this purpose a bar-magnet of modCTate dimensions (say 
of IS inches in length) and a small compass would be ^ the 
apparatus requisite. The different spedmens of iron, whose 
proportionate quality as to ductility is to be determined, might 
require to be forged into the shape and uze of the magnet, or 
at any rate into a similar shape and size with each other, and 
then softened equally by being moderately heated and allowed 
to cool slowly in the same place, or under similar circumstances. 
The magnet being then placed in the east or west directicm of 
the compass, say at two lengths distance, will indicate, by the 
deviation of the needle, its own power of attraction, which, being 
observed, one of the specimens of iron is laid exactly over the 
top of the magnet separated by two small blocks of wood, or 
other substance of equal thickness, and then the deviaticm pro- 
duced by both extremities of the iron-bar alternately observed. 
(See Fig, 6.) The difference between the mean of these devia- 
tions and that of the magnet alone, will serve as a measure of 
the capacity of that particular specimen for induced magnetism. 
Whilst the compass and magnet remain undisturbed, the rest 
of the specimens can be brought successively to the test, being 
always kept at equal distances from the magnet by the same in- 
terposed substances, when the comparison of the measures of 
their different capadties for induced magnetism will, if the theory 
be correct, afford a certun indication of their relative qualities. 

With a view of assisting me in verifying this theory, my frigid 
lEdward Roscoe, Esq. of Liverpool, kindly furnished m^witti 
Kveral characteristic specimens of the different qualities of iron 
most commonly manufactured in Britain. Though the examina- 
tion of these did not enable me to discriminate small difllerences, 
yet, when the common and best qualities were compared, the 
magnetic capacity of the latter proved to be nearly one>tenth 
irreater than any of the common kinds. ,-- . 




.-,■.- ..M 't , ■ . 


:,, Google 

and Phenomena of Magnetic Ittdttclion. ilS 

Chap. II. — Expsrimkntb illustratitb of thb Natukr, Im' 


Sect. 1. Q^de Nahm ifMagiutie Induction. 

Magnetic InductJoD, some of the laws of which have now 
been examined, b of most extensive infiuence in the sdence of 
magnetism, being more or less engaged as an agent in almost bU 
its phenomena. The attraction of femiginous bodies, not hav- 
ing previous polarity, by the magnet, depends simply on their 
inductive capacity, — the proximate end <^ the magnet first'de- 
veloping a polarity different from its own, and then, according 
to the general law of both magnetism and electricity, attracting 
the contrary polarity thus developed. In whatever subttance, 
therefore, magnetism can be induced, there will be a capability 
of being attracted by the magnet, the degree of attraction btaag 
proportionate to the inductive capacity. It is also the generd 
influence by which polarity is developed in bodies citable of 
permanent magnetism. 

Though we have no means of explaining the essential nature 
of an agent so subtle and extraordinary as that of magnetismi ' 
yet we may exhibit, by striking experiments, n variety of its 
properties and phenomena. The connection of the magnetie - 
princi|de with iron is, as we have said, inherent and inalienable, 
and the two denominations or polarities appear to have perma- 
nent residence in each ferruginous particle, being mobile in the 
particles but not separable from them. 

Ferruginous bodies are usually and naturally devoid of any 
strong magnetic energy, the arrangement of the magnetisms €( 
the different particles being such as in a great measure to nen- 
tralize each other. But the mere proximity of a magnet, or 
even an electrical influence, as has been shown, disturbs the na- 
tural equilibrium of the polarities, and tends to arrange thtm by 
its inductive energy in a magnetic series; 

The development of the magnetic condition in a bar of iron, 
then, is the mere arrangement of the inherent polarities in a 
magnetic series, which arrangement appears to be the result of 
two influences, — the direct inducUve influence of the proximate 


I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

fl74 Bev. Mt Scoreatry oh tome of-the Lam 

magnet on eai'h of the particles of the iroo^ and the GomiDuw- 

«ativ6 ioflnence of tbe TtiTKnu magnMre' f»rticlM in'thmbu 

npOD «ach other. Hence the ener^'Kith 'whicfa. ibeiBdactWe 

influence on the end of the bar nearest to the magnet is-eKhibit- 

ed at the dther. ,..-.. 

■ Of'these two infiueuees/ ^sexpcrunent bubu to offsedft'Sa- 

ftsfltctory iUust^lliot^ . 

Experiment L'—IUustration of tlie neutral condition, ^ iron, 

tmd^Ae Direct and Commimicated infiuence ofinduttion. 
■ A bar magnet, IS Ini^a in length, heiog placed in she direc- 
tion of the west pcnnt of a small txttofiaea, at the dklanoej^ a 
foot from its centre, jwoduced a deviatiflii in the iwedle' of 
t^,4ff. Between the magnet and the corapasft I now plued^ in 
ttie manner represented in P). II. tig. G, a, a series t^sixinnilar 
'pnecn of innwwire, pntriously Boftened in (he fire, 1.7 inobea id 
length raeh,DDd^*;jth in diameter. The wires in this Arrragew 
ment being placed at right angles across the straight line jaaiog 
the magnet and compass, derived no polarity, because of thwr 
positkin,' and, consequaitlj, could evhftit no inflaenoe'; tliede^ 
■vi«ten,«expeMed, was therefore Horftered. Each pices of wire 
being (lo* tnmedon its centre. Go as to preterye its relative dis- 

'. tance, w^s next arranged without contact, as in series &, and 
then the deviation was iS'.il', being an increase through the 
magnetism developed in, the wires of 4M'. The pieces of wire 
-vere, lattljr, [i^ed ia contact in a straight line, as in aeries r, 
esch piece being at the same distance both from the magnet and 
compass aa before, when the. devotion was found t^ be 49°. 4^, 
beit^ a farther increase, occasioned by the trananilted infiuence, 

, of6°^. ". 

Su[^>Q^, now, these pieces of wire, to represent sepaiate znag- 
.ojetiB parUclos, and they wijl be founid very .well to Qlustraie 
the prinapal pbeiiomena of induction. , Under the parallel form 
of Fig. & a, we have a representation of an unmagnetised bar of 
irpn, ia which the particles, under the influence of their inherent 
spontaneous attractions, are mutually neutralized. Under tbe 
next form (b), we have an illastration of the proportion of di- 
rect inductive influence of the proximate magiwt, oa all the se- 
parate particles in the aggregate. And . under tbe last form, of 

and Phenomena t^Magne^c Inductton. S75 

• coBtinuoils line in conuct (c), we have an esperimeatal ex- 
taniAe of the increase of magnetic energy, produced by tbe in- 
duedve influence of tbe parucles upon one another. And if we 
compare the two influences mihe caje before us* the relative 
magnetic energies being proportionate to the tangents of tbe 
angles oS deviation in tbe compass-needle, we find that the 
magnetism induced on tbe eeparate particles Erectly by the 
magnet, was to that induced by the particles upon one another 
as a to S nearly. 

l!1ns relation, however, is found to vary in difleml femt- 
^ooua bodies, and in the same kind of iron or steel of di&rent 
degrees of bMdnesa, tbe tnuismitted induetipn, 9c theinfluence 
of psrticle-upon parUcle, being constantly soaalter as the hard- 
ness of the metal increases. This fact, which was first raggext* 
ed EpeculsOively, by the considenttkicof the nature of the ph&- 
DonKDa,^^^ afterwards verified as to iron and steel of three dif- 
f«Knt Mates of bordneSk, by repeated experiments, of which the 
fi^wing is an example. 

ExperiuMBt S. — Stratnitwiioa.imd iUmttration ^.the^jiroffir- 
iimu <^ direct^, inducedand communicated jnagn^h^in 
pkctB f^aofi iron, wke-drawA steel, and hard steel. . - „ 

Tbe pieces of the different descriptions of metal consisted of 
six in number of each kind, all very bearly of the same dimen- 
sions as tbe wires mode use of in the preceding experiment. 
The magnet was placed about 12 inches from the compass, and 
j'jth of an inch from the end of the nearest wire; the series 'ex- 
tending 10 inches, brought the other extremity WttKin S Inches 
of the centre of the compass^ Each series of wireS'wias th^'^'c. 
cessively interposed between tbe magnet and compass, %t equal 
intervals from each, and the deviations, ifi the tifo otirange- 
menu 6 and c of Fig. 6. observed. As, however, the dJflferwit 
series of wires were not accurately of the same lengtlii tfiedl^ 
tonce of the nu^et from die compass became Sul^eet t^' s 
small alteration ; but the ejects of this on the results is not ma- 
terial.' ' ' ' ' ' " 



WIS Rev. Mr Scoresby an tome of the Laws 

The following are the results of the three aeries of wires. 

Sebjes a. 

Inductive inflttence on ihe soft isok-wibes. 

The action of the magnet alone was a deviation of 40*. 45'. 

Out of contact (ai Fig. 6 1} 
Id ccuitact (Fig, 6 c) 

Hence the influence tnuutnitted I 
Irom bar to bar, ' J 

Jl.4S — 44.1S* US 


Inductive influence on ike wire-drawn steel. 
Ilie action of the magnet alone was in this series AStS&. 

IMviAtionoutofcoDtaet, 43. 7 4«.26ik 1.4|' 

in contact, 43.19—40.26 - i.fiS 

Hence the influence traovnitted 1 
from bar to baV, ■ ■ ' . = . 

Sesies C- 
Inductive influence on the haepehkd btkel wibes. 
Here the action of the magnet alone was a deviation of 
39°. 5*. 

Deviation out of contact, 4a47'— 39.S2 = o'ss' 

— ' . in cuatact, . 41.20 _ 39.6t = 1.28 

Hence influence from bar to bar, 41.20 — 40.47 = 0.33 

Whilst, theref(»%, in the series of iron-wires, the total induc- 
tive influences, direct and transmitted, were productive of a <te- 
viatioD of 1 V.V, in augmentation of the uowded deviation of the 
magnet ; the influencea in the wire-drawn steel occauoned but 
^.53' augmentation, and in the hardeaed sted only \\S8f. 
. Aad whilst the direct indujctioa on the iron-wire occa^oned 
8D. augfnentatitm of 3°.SS', that on the wire-drawn steel waa 
1°AV, and on the hardened steel 0°.65'. 

And whilst the transmitted influence produced in the iron- 
wires a power of augmentation of T.S2 tc the deviation occa- 
nwied by the' magnet alone, the wire-drawn steel produced but 
V.iaf augtaentatiou, and the hardened steel wires only (fSS^. 

=d by Google 

and Phenomena of Magnetic hiduction. 877 

HsDce the comparative capacities for induced magnetism of 
the three series, as estimated by the differeoces of deviation, -are 
as follows : 

Direct Influence, . atB 1.41 &55 

Transmitted influepce, - ^.Z% 1.13 0.33 

Total Inductive ene^y, 11.0 1.63 1.2S 

The pn^rtion of energy of the magnetism directly induced 
on the different portions, and that transmitted from portion to 
portion, it must be observed, affords no measure of the relation 
between the two influences in an actual bar of iron, because 
there the number of the particles, and the intimacy of their 
connection, renders the transmitted energy by far more conffl- 
derable in sc^t iron than the direct influence. 

SacT. 2. —On the Inductive Effects of the Magnet on Iron. 
The experiments detailed in the preceding parts of this essay 
are all illustrative of these effects ; hut, being designed for the 
examination of the laws and nature of induction, they haye been 
Umited in their character to tliat particular class which seemed 
the best Calculated for the attainment of these objects. This 
section of the essay, however, not being confined to any particu- 
lar investigation, will admit of all such original experiments as 
may serve to illustrate any of the various influences and pheno- 
mena of this interesting property of the magnet. 

Sebies a. 
With ft «ui^ bar-joagnet, or with Wo or more equal bars 
placed over each other in parallel juxtaposilioD, and vritb 
similar poles ocMiodent. 
As these experiments are the more striking, in proportion to 
the pow^ of the magnets, it is advisable, if the baii^ be well tem- 
pered, so as not to injure each other by thnr proximity, lo em- 
ploy at least a pair of magnets, according to the arrangement of 
fig. 1. before ^ven. The original experiments were made with 
a pair of threei-feet magnets : but nearly the -whole series can be 
exhibited, though with less striking effects, with a pair of good 
-twelv&inch bars. 


278 Rev. Mr Scoresby on some'tjf the Law* 

Experiment 1. — For the Suspen^on of Iron BaUs. 

These balk consist of the best soft iron, and require to be 
turned in s lathe sud well pt^lished. A convenient size is i^gths 
of im iQcb iiT diameter, weighing about 70 grains. Of this de- 
eoriptigfi sixty to eighty l»lls will be requisite, and from twenty 
u> tturtvi of smftller dimeasions, in a graduated series. . 
■ The suspensjiin of the balls in a single dependent chain ot 
connexion, is a satisfactory means of trying the power of the 
magqets. A pair of good twelve-inch magnets will suspend 
«bQUt 9x equal balls of seventy grains weight, — perhaps eight 
!or nine, if gradually reduced in size towards the bottom ; whilst 
my three-feet magnets will sustain do leas than fifteen equal 
balls, or eighteen diminishing in size, in a single series. Here 
we have a beautiful illustration of the imiictlve power of the 
magnet, assisted by the inductive influence of each ball upon 
the otie contiguous to it in the series. The polarity of the first 
of tbe chain is developed directly by the action of the magnets, 
but the second is at once influenced by the first hail and by the 
magnet, and so on throughout the seiies. 

The balls, when employed without any other apparatus, may 
lie attached by the magnetic influence in a number of pleasing 
fonss, OS festoons, fringes, and bunches of grapes. 

But I proceed to describe some more novel arrangements. 

Experiment i.--^For the Suapentum ^ BaUa at ^ 0a:lremiiie$ 
if Crooked Wiret. 
(1.)— Fig. 7. represents a modification of the experiment 
with the balls, which has a very plea^ng effect. For this expe- 
riment two pieces of iron-wire, about 3 inches long, and }th in 
diameter, bem into the foroi represented at &, and notched into 
each otlw, are' added. . Bdng ctnawd at the notched part, and 
Aliachad to the pole of the three-feet magnets, eat^ extrecoity of 
the Hires .w;^ BUEtain eleven or twelve equal balls. The sub- 
atanaa betw^ra the wir^ and the mf^eta js so <rf>loDg piece of 
polished iron, by the int^^ntiQn of which the i^ect of the ex- 
.pmiaent is improved, th<H]gh the number of balls ct^iable of 
being .euspetided is diminished. It may. be necessary to observe, 
once for all, that the points of contact of all thesuhstancet em- 

and Phenomena ^ Magnetic Induction. 1IH9 

ployed in these expenneats should be highly polished, and, to 
obtain the best effects, the iron of which they are composed 
should be annealed or softened previous to the polishing. 

(3 >— Fig. 8. a, PI. III. exhibits another modifltfttion oT the 
experiraeol, in which a half link of iron-wire, b, fomilar to tbt 
former in thickness and quality, is appended to each extreAii^ 
of the crossed wires, and the bolls are' now suspended fVom efeirf 
point. Each of these, at^out the interposed iron, will soUm 
from two to ten or more balls, according td the poWtff of' the 

(3.) — An cl^ant variety in this experiment is obtainedj rai- 
der powerful magnets, by adding to the half links guspenied from 
the cross wires, a second half link to the £xtrethity of «ch of 
the first series; and, even at this distance from the nT4gsets,'li 
chain of hx graduated balls (see Fig. 9.), may be sitspendtd 
from each of the sixteen downward termioatioDsof the last ^lies 
of wires. 

But these three last experiments admit, of course, of an u^ 
mited variety of modifications. 

Experiment 3. — Forvuition ^Chahu <^- ffaJf JAnla. . 

A 'p«r of good twelve-inch magnets will susttdo a diian of 
about six half links, of the size of wire above described,' which 
may be increased to five full links, measuring above nine indies 
in length, by the use of the three-feet magnets. Fig. 10, a. 

Tbi* exp^iment is modified, as represented at ^i by the in> 
terposiuon of a ball between esc}) complete link ; at c, by a ball 
at eadi limb of the half links ; at d, by the introduction of 
the, crooked wire. Fig. 7. 6, Sec. ; and at e, by a weight of cork 
suspended from the fourth complete link. 

!Exp«itaent ^—For Stapenmn, tsilbout contact, t^f Sma& 
Matset g^ Iton. ' 

This is a very striking and curious experiment. Fig. 11. -o, 
represents the general arrangement. A T^ Gtde key held 
down to the table by a piece of fine thread, or a hair, is brought 
within a smtJl distance of the extremity of the magnets, wb^e, 
'Cba thread bong on the stretch, it can be suspended without 
contact, quivering in the air. With twelve-ineh. magnetB, the 
distance at which the key can be sustdlned ifi^: be eaiceedingig 

ftSO Rev. Mr Scorcsby on some rf Ste Lmtea 

■mall ; but with three-feet magnete it m&y be supportecl more 
than a quarter of an inch below them, «o as to admit of pUites 
of glass, metal, or thin wood, to be passed between. A key, 
weighing fiSO grains, has been supported by my own three-feet 
magnets without contact. 

If twi>1(eys or wires be suspended contiguously at the eamt 
timf, they wit) repd each other, and if a smalf toiagnet be brought 
near them th«y maybe attracted, repelled, or'sgitettd, to a ooo- 
Biderablfe Kmit. 

Modifications of the experiment are rqires^nted at b, «■, <t *, 
/ A smtill^eCe of tinned iron is suspended al'6; at C, two 
pieces of itxMi-wire ; at d a crooked piece of wire • ; at ca sotaB 
kite covered with silver paper, with a piece of wire in the miid- 
dle; at/a balloon, formed out of an egg-shell, reduced to ex- 
tmtae thiiin«6s in vin^ar, and coloured. An aiis of imn-wire 
yidds the requisite miRpensive energy. 

The story of the suspension of Mahomet^s coffin within a 
loa^totie cave is amusingly illustrated by this experiment. 

With a compound horse-shoe magnet and an iron-bar, or single 

' bar-magnet, for partially neutralizing one of its poles. 

All the experiments of the preceding series can be equally 
well |)f"rformed wfth a good compound horse-shoe magnet, ac- 
cordlrig'to the arrangement represented in Pi. IV. Fig. 18. 

The magnet being suspended from a frame of wood, ia so ad- 
justed iri height that one of its poles should rest upon a large 
flat bar of iron, or else upon the end of a bar-magnet with op- 
posite Qoles coincident. By this means the pole in contact with 
the flat bar is partially neutralized, so that the operation of the 
unattached pole is left more free and unembarrassed for the per- 
formance of the eTTperimente. 

It is not necessary to r^at here the series of experiments . 
with this app^atus, being precisely similar to those under the 
prece<Kng arrangement ";' 

* This nire, weighing 18 grains, waft suspended b; the pair of thiee-feet 
t>'n, at the ilistBiice of three-eightba of an inch below. In perfonningtUi 
"perfnunt, in any of Its Uodittcfttient, it will U ibiiad adnnt^Mkia to eml 
I^ a Ter; abort thread, otherwiae iU elastidtj wilt prove iaemreataA, if 
Dot &ta1, to the aucceai of the ftsperiment. . . 

L iiizcd^vGoogk' 

■ ■ ■ - ' SitMEs C. ■■■ ' ■'■■■ ■ 

With two equal bar-magnets, placed over each other at a few 
inches distance, with opposite poles contiguous. 
As in all the experiments of the flrst series, the tnaguAisn in. 
duced on the different masses of iron was chiefly upon the ^or^ 
tioiu Q^arest to the magnets, the influence on the opposite ex- 
tremity of each portion bein^ merely consequential, it occufrsd - 
to me, that if the substances employed in the experimests «Ert 
placed betwixt the two opposite poles of a pair oi inagn0ts,'sa ' 
that the appropriate polfuity might simultaneously be developed 
at both extremities of the iroQ, a mucl^ more powerful aotioa 
might be expected. In thia expectation I was not diaappointed ; 
for, adopting ihe arrangement represented in PL. IV. Fig. 13, 1 
found that experiment No. i. could now be accompUshed at dtst- 
tances considerably greater, and experiment No. S. with a great- 
er number of balls, whiUt a variety of new tllustrations of the 
phenomena of magnetic induction were successively sug^;ested, 
as I proceeded with the amusing investigation. 

Experiment 1. — Farthe vertical ntppart ofNaileand Wires 
on their points. 

Irpn-wires {a, i, PI. IV. Fig. .14.), placed vertically on their , 
pointed extremity, can be supported by the large magnets at 
ihe distance of two inches irom the upper magnet, and the nail 
c, weighing 326 grains, at the distance , of an inch and a half 
from it. , „ 

fitpcriment i. — SihaS Figvres in paper, or card $m»^ W- 
' licalfy Supported. 

A plea^ng variety is produced iu die fang/^/og AxperiqHnt* 
by attaching the iroD-wires to little figures cut o^t of pttpttf 
(PLIV. Fig, \5^ which, standing upright betwixt tJiem^9et«b . 
and quivering on the points of the wire, are- made to vibraM, as 
whirl round, in mimic life, by approaching them with another 
magnet, and waving it around them. These figuces, three 
inches in heightt caa be readily susUined at the distance of an 
inch ttaia the upper magnet, the ra^;nets tbemsdveB bang foot 
inches apart. 

aBft Bev. Mr Scoresby on MagnOitn. 

EzperiBunt 8.— /lor iiu tUf^tortttfamaU Wires and NaUt 
tipon each ofiter't extremities or pointsi 

With the laige bars, four ioebes apar^ iroo-liuis (tiie-com- 
mon bkck pins of Uie shops) will staod cm each other two inches 
below the upper magnet, or three or more in a vertical series, 
firmly adhmiiig to each other, and yet vibrating freely on their 
supporting point, whenever a small magnet or piece of iron is 
brought near them, a, J, c, PI. IV. Fig. 16: Vqjreseiit diflFer- 
ent series of pins ; d a key supported on the point of a nail, 
and e, two polished nails. 

Experiment 4. — For the ttipport <tf different arUdes m an «p- 
right series. 
The variety of jununog series capable of being sustained un- 
der this arrangement is evidently unlimited. The forms and 
groups represented in PI. IV. Fig. 17. may serve as specimens 
of what may be accomplished, with the articles only previously 
in use. The form represented at a is produced by a nail, with 
two half links of iron-wire suspended on its p<»nt. 6 is a half 
fink of iron on Uie pcunt of a naO suj^xirting four balls near the 
upper magnet. The next fonn c represents six half links or a 
chfdn of three full links, sustained vertically, d consists of three 
bolls upon a half link, e exhibits three balls upon the point of 
a nail, ^represents a nul of two inches on its point, which will 
not stand alone ; but when the head is set round with black pins, 
though the heads of these are nearly an inch from the upper 
magnet, the whole is freely sustained. The form represented 
St ^consists of a two-inch nail, on the point of which b an iron 
ball, and that ball set louod with black pins, like the plume of 
the tlustle. 


( 28S ) 

Jd^thnal Obtervatiens on the Station of Citric and Nitrout 
Aadi to Bromine and Iodine. By Aathqb Cohmii-l, Eaq. 
F.R.S.E., &C. Counnunicated by the Author. 

Xh a Iat£ notice, mention vtas made of some upsuccessful at. 
t«npts to oxidate bromine by meiuiB of nitric aud, by a process 
ajaiUr to that which effected the conversion c^ iodine into iodic 
acid*. :It was farther stated, that when a small quantity of 
hrotoiae was binled with nitric acid for a considerahle time in a 
long tube, the upper and open extremity ctf which was bent and 
terminated in water, and tlie intermediate port kept cool by 
moistened bibulous paper, so as to condense the bromine as 
it (oblimed, and cause it to fall "hack into the add, the water, 
alter the free bromine which bad passed over was expelled by 
heat, g^ve with nitrate of silver . s pretty plentiful precipitate of 
bromide of silver. This preci[ntat« I have ranee found, from 
dD.ex^aupauna of the Hqiiid in a variety of nays, was caused by 
^e. presence of hydrobromic md.; and the question arose, to 
what cause the occurrence of that acid could be attributed. To 
Hsoertaip whether bromine was capable of decomposing pure 
yater by similar treati;neDt, and of so giving rise to the forma> 
tjon of hydcobrumic add, a little bromjoe was boiled with wat«^ 
under the same circiunstanices ; but after the liguids .employe^ 
liad bqw deprived of oolour by a gratle heat, so hydrohrpniic 
aff4 PMild be discovered by the agency of chlorio^ and subse- 
qiient i^tation with ether. It ixcuvac neceagary, therefor^ to 
Jgqk for. some third body, which, by ii« atGnity for oxygen^ m^ 
fxmtribmte to the decompositiDii of w^r ; and as a coloured ai^ 
^D^iig nUiric add had been employed, U appeared probatiW 
that nitrous add might have that e&ct i^fcprdingly, on 0% 
king the experiment with colourless nitric add and bEomin^ 
and afterwards driving off free hroDune from &.e trster, in 
. which the extremity of the apparatus tenaioated, by a gentle 
beat, no hydrobromic acid could be observed in it, when ex- 
amined by means of chlorine and ether. On the other faahd, 
whm the experiment was repeated with a red and highly fiim- 
ii^ nitric acid, the presence of hydrobromic add in tbf water 
• This Joumil, Apitt last. 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

S81 Mr Connell on the Kelatwn of 

was made abundantly manifest by the same reagents. A Tike 
r^ult was bbtmned, when an ccid was employed which had been 
highly charged with nitrous acid, by passing throu^ it a cur- 
rent of deutoxide of azote. 

From these experiments, it seems to follow that, under the 
inSuence of bromine and nitrous acid, a portion of water is ^ 
composed by long continued boiling, hydrobrorok acid, and 
prolwbly nitric acid, being formed. This resuU is somewhat re^ 
markable, because, under ordinary drcumstances, nitric and 
hydrobromic adds mutually decompose one another. It does 
not appear that all the bromine employed becomes hydrobromic 
acid, a part of it being usually volatilized. 

As it would appear that the precautions necessary for dnui- 
niahing the loss of iodine in the preparation of iodic add by the 
action of nitric acid have not been well understood •, I Ulink H 
prt^ier to add the following particulars, willingly leaving W 
others the determination of the comparative merits of the differ- 
ent metiiods which have been proposed for the preparation of 
iodic add. 

The essence (^ the method by nitric add, consists in using a 
vess^iif very large capadty in relation to the quantity t^ mate- 
rials employed. I would recommend that it should be capable 
of containing forty or fifty times the quantity of nitric add ac< 
tually used. The reasons obviously are, to afford a large ia- 
torual surface on which the iodine volatilized may be condoised, 
and from whicb it may be wa^ed back agun into the ftdd, and 
to ^minBh the quantity of acid-vapour escapog by the ttetk, 
which ought to be as narrow as poinble'f-. A very strong add 
ought also to be employed, and the boiling is best maintained 
by the smaH flame of a spirit-lamp, to as to prevent, as much ia 
pos»b1e, the heatingof the sides of the vessel. Operating in th^ 
way, although I have always experienced some loss of iodine> yet 
I do not OMicdve that, with due care, the lo«s is so gt«at as 

■ gee Annalns de Chimia et de Phyiique, xlix. 114; andAnnaL der Phji. 
xxiv. 363. 

t It la verj couyanietit in wsihii^ b«ck the iodine, to be dile vccmod- 
dij to fit in a glow atopper, lo that the Uq^uid may readi eveijr part ef the. 
veaael, without danger of tmng ipilU 

I ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

Nitrk and Nitrous Jcids to Bromine and Iodine. SSS 
CoDStitute a serious objection to the method *. There are few 
dieoiical processes which are not att^ded vrith some sacrifice of 
materials ; and it seems a m^ter of very little consequence on 
what material that loss falls, provided the total expense, in com- 
parison with other methods, is not increased. Indeed, plana 
might easily be devised, by which all the iodine whicb escapes 
oxidation might be condensed, and saved for another operation. 
And if it be objected that the process of ebullition is tedious^ I 
shall leave to others to determine wheth» more time and trouble 
ate expended, than in the numerous steps of other methods. 

It will give me much pleasure, if the su^estton of M. Serul- 
He, whose recent loss science deplores, shall be found to facili- 
tate the process ; but in the only experiment which I have made 
on the subject, I could not observe that the employment of an 
acid, whidi had been highly chai^^ with nitrous add, by pass* 
ii^ through it a current of deutoxjde of azote, offered greater, 

Mt^-Genertd Sir Howard Dou^as, Bart. <St. on Military 
Bridges, and the Postage <^ Rivera m A/iUtari/ OperatiOHtfi 

j/hb passe^ from one point of a country to another, with fa- 
cility, will always, among a commercial and warlike people 
fccm a toinc of general interest for discusuon. In ancient times, 
one of the greatest t^tacles to the free intercourse of one ok 
tion with another, uid of different [«rts of the same kii^dom 
with each other, was generally understood to arise from the bad* 

■ I speak ber* of the mult of mj own ei^erimeiitg, wUdi wov not coiu 
ducted with on; particulBT view to ecenomjr ; hift I obaerre that M. nufla«. 

In foUtnriog out these experimeiitB,biu succeeded in converting half an ounce 
ofiodlne into iodic acid, by means of 8| ounces of nitric acid, widnK any bM 
qftoSae at alL—BvBtt. dat Seitnai, Oct. 1831. 

■f This article la to be conudered ai illustrative of the highly interesting 

and verj important work, entitled, " An Sssay on the Principles and Con-. 

' ttruction of Military Bridges, and the Fasisge of Rivers in MUitar; Opeia- 

tions." B7 Mqjoi-Otnetd Sir Howard Douglas, Bart. &c Socond edition, 


■ESS Miljoiv6«DeTaI 9ir Howard DmigfaH tM ■' 

tiess of the roads,' and the irant <^ bni%es <m'lai^e«id't«pid 
riven. To Mb cauae maj, ib some meanire, be aUribMod the 
slow progressed drilizaiion, of the cultiTstion of tbearKoBd 
sdences, and of the general difl^ision of nscAit knowledge.' A 
eonqueror did oo^sionally arise, infiamed w'ltA amUlioD, and 
actuated by' an - entfiuaasm for conquest, who ctinied in bis 
arm; men poBsessinga knowledge of all the stience 4^ the-age 
in which they lived. When a Greek 6r Roman g^n^rai 'had 
conquered a kingdom or a province, thefirstcareof acooqiiarw 
generally was, to introduce among the inliatntaAta a knowledge 
of the arts then known ; and to this cauie many of die andent 
£ur(^>ean nations owe the introduction of the first raya of intel- 
ligence by which they were enlightened. To retain p6s»easien 
of conquests Ekdy to be refcovered by former rulers fironl iitt^- 
tine commotions, or loss by the sudden ineiir«oii^ of ndgblxxir- 
ing tribes, a ready communicatiDn from one place to anotba*, 
and a rapid march of troops to quell any occasional insurrection, 
or hostile attack, would form the first objects of the conqueror's 
solicitude. Hence arose the Roman roads all over Europe, and 
particularly in Britain, where traces of their remans yet traverse 
the island from one extrenuty nearly to the other. If, in the 
course of these roads, a large river crossed its directioo, which in 
floods was impassable by troops, then a magnificent bridge was 
generally erected. There were thus constructed numerous 
bndgea in the course of a Roman itinerary. These have been (^ 
great advantage, even in modern limes, by affitrding faculties of 
communication that would otherwise have beoi unattainable. 
The methods of selecting lines, and of laying out of road^ have 
been lately much in^rbved ; therefore, the points where formerly 
bridges had been erected, have been found to beinjudidous; 
and, cDBsequailly, in countries where manu&ctures- and oom- 
nierce have beeti introduced, it has b«en foond indi^iebaaUe to 
change the' line of direction, and tO selfert new sitei'ftfr' Wdges ; 
though, in those countries' that liave slightlychariged iheir col^ 
dition for centuries, the old Soman bridges have continued b> 
be used with con^derable advantage, both for the purposed 'df 
commerce and of war. " 

Next to-t'he cdtnAiodioftB ntnation of a bfMg«, in j'ndiSo^ 
construction fomn an important cbnsideration. Aidtei'lAiiQ 

MiiUartf Bridges, ami the Pattagt qf Rivers. £87 
lioineB wece used in buildings loog before their fnt>pertiea were 
iDTeMigaUd on scientific principles. The iaveotion of the. anch 
ia frequently attj^buted to the Greeks^ as it has been discovered 
in several of the noet ancieot temples of Greece, but Dothii^ of 
the kind is to be found in any of the ancient moDUfseots of Per- 
aia «* E^pt. Moat of the apftrtments of tbe ruim of andent 
^E^ypt are covered with a single stone ; and, in the gaUeries of 
the pyramids, of which the roofs oomist of numerous pieces, 
thur peculiar coostructiao readers it hij^ly probaUe that the 
boilder was i^orant of tbe arcb. The Greeks seemj therefore, 
entitled to the honour of tbe invention. The arched dome, 
however, appears to have been invented by the Romans, in 
tbe later monuments of Italy, tbe Etruscan dome, find tbe Gre- 
cian temple are combined, aa in tbe famous Faotbeon, 
its most ancient form. 

In modem times, mathematical and mechanical principles 
bave been applied to the investigation of the properties of 
bridge^ X)r Hook proposed tbe inverted catenary as the .best 
form of airarcfa, in which all the strains would balance one an* 
other. This curve may be applied to most cases that occur, 
though it has seldom or never been used in practice. The cir- 
.cular arch has been, from tbe simplicity of its construction, most 
generally introduced. Of late years, however, the elliptical 
arch, from its convenience in keeping the crown of the bridge 
low to suit the level of the road, and its superior elegance, has 
been much employed. When the semiellipse forms the arch, 
this curve rises more rapidly at the haunches than the semicir- 
cular, of the same span, and thus, besides the advantage of be- 
ing lower at the crown, the under part of the arch forming the 
voussws^is bj.tb^t m^Simuch more capacious, and conso- 
guenlly better fitted to adinit a tree passage of the water id 
high tl^ods. 

Fertpawnt bridge have generally been c9i|structed of stone, 
fometimfs of wo9d i ^^3 for temporary purposes, of boats, es- 
peoaUy, itt^ilitjary tolerations^ which reqijire them to be ppeedfly 
erected^. ap4 aa <|nu;kly removecL Suspension bridges have 
been long used in India and America ; and of late years thejr 
have been introduced in Europe,, both for civil and military 
purposes, with cognderable advaat«^> These methods slioidd 

SSa Major-Geoerol Sir Howard Douglas on 

be all carefully studied, their respective merits well con^dered, 
mad their applicBtions most mimiteiy scrutinixed, b;^ those jnb- 
feemaoMy engaged m their construction. 

Besides s kaowtedge of the sdentific principles tm uliieh 
Ixidgei BreooOBtrUcted, an acquaintance with the gettCraMaws 
obMTved by fluids in ntotion is of much practical advantage to 
the ciwl -mi miKtary engineer. By a proper appKcfttton of these 
iam, the mostadvuKlageoHs postdon for a I»idge nray be select- 
ad, and its pennanence secured. On this account ^r Howard 
Bouglas eomtiienees his wixk properly wHh a section On'tlie 
larindplet and effects <rf ibe motion of water in rivers. H« jttsdy 
remarics: "' 

" AUbough ft li Dot the otiject of tbit woit, to con^der the doctrine of the 
notlan of wtter In cwuli and riving In TrisUan to the purpose* of eWit Ui^, 
yet HI nunj deduction!, higtilj importuit to our present nilgMti, navr be 
Bttde from It, that s few obBeiTBtioni upon t^ydnuUca will be foiwd * wwful 
introduction to the various methods of pasmng rivers in military (^t^tioni. 

" A knowledge ofthe principles of the motion and action of water, enables 
OS to trace that mode of vnceaiing qwrattatt wbkb occuiont dnaorillea j re- 
IpilalM the valncitj of the cnncM t fbnH cddlM, aad oetMcqnetitiy UuA* t 
determines the nature* of the sectioas at ^%i«nt parts of riyens and zanj 
other points connected with their local circumatsnces, essential to the proper 
application, construction, and securitj of militaiy bridges, and Co the calcula- 
tion of the effects or the delivery nf water, whether fur inondation, subds't- 
cnc<^ or force." — Pages J and 9. 

Sir Howard Douglas then notices ihe imperfect theories of 
Gtlglietmini and Varignon. The latter became proverbial attoong 
the academicians at Paris, for a predilection to generalizations, 
without a sufficiently careful appeal to experiments; iiiid even 
Belidor, who has been considered one of the most profountj'^ 
sdentific enj^oeers, adopts the same tfaeoiies in his Arcfiti^c/ure 
Hydraalique. The applications of these theories, however, to 
the conrses of the rivers Fo and the Danube, showed tKeir lin- 
pecfeetiona ; 4nd the Abbe Bossut and the ChevaKer Ctu' frgat 
were by that means induced to undertake each, ah"^i^t^'^Ve 
and varied series of espetiments in hydrodynamics, )bf ' tbe'iE^- 
preas purpose of imptbving these theories. ' iTie fornief '<& 
himself an eminent math^natic^lan, and applied' his'ei^fen^ve 
knowledge of that sdence very saccessfuUy to the s'iibjedf. *Iiie 
Eatter was aSNSted liya talented young officer of' en^neera,'!n. 
BtBEedi de St Honor^, who had been appfflttted his coltea^e 

Military Bridges^ and the Passage ^Rivers. 9SS 

.^tb^T.cqii^tnntfflyieriiaeiitalcQitrae.. Tbeiw]uileJ(>m«.ani«a- 

Btructive specimen or ttie mfithod of diBcwaing th« lain.<oC' A< 

..ture, )QT(dvediB.8,9eciefti)f coqtplic^ted.pbenoiineiw.^ TbeiChe- 

. y^^, j^u fiuatV 6ret «xpenp)q9to ««re> undei« ■■tlildM h 
the iddiiJApt^f qf tks rt{gtisa «i ^atetia pipes sod'OpeQ ouib. 

.F^m tihew.ll^ P'^QC^^ to^thowi.tbattbaiaMtwig^niM^la'of 
wqter iiri^ from gra^Yity and, the BudiUtty.of'tlke partt^H, 

, ir^clijcauesatlu fluid to.aGsuine«,l«v^ in.-Q(taM''ifewela, ordc. 

...temnnes jit to move to ttuttade where .tbeie ia a'deCectof pim- 

^pure ; ^nd, excepting ia very un^l tobesy ihtre is Kandy nqr 
declivity so small that water will not move in it,-^are all Owio^to 
the same cau^. From this reaawing Du Buat derives his first 

. principle, namely, that the motive force itfeac^ pariieie ^ malar 
tompoaing a ■naer.-ariaesaimpi^^vta the dope of Ike »urfae&. 

■■ Again, if a current oC water were not resisted by lh6 bed m 
which it runs, and if its fluidity were perfect, its velocity would 

.become more and more accelerated, to such a. dt^w-thatiits 
daatruotive unpetuosity < wmtld baeome JrreNBttU«. But- Ae 

'finotKni«f'{he water against the bed of the ri'rer,' which, by "the 
-c^ct of adhesion. Is communicated to the whole mass of fluid, 
causes a resistance, which, augmenting nearly as the squuaa of 
the velocity, at length equals the aCoeiemtiiig foroe, when Uie 

, velocity will remaia uniform, without the ponbility of inCTea*- 
ing, unless a change takes plac;^ in the slope nf the nver,' orin 

"the dimeneioiiB of the seetion. 

Fioni the foregoing reasoning, Dli Buat obtaiDa bis aecoad 

-. prinaple, namely, Jhi/ii when a atream Vfovts vimfgrnS^ythd it- 
ai^mc^ if e^fiol to tkf aeceUrafingJbrce. • ■ r 

It follows from observatioD, cciqibined wi A reaaowagj oa tjte 
nature, qf rivers, ttittt, in open c^ofis apd riven, the greamt 
ve}f>city is at thp^urfaoe in the ifiddM of the streasit aAd in 
close ,pip^, in the c^Ual.line q^ qxis,;^ethe meviog 
-wate^ is.Hiost. f-<p^(!,&onn al) caiiaes of renstance. If tbia vdo- 
city, tl^ip^pfi^^ti lo..<^ulate tbefonceorducharge'of 
the water, ih^.re^aiUa will, in b()tb caaefi,-be,eiTopflouB in.excflai. 
^the situation of the line or stream of meaii velocity in the set- . 
,^on varies with sq many (^irciimstanpea, that it ewwot b« j«a. 
daely, iiB(^rti^Hed ; thtm^j, (by a- series of . vfityi n 


290 Major-General Sir Howard Douglas on 

meats perform^ bj Du Buat, the following laws were dte«>- 


1. Id small velocities, the velocity at the surface exceeds that 
at the hottom in a very considerable ratia 

5. This ratio diminish^ in proportion as the velocity of the 
current increases ; and, in very great velodties, approaches near- 
ly to a ratio of equality. 

3. Neither the magnitude of the bed, nor the slope of Ae 
river^ changes this proportion when the mean velocity remtdns 
the same. 

4. When the velocity at the surface is constant, that at tho 
bottom is constant also, whatever be the depth of water; or t]ie 
inagnitude of the section. 

6. The mean velocity is an arithmetical mean between t&at 
at the surface'and that at the bottom. '" 

It is very difficult to determine the velocity at the botU)tt&1)y 
^periment ; and the proportion between it and the former cRitai- 
ni^es as the mean velocity increases. Du Buat determined "diis 
variation by experiment, and thence deduced the foHottteg 
rule. To 6nd the bottom and mean velodties when that nt the 
surface is Imown, take unity from the square root of the surfiice 
velocity, expressed in inches, and the square of the remainder is 
the velocity at the bottom. Half the sum of these two wHl ^ve 
the mean velocity. 

Ex. If the surface velocity in the. middle of ihe current^ be 
S5 inches per second, what is the bottom and meab velocity i* 
^m. V26 — 1 = 5—1 = 4, and l'' 1= 16 Ae bo«tom. vdodty ; 
therefore, g — ■ = 20J the mean velocity. As the meani ve- 
locity is most generally required, it may be found by the follow- 
ing rule. From the observed mtr/ace veioei^, in the tiihi^ qT 
the stream, increoied by I, suitract the square root ofj^ aur- 
JiKt vthc^, ihe remainder wUi be the -m^tu^-.vsiof^. _^ the 
whole aectttm. From the same cKample ax befonv •^k'f^miil^ 
= 25i — - 5 = £0^, the mean velocity obtained more readily 
than by the former rule. 

This discovery w of great importance, because the veloiaty of 
the surface, in the middle of the stream, is easily mea<ur«4r. from 

Military Biri^et, and the Patuige of Rivera. 291 
wliMi* bjr this rule, the mean Till be leadily obuined ; and it is 
the mean velocity that must be used in calcul&ting the diachargc^ 
supply, force, and every other effect of running witter. 

Several experiments are resorted to for the purpose of deter- 
mining the niean velocity of running water, such as a cylindrical 
rod of wood, loaded at the lower extremity with a piece of lead, or 
straight glass tubes, having their bottocas filled with small sbtrt^ 
to beep them perpendicularly in the water, and at such a de^th 
as may suit the depth of the stream. In absence of thoe, 
weeds or shrubs, having a proper quantity of earth adhering to. 
th«r roots, may be conveniently substituted, when great pred- 
sioD is not required. By using a Bufiicient quantity of these at 
different points in the breadth of a stream, the mean velocity vS 
the whole flowing mass of water may be obtuned with consider- 
able accuracy, fiy observing the mean time in seconds by a 
good watch, or half or quarter seconds pendulum, the volume 
of water that flows through a given space or distance in a given 
limp, may be accurately computed, which may be turned to 
conuderable advantage in many philosophical inquiries*. 

Fron a vast mass of experiments, Du Buat proceeds to de- 
duce an empirical formula, on the principles that have now been 
detailed, and at last arrives «t the following expression for the 
mean velocifyf ^rwimng water, ia French inche8,pertecnnd^ 

In which V denotes the mean velocity of the water in French 
inches, r the radius of the section, and b the distance, divided 
by the fall in the same measure, that is, if the fall be two feet 

in a mile, then ^^ = ^^^ = ^, and therefore b = S640. 

By r, or the radius of the section, is meant (he area of the 
Uwuverse section of the river in square inches, divided by the 
linear surface of the water in contact with its banks. Or it may 

■ In Sr Thomu Thomsou's Trestbe on Heat snd Electridtj, pegs 36^ 
A aqujNinaaii Ii made between the &1I of rain, and quantitj of eraporation, b; 
meana of the discharge on the Clyde. Though the principle is good, yet. we 
donbt the aceuracT of hit remit 



S9ft M^F'Geiierql Sir Howard Dougla;; on -. 

be defined to be the quotient obtained bydiyidiog the &(«» ^i 
tlM transverse wctiMi of die strenn expresied in square ineheiv • 
by the boundary or perimeter of that section, dhniniriied by tiie - 
breadth' of the upper surface of the stream, in hnear Inches. To 
those not very fajmliar with, alg^raical formuls^ it k ii^er . 
diffioiU to «pply formula (1.) to practical purpows) and. tbfae-^ 
Cffe attempts have been made to umfdify it tbr'^e use-'of prac- ' 
tical men, without saciificing much of its accuracy. For this 
purpose, RobisoD, in his Works on Rivers, vol. ii. page 44^ ^ 
ad(^ the second form of Du Buat, who, in p. 63, re4lKes it .to 
English inches, and it becmnes ' i 

V= /. T^'(!'"'V\ ^-O.B(Vd-O.l) ..(2.)' 

from which he deduces a table that is ea^ly applied. SirHow^" 
ard Douglas proceeds to a farther amplification, and in a note, ' 
p. 17, adopts ' ' ' 

v=?5«^' = 806.r^^ (a.). 

This, tbon^ less accurate, will be suffident £» many pnutical '. 

In page SO, we meet with some very interesting and useful 
remarks, relative to the action of water on the beds of riversae- 
lected from Du Buat. This gentleman found— 

" bj wperimmlg that tiw^mtert TBlMatiai.«hidi..tb« .Tu-i4Ht..^^i«t«ff«> 
expresBed bdov can r^dst wilhoul movir^, aie , 


Fine stmicl, ...... 6 iniucfl. 

Coaise, angular, rough sand, . . > ' , ' s '' ' I . - 

/Fine, the size of grain of annbeed, . ' i ■ ■* •■■'ii- 

enff«il,-|iaean,tlMeiBeofapea, i • . ■ •■ ■ 'vTin' v- 

iCoane, the dze of a bMn, ... , . _ . ,: M ., ;, 

Pebbles, an inch In diameter, ■ . ... 24 

Angular stones, the Bize of an eg^ '. '. ' ',"- 'W "' '' 

" iniese leiulta shew the -t^fi^ie* fr^uiied \o cl«»)U of, deepepjcan^ t^^ 
anj kind from anj deppait, or accumulationa of either of the subatandes '^ 
riven above; and for miDtary purposes, it maj be of service tdreiiilaij'flMt'- 
thi« fitrnlshe* UsefUI data to ^niible ua to Judge of )I« bmdati^bb^or'tM Mb'.> 
tam, irtilck it U not alvajv posaiblt to da espukoeaUl^y^ bj m'>vA■■t<fH^ln'^ 
Bucidg the vel«dty,of the ( the. »u*Qe,,(w4,,th^ rfifrr^ .Jfj^,, 

■ ' - ■■ ■■ ■. ■ ■■ . •■■■ ' -:• "•-■>!''■-( ■^ >t.. r .!'(-« m>i|(i 

MUitan/ Brides, ami ike Ptmage (^Rivera. SgS 
nBi» fpnge M) fbr thit *t the battom, or detennliii^ the meMi vdoctty wlUi ■ 
rod. Fiomtkb weBayfintiiKaDeesHiMte whatadecreMe^fTckidtjiMj 
htTC in PT"lqdng the bed more foul; or an increase in tike Telodtj of the 
cuirent in removing soft banks fomied of substances actuallj depouted. For 
rivers maj, after floods, become passable, where thej were before too muddj 
tobefbnled; or a decrease of velocity maj occasion a depodt of mud and 
alitse^ vlidw U mabefbre clam. Hlven which are not anj where findaUs 
p^pendilHiarJr aoiqasi mi^ sometimes be fiiund paaiahla in a slanting direc- 
tion betwew two dnuositiea. In seardung fbr fords, therefore, when, tana 
tiie size of the river, their existence is doubtful, the trial should be made 
Bdmewhere between anj two sInuodtiES, not &r distant from each other." 

To perforin this, it may in general be remarked, that the 
bank diould be first entered at about one-third the length of 
t^e reach, supposed moderate, not exceeding half a mile or a 
mile, below the first unuosity or convex turn of the bank, and 
oti^t to be turned slanting downwards towards the opposite 
convex bank, as much above it as the entrance was below the 

A Thus cToielng obliquely the transit of the current from ride to side, both 
e^ttcMnee vtU be avoided, and I have frequently found rivers fbrdable in thii 
manner, which could not be crossed at an^ point perpeadlcukrlj. The Spa. 
nirit«ra7 wtth wUchl served fbided the Esla, in th« campaign of 181^. 
without loss or difficulty, bj taking advantage of this circumstance; and in 
the same manner I forded the Douro near Zamon, and several other formi- 
dable rivers." 

The author terminates the first section with many similar ju- 
didous remarks on the passage of livers. 

' The second tection of the tmA is devoted to the properties 
of the pontoon, and to the manner of laying a pontoon bridge. 
A pontooHj it is well known, is a portable boat, conveyed on an 
appropriate carnage from one place to another, along with ao 
army. When a sufBdent number of these boats, with, their ap- 
purtenances, can be carried with a given number of soldius, 
they serve the purpose of constructing a bridge over any unford- 
able river in the course ot their march. In the British service, 
the ponlocxis are generally made of tin, supported by a proper 
frame. There are two kinds uEually made for oar service. The 
larger-sized pontoon weighs about 9 cwt. The appurtenances, 
cuMtkuUng thft.flKK>iiiig,&c. for the bridge, consisting of beitms* 
BtMfl|g'li«^"boards^-'oavsi' anraii(iuw« a >grapn«l,i J>olta^.rUnes^> 
pT^^'fi^ «eigh'ab«Mt'l« f^t Vand tbefdur-WbedCd ciH^ 
upc»i which each pontoon is transported wd^a also about IS 

294 Majoi-Oeneral Sir Howard Douglas on 

cirt. ; makh^ the whde 85 cwt. The ranaller, widi ita appiuv 

tenances, weighs only about 27 cwt*. 

The author gives accurate practical rules for determining the 
d^hs to which either of the pontoons in oqr service will sbk 
in water when loaded with a given waght, and also conversely, 
to find the weight of load corresponding to a given depth. From 
these, a table is added, showing at once, by inspection, the 
depths corteapondiag to given weights, which must prove ver^ 
useful to ipeTsons not conversant with intricate calculations, or 
when an eitimate of these must be made (juickly for any special 
purpose. The method of using this table (page 38), is exem- 
plified by applications to infantry, cavalry, and guns. 

" The comparative powers of the two kindi cf pontomi," th* autbor mUs, 
(page 43), " are exhibited in the preceding paget; from whui itappeanlhat, 
with the BBme wei^t of in&ntrj, the small pontoon is immersed 4 inches 
more than the other; and not being so deep b; 31 inches, the guniralei ai« 
then taHy S^ Inches above the water. ' Terht^ the adopUon of a medfwn 
tize, aa the only nature of a pontiMn, woald ba pit&raUe." 

The author then states the equipment of a full trmn of 36 
pcHitoons, in four divisions, but which our limits will not admit 
us to subj(nn. 

In page 48, the method of laying a pontoon bridge isvei^ 
fully explained, and methods of detennining the distance of the 
opposite banks of a river clearly illustrated. The author tbrows 
the investigation of some of his practical rules into notes at the 
bottom of the page where they occur, and by this does not in- 
terrupt the narrative. It would have been an advantage to 
have given a formula and rule for the trigonometrical operation 
also, though this may, in his opiaioH, be supposed to be. derived 
^m works on trigonometry. In some of these that are re«Uy 
adapted to practical men, a convenient rule or fonnula may he 
found, though most of our ordinary treatises ustidly ttu^t in 
schools are remarkably deficient in these particuiaia,; VknlBl. 
lowing rule would have been convenient for th{8i]Hir|ua& ,.'.ji! 

• To lender thew: Ba& ftom the tWtcta of shot piercing their sides, it Wcyild 
be very convenient to hare the interior cavity subdivided by tin tr^Terses, so 
that, though even one or two of the intermediate Bpaces were Me3ltWli Wa- 
ter, still the pontoon would not sink. To prtvent the pontMiM' fflBig.wlth 
water, a taipanling or canraM dect might be placed on mich of then as were 
moot liable to such accidents. 

L ,l,;<,i:..,G00glf 

Mihtary Bridges, and the Ptmage ^Rivera. 995 
To the log&hthmic sines of the meaBured angles A, Bi 
Plate I. Fig. 15, add the logarilJiiiiic cosecant of thnr turn, if, 
as in the figure referred to, the perpendioilar CD ftlls wttUw 
Uie triangle, or the logarithmic cosecant of tiieir diffenpoe If it 
falls without, and the logarithm of the measured base AB; the 
sum of these, rejecting tens in the index, will be the It^nrithm 
of CD, the perpendicular breadth of the river. We have.beoi 
thus minute in this particular, because, if the breadth of a riv«r 
is' not accurately known over which a pontoon brii%e is to bi 
thrown, the capture of a place, or the loss of an army, may b« 
the consequence. 

" This vaa abundantly proved in the paaeage of the Oaronue at Qreatia, 
In 1814, bj tbe army of the Duke of WeOingtoa, previous lo thebattieof 
Tovlouse. That city serred the eoemy as a double lite de pmi. Ita andeut 
wdls were in a very defeocible state, on both banks of the rivei ; and the 
comraunlotian between these two works was kept up by a good stone-bridge. 
The ^habltantl of the country had been employed, for some time previous 
'(•tlldt period, la npalmigand sbcngthening the andent ramparts, and in 
mounting the cannon on them. Two attempts had been nude, a few 6iiy» 
before ilM at Grenade, to pass the river above Toulouse. The first, at a 
place called Portel, &iled for want of a sulfidnt number of pontoons to reach 
' across ; there being still about 36 yards of river remaining after they wczc ^ 
placed in the line. Tliia &ilure arose from not having correctly ascaiained 
ttie width of the river at the place racommmded for efiecting the passage." 

This liiowa in a remarkable manner the neeesnty of deter- 
mining the breadth of a river with pre4»«6n. 
" The seated attonpt was made at St lUqiws, a town situated on the 
- toetny'shaiJk ThaopflcatJonb^aoatduefc. Aparty ofaboutfiftyin&ntiy 
: wava xwwsi .aproai, a^ they banlcftded thenselvea in a building fevounUy 
,-.pIat^ fbr prot^ing the iteration. The bridge was itmnediately emo- 
menc^ finished before day-light, and the trodps passed; but the.roadi by 
' whiiA the;f Were to operate were not found to be in a practlcaJdettat^.^n 
(Mcount of tfte prvrldus Tains, and the ttwps were ordered to utum to tbe 
-lea.bapfc'' ,- 

'It was next determined to pass the river below the city. 
The bbttMn here, as well as at St Boques, proved gravelly, and ■ 
none c^ the Bochors would hold. The cables next the left bank 
were, therefore, secured to trees; those next the right bank, at 
the suggestion of the Duke Of Wellit^ttMi, were made feat to 
, anchors buried on shore. These, and many other interestftig 
' topics rdftlive to the passage of rivers by means of pontoon 

:,, Google 

290 jVlajw-Gcn^vI Sir Howard Douglas on.,--,:/ 

briilges, are det^ed Whli great mmutenew, wllickQ|l[lDgt^ia^ltt^.-, 
b4u«BAri'to''aI1 en^eers engaged in simikr punuitiu . i ■■■ ■■- 

'the tfaird section treaty of Brides oi Bamn. TK« stifajeet ' 
is tnaoagied irith grsat akitlity:> The IVeftch' engineers thmtc '^ 
that the lUeiof the hatdt* sbo^d correspond with the, magnitude .; 
of.tJsenver. FA- the Danube, the length should. be 60.feet;: ■■ 
fbrthe Fb, SO fefit; for the Tonfwo.or. Two abmA '96 feet, ' 
Tith a breadth of about 10'.ftt!t and a depth at 3 feet ^r "^ 
H-. Di^figlas is.' oC opinion^ tiwt ^the two first are lar too Iod^. . . 
In. IsrgB-ti^ meffii sul^t to heav^ swells, deckfid lighten - 
are-very convenient ; and in some cuses, as in the paoage of - 
the Adour hj the Dqke of Wdliugton's mrmym 1814, they ' 
were ii]dispeosabl3- neeewary. A curious,' and we should think 
useful, ODBtpoaition for covering the tarred canvass ap[4ied to . 
pontoons, may be seen at pages 105 and 106. 

After having shown the most approved methods of laying 
down pontoon Iwidges, the manceavre -of withdrawing a bridge ^ 
endre is also carefully denribed, and every operation correctly 
explaiiied. The converse operation of restoring a bridge after 
it has been withdrawn, in both smalt and large rivers, is treated 
at full length, so aa to be easily understbod by engineers eni- 
ployed in .these services. Our author next illustrates his dif- 
ferent maxitSB by detailing the passages of various rivers by dis- 
tinguished military coinmanders. 

■■ The pUMge of tlia fiouro, in Mtf ISM, b^ LWteaaiit-Geiiml Sir 
At^tur Wellealey, vaj iM dted t a i^eadU and verj instrui^Uve exampte 
of wliat maj be effected by judioous nunbinatioini and amuigements, witk 
v«T7 trifling material meoiu, in fordng the passage of a river not properly , 
watdied and guardfid ; aad afaom Uie importance of providing columns of 
troops Intended for suoli ent o rp riae a l>y a'ftir rcnr boats, with which to com- 
mence inatantly an attempt that in^t ot faefw i ae be defeated bj the tnost 
obviout and simple piecautioaa «n Um pat of an enemj, — a practice deduc. 
tioa ma? well be enforced fVoin the &ct, that this very celdwated operation 
was conunenced with one small boat, procure^ by an •csidenul dicunntaiic^ 
* The wftole oFthraoperation is heautifuUjdeacrll>ed by Colonel Ntpwrlnlds. '. ' 
■ccount«f tke TcnttLstdar War. 

" After tlie idUr (^Gi^ on llthof Mk^jin wbich the Pretjch troops 
WOK %ced tq fto^doa thffix poriUsa, and tn tMir^ ■pii^aeAhj tAe"fiiitish 
csvali?, fint to Curalho and tbpn to Villa ^orh, <w(uite «a Opan6, 'Oliy'- ' 
CTQved the Douio by tlie bridge of boats, and, in^tb^. ^VtvibnkC i^' tluit''<''>^ 
conununloation. i f ■ 

" The reports muie 1« Kmi^BouMt oS Ot'Oteet^W'CS^^^l^Ji^.,., „ 

M^tmy' Bridget, and the Patioge cfSivtrs. SQS 

B^'tit^l^ Oe »knhal to beUsve th>t the pwMf» </tbe AmimmM 
be ittempted bd*w O^otto, be tumed hte attention mors pwtkuk^ to dH 
k^ {fcbodOp iiT«< <^acdDwit of tb« dlfflcaltr or Imporabilit; of effiH:tfa^ 

■ pMi^a|ip[]a|t«t9 or ■!!»*« Dpnto. WcUoby percalviBf; tbmt Soult had 
ootaiafPtedsuffidentjirecautionafiiE abpwn*gtli«niwr,aiidfi«iirpi:«veBtlKg 

■ pM^i^lkna being forced above Oporto, ieterwineA tovAe tba vttoqit 
dierKr'NVtfeF^U ]daii laid iriOi more cossuiiuiuite ablUtji^-iwiTer ^entltn . 
rrrqiitftl (kfth gintv meUigetiM and detennination. A amaU boat, which, 
bj tig ffiejl^ ^' n i^4iiTl4lwl &om Op&tM In the fright, had acddentai!; 
etca ped (be onie^ aeiz^I^ h«vii^ bMn 4iMt)Vei«d, OvIODel WMers giUanll/ 
npida q'k of D^ to paiB unpercelTed in ^ueat of oUieia, aad iMai rctnnwd 
witl'Mi^OrfinirltfgebaT^ In the mean time, a battery of «l|^tfaior 
tMt^ jimm «f iNdnUKe >»m esUblished on the height of Siem, whkh. 
fiaitiaa.nli(iitr*xMBiel7frveun)bIefcrforciDga passage there: aoiae U^t 
bw^ verb emt bitter up the riT«r to Beareb Ikr bMti^ tad a Mncddmble 
fiHxA'uarched toTarda Aviotaa, to effect a piw^a at Iba aaUeot'pattof (he 
riTR'iitv tiialt place. 

" Etulj in the morning of the 13th, some troops of Lleutenant-Oeneni 
tic EdFWd PBget^ (Uriiion w«n pu^ed anoss ibe river, from the upper 
pait'of the Knuqntj fomad hj tiie Sisna point, and coDsequentlj coDcealed 
baa '&e toirn ; and that gallant oOcer tockpOMeNlon ct a laige tUiUlDg, 
formkig « seminary nearly oppoijte. The Frend), corapl*te^ auqMlMd, 
Budcitlle gqeUest neitlens to recover that important post j In^^ t^ flirt ' 
batt^i^a wT the Bufl^ nippcrted bj the 48th and 6Gth raiments, under 
Hqoi-General Hill, (wh*, on Sir Edward Paget being disabled by the severe 
voondi which he received on this brlllUnt octMion, Mcoeeded to the cam- 
uundof these troops), maintained their position with the .n^Wt 4ttuaiiaei 
gallaoby, aotwltfaBtandiiig the repeated attacks mode on them bj itam boiitp ■ 
of tmops under Soult in person. 

" Some troops of General Sherbrootc'a fiviaioQ How began to p^ in boats 
which were recovered from the tartAca bridge ; and General Murray crossed 
at the adjoining salient near Ayiiil«L Tba paaage bdog thus eflbcted, the 
French columns were obliged to move in baal«, which was soon pressed into 
coDfuslon, along the Valonga road, under a destructive fire from three bat- 
teries under General Hall, now posted in the smtnarj encloBurea ; andifit 
had beeii possible to make the mo'tment Scorn A-rintB* MinewhU earO'er, 
Soult's retreat by that road would Mve bee» intcmipted,' and the French 
army ruined." ,, , . - 

W«.b*iJ«ibewi l>«Bai)t«d' to make this long qi(otatioa,.qo.,«)h 
count-of the jti6ttiictive lesaon which it g^vea on ipiUtsvj MntO' 
gy, when the operations, are, ajp^uct^iby me« «f sewBce atirf ■ 
talent; and, for tl^Jb^i^&t.of the -yaung eo^neer, we tiosg^e. 
ve cannot .,(J9„;betteEitbpp'(^»e the very able and jivdiap^ jk-. , 
marksrof.tbe JAaniedMidibr. ' n<('"L..' 

" 'Hie.d^t^ w^aa t))*v}^ctoi9 «£ lUada^-K^tfill of faisbiicUtJii on ' 
. Ute precautions .of surr^lknce and other measures, which should be taken to 

SB- Mftjor^eiwiHl Sir Howard DoMgias on 

petdtMa fUrpriEe, and to pnTenL » paa^ige, bj opi^ force, from bmng e^ct- 
ed ; and on the xaeuuie* nod meaiiB most conducive to tbe suucen of 6a.ta- 
pri*es«f thin description. Soult did not adopt proper meuiireE of aurve^haeb* 
No airangementi were made for a rapid 'couniuakatlDtt of MiWMiyiiw.'.hj 
rigaa]M,'\>y wUdIi mtnw oalj tlat fnimpt oenccob'aticai of troiqir on .Ite 
pofatttnf aUack ma be effected, on which the defence of a riTei-bank mainly 
dl^Mnd*. The plan of operation on the offensiTe part was justly conceived, 
well combbeil, and most gallantly executed. Tbe quick peneptlon of Soah^ 
error. In believing himself teeur^ and of Ut nc^lrct ef tkwte fMtkalitaarf 
meaiiirei wtddi he rMi^fat to hne tadopiod, were adnlrablj wtfd ivpn. . Tfaa- 
SaHf*Bi7 pr«ved u> exeeUMt Hit de oMtaimnicaiiim ; the batteries placed on 
thetoMASt haigfit commanded the ground in front of the tiit, so that, when 
onoe ^ined, the footing on tbe right bank could not Well be lott; andtitfr^ 
movement from Arlntas was judidoudlj calculated te Mnmal fiun the^ioM 
my an important optratloii, and to reap tfaC AiU«*tftuita of a ridMar.vkida 
all tkew wmfalaatinna richly d««erved." 

Such, then, are the spendtd achievements of a brave armjr* 
wtU disci{dined, provided with engineer officers of intrepidity 
and skill, whm ctHnmanded by a consumtnate geaeraj. Sudi 
riso are ^e diaasters of an array, however brave, wheu under 
the direction of an improvident leader. 

The fourth section of the work is occupied with the raethjiMjg 
of constructing Flying Bridges, and employing them for th« 
peosagB of troopa across unfordable rivers Sir Howard Dout 
^las^ves teveral of tbe moet convenient and effective modes of 
erecting the necessary apparatus for this purpose. The flyiag- 
bridge i« farmed by anchoring a floating body, such as a buoy 
-m or near tbe ocntre of a river, so that a bo^ attached to it bf 
■a cable or dnin may ieo«ve tbe action of tbe stream obliijuely. 
By this meuis a force is derived from tbe current, which moves 
the Vetsal across the river. The manceuvre will be n^Qre^as^y 
executed widi a tomewhat long cable than with, a sb^^vne- 
In great rivers, sudi as the. Rhine or tbe Danube, two lai^ge 
boats or vessels are ootninoDty used. On tbe sides ot these, pa- 
rapets of timber, wool, sand-bags. Sic. may be «pnstructed, as 
-was practised by Charles XII. in )m passage of the Duna in 
-1701' The adtbor, after having giving complete infpnuaticw 
on tbe methods of eonxtructrng and DHuaagiog flying-bridges, 
' tlldBtrates Uie whole with many intereMiog and apfiropriate eoi- 
■mpleH, which are of great utility to the practical eogin^ and 
' connMiiding officer. ; : . ,i , -i ' v 

■' ' These are cbKAydmwn ii»m' the Gamptu^s.<D£J)f«[)^i||ap, 

MUititry !Stidgea, and Ae Pauafie ^Sivers. SW 
the Arc^-Duke Charles of AuetrU, ssd the Duke of WcUuigh 
too, for which we must refer to the work ilself. 
' Tbe £filh se^on toataiAB a di»sertsUoD oa BddgeB or RafU 
oT^imbe)-, Casks, Air-tight Caw^ and Inilated Skins. In ad- 
dition to the method of constructing rafts, a variety of uwful 
rules for finding the contents of beams, and valuable tables rela- 
tive to- their contents- and specific gravity, are subjoined. An 
article on gua|^Dg, or determining the cajMcily of casks, in or- 
der to obtain their buoyancy, is likewise recorded. Inflated bags, 
made bfthe skins of animals, were even suggested by the Rbodian 
to XaOophon, to enable, him to pass the Tigris ; and Alexander 
hadrecounetotbismotbod iDtHxlertopasstheOxus. JUvytellB 
US that some of Hannibal's Spanish infantry passed the Bbone 
by Swimming, with the asastaace of inflate leathern bags, and 
Csesar informs us, that the Spoiiish light infantry prMtised tkm 
method of fjaasing rivers, as is at this day employed on the Tfc. 
gris and Euphrates. Canvass-bagR,-laakered over with s.sctla- ' 
tion of caoutchouc (Indian rubber), have lately been pn^osedi 
and in India, basket-boats, covered with undressed hides, are of- 
ten employed. In short, the extent and variety of informatitm 
relative to these more temporary expedients can only be duly 
appreciated by those employed in such operations, to whom the 
examples will prove invaluable. 

Our attention is next directed in section sixth to Carriage 
Bridges and Suspension-Bridges. Carriage-bridges are sup- 
ported on four-wheeled carriages, and are found to be very us^ 
ful in expeditiously forming temporary bridges in small shallow 
rivers and canals. Sir Howard does not rwommend the.Poni> 
vdant of the Aide Mimoire, a French book similar to his 
own, but therB is no doubt that the ordinary carts and waggoqs 
of a country may be sometimes found very useful for such pur- 
poses. A (^rriage-bridge far ii^utry, two-aWaaat, was madfi 
across the Douro, between Toitlesillas and Toro with U»e 
spring-waggons of'the army. 1^ bottom of the river was faaid 
^td even; the average depth being from three to four feet. 
The wagons were placed laagitadiniQly, at-distanpes fluit«d ^^ 
the lengths of the planks that bad been collected -for fioorii^, 
which were laid from waggon to wa^^n, th& -twl ^anti fcont 
boards being taken out. The same thing nay be done with the 

SOO U^dtn^kcoBBl ^ Howud.Do^^ w '^i 

comtnon two>wlieded carts, l^-meiely Uyiag titt «iAk' olf^(he 
ttuftsof each cart into the hodj cf that in froirt of it. 

The leioved author next eDteniiitoftiniaik«,«tear,'and^tl 
aooownt of all the drcumBtaKSi attending the eotlstrtwCitHi' Of 
Snapnisido-bridges. ' '' 

■ I* a IsBned nUe, at pages 307, 308, and 309i Ae atitbdr^ 
deduces the equation to the catenary, both is A'OOApIete andln 
BB ftpfmadmate form. ' > 

Let Jt be the depresrion ef the middle t^ the chain bfctoW tfie 
horizontal line, called generally by mathematiciajia the abspie? ; 
t/ half the horizontal distance of the points of suspeii^ioiii ffc 
ordinate; and « (Hklf the lei^^ .of the cwrra ; tbcn, if ' the 
vri^t of a unit of the chain, such ad one foot, be b>, the 
wei^t of half the chain will be w ^, and w c and to t witl be the 
tensioDs at the middle of the chun, and at each point of suspen- 
^on. From the#e considerations, and the properties of the ej^s- 
pended chain. Sir Howard arrives at his equation (6) ; or, 
8y* + a:' y' a 
6a: -2a>^6 * 


and, x=^ + (7) 

To these we shall add those ^ven by Professor Sir John LesUe, 
from which every thing necessary to the construction of suspeOi^ 
non-bridges in all ordinary cases may be derived; thp^a^^ai^- 
€St simplicity *. Taking the distance between the pointy qf sn^ 
pension equal to d, the depression of the middle of thi^,^a^ ^e. 
Ipwihehorizontallineequal toA, thelength of the chain eo^^ 
^,and the strain al the middlf of the chain, or paraio^fei; of ih.^ 
carve, equal to ^ ; tben, ia all practical appIi«attoaB'Wher»4b»: 
deptesnon is small compared with the length of th^ UiaJti;^^t£^ 

flruns at points of suspehaon, 'dr a, == VjL +,S * r. ,-• . , fi^) h„- 

.- . ■ : . : -.■ Jl- ■■■•:■ ■-, f, -M-f.l ^.-J 

^.s.,;t..,.,i..o..w.i, .,ii ..,..,i: .r-.«,.»='A.-*.itA-.i*i-..w<10>'.u 
jl -lira iij(f-i. am nPi.- :-, ;_■ r kri-H ad. ^c iSi^diij.e ijcuioJ^iisnwusiJ) 

■ See HktamU (tf Nttunl PhiloM^j. 

:- ' WiiieBtfttit appe«n, that Sir Jditi bt% by thM^WB^IifioBtkioa 
of complex formulKi rendered an Important Bervice to praolicrfl 
engineers, Sir H. Douglas applies tbe» fommlsr, or rules de- 
^v«fl Iroffl tbedi, , to the oonsuuotioa of a rape bridge^ vbove 
the span is 130 feet» the depresaioD IS feet, Uie wngfat of, Um 
Vt4ge HjrioAitd 18,490 lb.,' aod'whcB lotded mdi iafaatry 
34.P90fe- iFiomvhicb^ • 

1. The whole length of the curv^ . .. . ■• U8«»:&eL. 

.3, >re<gfnaf(i««fiH)toetiMibrl(l«BiudosM» • ■ . PM^-IV 

3. Loaded, 366.4,1,..,, , 

t. Strain at the lowest point unloaded, .... 16726 

■ 6. Loaded; . . . '. . , . . 4M52 ... - 

4. the gtctfeat ttrtin,' or thai at the hl^iaat pcA^ un- 

loMed, . . . , , . nau ■ ..-■ ' 

7- Loaded, . . , . ... , . 4872) ..„ .. 

5. The angle which the chain make* with the vertical, at the 

hi^est point, . . . . . '. . W 32* ^ 
' Now, it appears, from tables given by Sir H. Douglas and 
others, that — ' 

A^rope, 3 inches in diameter, or 9.12 in circtmiraKNice, iriU 

auat^ a weight of 2T3M lb. 

A rope ofS inches in drcumferenee, .... 11088... 

^Hence aix floor cables will nistain .... IMIOO ... 

And the two Buipeniion cables, £3176 ... 

These are the tensions which the ropes can safely support 
irtfAouf ritik; and, consequently, the floor cables alone have 
lAuodant strength to sustain all the strains to which they may 
be subject. 

The author then adds, thai — \ 

' '*' One of the principal arches of Trajan's Bridge*, across the Tagus at 
Alcantara, btCTing biJen destrojed by the French, Lord WelBngtoa fbalidit' 
rmeauKij t» Uteec that a communioatitB acroB« that bHdgs slwuld be n- 
ertablidied, tbztl)epiupoB« of bringing up artiUeir and itortaitom BwhiM) 
fbr the attack of the iorta at Salamanca. Timber of sufficient dlmgirions'to 
efffit this could att be eaaUy pn)<ured,--and indM^ My X{iiriUatlofl.iif.tlait> 
material to make good nich a fracture would have been extremely difflculti 
and required much labour to be performed on tliespot,in&shl«ilnft&anifi|ft^ 
and setting up die work ; mi vhick, consequently, would have given wain- 
lug to the enemy, befine tka eampidgn opened, of some important movement 
in tl|at garter bei^ intended. - To, tBviate theae difficulties and obgectlmi^ 
(Lieutenant-Ctionel SturgeoB, <^ the Koyal Staff corps), tbe officer aent in 

tlwtttla-IHgcsdbliwgik. ' 


Jpiii'lBlttoiB^lweparttiiatia for tiili ofaatiim,—tiai*ot StBHSaffniiu 
and fTMt practicil knowledge— hafipU; deviaed an a{g)lkatiaa of cudi^ 
whkh mi^t be prepared aecretljr, and even in privacy, at boj disUnce fiimi 
the [dace at which it wai to be used, and ea^y tmuported thither entire, 
and apeedUj atretched acroM whenever it ndgltt be require The broken 
Hth left ndd wM about 100 feet wide, and between Ita ihattered butbesMa a 
pweipltoiw chaam 140 feet deep. Acxom thi* abjn the ilendec - malsftal 
^■ead giaeefully but tecurely. A work so slight and temporaij, contrasted 
strai^elj with a masdre stnictuiB which had stood for agei; but the h^py 
expedient made good, in a few houis, a way over nilns of vast account ; and 
fermed an auqdelous opening to the impmtant icemet that woe now abuut 
to be abted on the great Uieatreof war." 

The Kventh and last sectioa treats of Bridges, on Tr^tks, 
Files, Trujs-framea, and other applications of Carpentry. Thu 
■ectioD is managed wiih the same ability as the other parts of 
the vtJume, and cannot fail to be liigfaly useful and instructive 
to military engineers, though, from the length to which tlus ar- 
ticle has already extended, we are reluctantly forced to dispense 
with an analysis of its contents. To this is subjoined a valuable 
^pendix, on the strength of timber and other materials, of great 
importance to all descriptions of practical men, of atber Ae 
civil or military professions. 

We now terminate our examinaticn of this most useful and 
interesting volume, with Segur^g graphic description of the pas- 
sage of the Berenna by the French army under Napoleon, in 
his disastrous retreat from Russia in 1812; and the andwr's 
judickniS' tcflecttons on the pro|Hnety of keepmg.i^, even.ia 
peace, a om^ oi pontooeers. 

" When tfa« Imperial Guard b^an to movc^ the ttraggUuB dlqiosal in 
the Murounding woodi and viUagea, who liad not taken adyan^ige^tif tl>e fint 
nlriit to croM the river, now nuhed &om all sides, and fiocked to the rivei 
aide In one dense and confused mase, whlcb soon choked up the narrow ea. 
trttices to the bridges. Tlie feremost, impelled by tUoie whD&IleWedt'««tt 
driven upon the guitidt and potrtiween, who were ^ieuttmimg. to 'knp a 
f lagi epen &* «ur tnnpa. In sqirBi^ these I'^T'^ ,°f .^^R*F| : 1*^7 
wv» trodden under foot in the mM^ others thrown ugon the floatb^ Jce, 
and great numben, unable to regain the bridge or to reach the ikitie, petidied 
in the river. The efforts of Napoleon and his dficen to r&^sUMfA otder 
Were'OMtralUqgi Se gnat was the cattAidoDy.tkat Arn^waa vtOMM^ to 
eleat-a^WMiBr era ftr the Etnpem;^lMfut ij ,r^^|^th 
neady. 600V of tite giuid. uudv Sej. The tioofg continued to. pass till the 
morning of ttie 29th ; but multitudes of the stragglers, benumbed with cold, 
were unable to av^ themselves oTtUs last op^ortaiMy s'laii-*bbM'9 in 
the morning. General EbU, seeing the Rusdans advancing, was ohUgcdte^ 

MtiUarif Bridges, attd ike Paitage ^Rlvert. SOS 

'fite'tff the hfiign, latvlng vwt quBntiUei rf Manmnman, attlDnjr, ^id 
laggflge, — thOUBondi of men, and maiij womoi and ddUien, to the nmey of 

' the atemy, and to the rigoura of a mercilew climate. 

" Napoleon Is said to have ezdaimed, when he heard that Tchaptite (tke 

' KuMlan General) had abandoned hU portion — ' Ah 1 J'^ tromp^ I'Amliali' 
Bitd eertsin It is, that if Tchitchakof had not descended the Bcie^a, dlncUag 
Tchaplitz to move in that direction likewise, upcni the nippotltioD that Nk 
{Joleon would not attempt the passage above, his fiirtber retreat would hive 
' been intercepted there. The escape of Napoleon was tfaoB so lotich owlfig to 

' Ae feresigfat, ability, and enterprise of General 'Ebl^, and to the liitelUgeDce 

' and experience of the corps of pontooeers, bj which Naptrfeen wa» anabled to 
profit promptly by tliis mistake, that these details cuuot be too fbrcUil; dted, 

. M ipinof of the rasl importance of our keeping up, duiing peace, the nncleui 
at ^eaali of a corp^ which cannot be ibrmed upon an emei|;eDC7. The multl- 
&rious matter contained in this book all appertalDs to its duties, and nuj shov, 
that i^ by Inconsiderate economy, we reduce the establidimeDts in Which 
only these executive quaUfications can be perfected, we shall unqnssttonahlj, 

' BDBie tiMe or other, have again tn aicounter difficultiet^ such aa tbqse which 

. ware expwienced in all the early operations of the late war. It is a mge 
■yif ^jm In state economy, that, in proportion as cimatitutianal, political, or 
finHnfial, ^iv^umstances render it expedient to reduce the numerical fbrce of 
Its army during peace, it becomes the more necessary to maintuu the erta> 

' iiJiShnicats In which practical science is upheld; and no on^ I think, who re- 
flects upon the verj extensive, important, and elaborate attributes of the 
Cerp* upon which such services as these depend, can doubt the expediency of 
preserviDg such a nucleus of it as may insure the retention at little cost, of 
what has been acquired in a long series (^arduous and expensive training on 
actual service." 

' To these striking and fomble remarks, which carry oonvic- 
don to every mind capable of just refledjon, little need be added 
by us to recommend the protection of our seminaries to public 

' notice. If we allow our scientific institutions, either naval or 
inilitary, to be injured or suppressed, we may venture to pre- 
dict that the country will pay dearly for the sacrifice. Euler 

' and BougHer were honoured and rewarded for their theoretical 

'- ntvestigationB of the principles which should be observed in 
shipbuilding and naval equipments, and ^eir e^rts have been 
long apparent in the superior qualities of the vessels in the 
Fi'^ch marine. Before the establishment of our naval and 
iniliEaiy coll^^, their engineers were equally superior to ours, 
though they were perhaps inferior towards the close irf the late 
war. It remains with the government of the country to deter- 
mine what must be our future status as engineers "in either 
. service^ 

.. ( 9M ) 

HxperimenU on tite Expaimon and Conh-atfimt- ■ ^- Jiritfjiy 

Stana, ^ varialioas o/* Temperature, By, WuLLiAJtl H. 

, C^JEU>KTi,)FTT, XJtuteoaDt UoU^ Slate* £;ngiR«W8*^ ... „ 

Bik, ' ' ForUJdamtiNeuiportllarboiu; March i2. laZ2.' 

In the progress of this work, we have bad occasion to use con- 
siderable quantities of coping-stones taken from different locaH- 
ties, with all of whicli it has been found impossible to ot>taih 
tight joints. The walls on whidt these stones ivere placed harp 
not undergone the slightest change ; and notwithstanding they 
were laid with the greatest possible care, and their jrants were 
^lled with^he best cenmits that-could be derised, yet, at the 
expiration of a few weeks, these joinits were broken up by fissures 
which extended from the top to the bottom of the copng. 
These fissures were supposed to have arisen from a change of 
dioMnsioas in tbe ct^ng-alonsa^ Id owaequeaneiofitbeiMditefy^ 
TirfatioDp of AtouMpheric ttsmporature ; and, wMi dnvietrie 
weertaia if thq total amount >uf o-auking could be mttributed to 
^Ufroouse alone, «wnes of experiqienta was instiwted b; prdte 
ffT-CoUwl Toitm, aodiConUntiedjfjom lStJ» Augnstl88d to;2d 
JuBfl Ifidl. Theoircunrttanoesrcaitneeted irith theaa expci6- 
mentt, ma well A3 their nMuUe, youwiUAod atd>j<^ed. Cofcnd 
Totten requeata jatto DODsoukniMie tbam to y9U,'siipp<«iflg 
that you may find tineat of Buffi(»entpnfctiDal importaUcfr to idfr 
•erve a place in your Jou.racil. ' ' . v ^ ' T 

Theae expentnoita wene .nUKfe Dearly at.the aametBi)^ Ofm 
gnuiUe, linwstont, and aandsioae, the luoda.of vtxns-iiacdiSr 
tile. «(^ing ; md for tht& purpotea piepv of baeb "va selected 
in such s< lOsonsr tbu .the', thtee' pjeata wen vfteutly equil 
kagths. ' The granite has a fine grain, nof acraipaet kcxtUre, 
end 'was taken from a boidder at tbe head *)C: Bdnand'a Btt^f 
the limestQite i» vhite^ haa w Sue graraed cryslalluc stniisbim 
andacQMUpMDies.priioitine roaka; itwas talcna,&otn,tb&qiumif 
of the Sin^«i(ig;gtate PiiaoD, New York i tbe^^andstonewi&oat 
thequariws isCliaUiam, Connecticut, and th9 old' red 
wniiitDnQ foEiaatiot, aecoidrng to tbe iRev. Edward Hitchceek if 

■ ftliinui'i Jouniitl, ToL xxjt. Ko. 1. ApHl I^ 

t HatwiftefcnaU'tbe'sibartbM tf tMOaaneMfaMtlinexlOtbeJMk 

Experimmta of* tStaiSag Sbmta, 905 

it has a. granular atructiire, rather coarse, and its cement is 

■ i^l^TtfUMrtain fhe ncact Imgtha ofthese pietes Rt the ditferent 
taiipei^tlAM proddeMl hf exiMsure to the weather, tb^ee alone 
being important tor our immediate ol^ect, and for the purp>wes of 
construction generally, the measurementa were made by mea^ 
of a white fine rod, with copper elbows at the ends, embracinf^ 
the stones when applied to them, as represented in the glietch. 

'AAis«i»4levatira or vntioal section lengthwise of tiie 'stone 
no be measured ; B B the measuring rod, with elbows ]> and C, 
nfJlhin hamnendeopp^, irmly secured to it. ' The «n4t Z> wrt 
^WBys adjusted to the same part of the stone, by sKditig thfod^ 
a gtioove in the o^pbr guide F ctmenied to the st«me; the 
4)bow C was adjusted in like manner by sliding through^ gmovie 
■aihe piece E, also attached to. the stone. The elbow Ghat 
^s^ ftgrootei throu^ which' the wpdge W may al^d^ b^lzoo- 
«iMy umdsi' the guide E, l>etween the elbow G and the fcttme. 
This wedge b^ng graduated as a diagonal scale, shctw^ by tJM 
flU^Bnce wbfi^iit Mta«d,' the difference biftweetv the 1«igth of 
tiibJiaiBisaniig rodand that of the stone. The expimiion of 
^htfaleasBRflg rod being kpown,- the length of the stime could 
W^oAlatcd in tlecimals, viz. the English standard inch: ' ' 
t"' Aj^fotMciwaacuk id the 3t<»ie^ in whidv a thermometer was 
f^ittd'acaacb 'mka^remeDt, and, being cowred, Wa« suffered 
tvfowtae'SiiDey is cnder to asoeet^'tbe temperature of the 
ViaaH'i The tenpnvuirc o£ the measuring rod wasaBsumed to 
bcfliKtiof the open' bir to vhii^ it had Ueeti eiposed. 
^.'A^JIiil^daec 'Olid ICaler^ Meobanict, We how, a» a meaA 
fMCfMHll^eiresiikr if C^Ttohi Katerand.Dr Btrurej for the 
linear expansion of ^f^l.wpodp ip te^ms of its 'tng^b, fot one 
dfccmvf Fahr^it. \U dfciwat .(iQ00OS«d;^arB^l)y.the:£4tn- 
voL. XIII. NO. XXVI. — OCTOBER 18S2. "■ ioti'^lc 

WS' Limtetiant Bartlett on iA# £i(>pafMbn 

4urgb Bticyclopfledta, arHcte B^qiata^n, weflnd tiie detdnrtl 
.0000094* to express dw aanle tor hammered copper. From 
^mediita, the actuttl'length of themeasuringvod wasedmttitled 
fx leach etp^rimenti knowing its length at A)*f dnenb^ 
"Buf toabridge the calculation, the difitrence in leOgtli'^enrMA 
the stone and 'meaBuring rod, as ahown by the wed^ W,- was 
-sobstracted from the kngth of the rod, before making the re- 
duction for the temperature of the latter. The length of the 
Copper part, aad that of the wooden part, were calculated sepa^- 
tattly, on account of their difierent expannbilities. llw re«llt 
of this odculation is the foDomng Table. 

























































































. 94.0230 



















33 . 


































































































tt is probsLble that many of the discrepancies here noticed 
were owing to the hygrometric state of the stone, and perhaps 

and CoKbtaction ^ SuiUifi^SitMei. 407' 

ionpMl to iin{ierftetiini« in the meaniring apparatiu ; bat ae the 
Jijr^romotrici slate o£ the atom VM not recordad, ve oao tidu DO 
wxxHiBt of It ia oue deducticaw. These discrepntunes, however, 
mtt'have but HOe dfeot upon the general cewit, lor it will bfe 
observed that there is always an iDcrease in the kngth of stone 
ier KB increase «f tenperatUKy when any two experiments are 
eomid«red which ars 'removed from each o^er by AeTend de- 

. From tfae.facta ascertained concerning the espuiuen c^ other 
aubMracea, we may assume that the expensioa of stmie is uni- 
form ; and that, within the range of our experinMnts, eaoh of 
the Aones increased in length by a common difference for eack 
degree of the tbamometer. To find an approumate valile for 
this common diffirence, say for the granite, we 8ul»traat the 
first observed length from the last, and, if these experidients 
were accurate, the difference .0470 would be ninety-six times 
the common difference, ninety-six being the difference in degrees 
between the extreme temperatures : the same operation b^ng 
performed with the second experiment, and that next the last ; 
the difference J0^8 (the difference in lengths) should be eif^ty- 
«x times the common difference. By thus comparing the ex> 
' treme expenments nf those which remdn, we obtain the fdllow- 
iog Table. 



1 and 31 


+ .0470 

2 ... » 


+- M»a 

3 ... a» 


+ .0*83 

4 ... 28 


+ .0428 

6 ... 37 


+ .OMl 

6 ... 26 


+ .0406 

7 ... 38 


+ .0466 

8 ... 2* 


+ .0»7S 

9 ... 23 


+ .0180 

Id ... 22 


+ .0063 

11 ... 21 


— .0001 

la ... 20 


+ .0125 

13 ... 19 


+ .0034 

H „ 18 


— .0034 

lA ... 17 


— .0034 

Tstd . 



1108 LieotCTiaot Bardfetl on theEkjmnnon 

Wehafre needed the ^xteenth" expernrien(,-bec»iMe wetatt- 
not employ it wfthout unng some otlttt< experimeDt ti^fee, tbtn 
ffviag Ae latter an tandue influence, aiad "heeaxiae'&te nitfdlfc 
term should have the least tvtight in detehoitm<g tti^ cbltaaMh 
difference, ..;■-, 

By the above tri^, ire find, aa thti obmtiittled l^t^ndf of flU 
the experimenta, riiat .8708 ShouU he 811 thaes lUe coirrtoob 
difference ; and hence ihe common different fat doe d^g^ if 
Fahrenheit is .OOOiSSS inch. Notr, astumfaig 94:0$ Jorih«es te 
the mean length of the granite, which is sufGcientlj B«ir, we find 
the linear expanuon for one inch of atooe for each degree (^ 
Fabrenh(9t to be -^^ = .000004025 inch, ftndfbroM«>M iMli 
expansion wonld be -.0000679 td an ineb. By proceeding in 
the same way with the experimentA on tbe Ather atones, we ol>> 
tain the following results : — \ 

"—a.'*"- ■ 


Gmoite . M.OG 
Marble . 93.44 

■WlitePlne . . 
Haamend Coppei 




To apply these results to the case in quesdon, let us suppoie 
two coping-stones, of five running feet each, to be laid in mi^ 
sammer, when ihey have a temperature of Q^" Fahrenheit; in 
winter their temperature may safely be assumed at zero, m^ that 
the total variation of temperature will be 96*; and if we ^pose 
these stones to contract toward their centres, which would be the 
most favourable supposition as regards the tightness of the 
joints where a number of these stones are used, the whole length 
of stone put in motion by a change of teinperature would be 
live feet. If the coping be of granite, tbe distance by whi^h 
the ends of the stooes would be separated, in consequence o^ 
one degree's variation, would be sixty inches, multiplied intij 
.00000482S ^ .0002893;'and for a variation of 96 degrees, this 
distance becomes .0002895 x 96 = .097792 indi, giving a crack 
a little widef than the thiclcnees of comnmm pmtebttwd. Fw 

snij Coatraiition ^SuUiiiuff Slotted. 206 

marble {bis «^k would have a widtb of JDSiSii oeariy twim the 
^hivkness of coaiinoa pasteboard; aad for aandatone .054014, 
BE^ly three times the thickness of pasteboard. These cracks are 
.iwt only distuictly visible, b«t they allow water to paas freely ioto 
the heart of the wall. The mischief does not stop here: by this 
■Gonstaitt modoa-hsck and Cbrtb is the cofuog, the ceoeat, of 
.whatever kind the jonta mig^t be.sade, would be crushed to 
ipowder^ aad in a short time be totally washed by the mm- fnm 
.JU&^plaGe> leaving the whole joint open. 

476MmitiQiM an SaUtu Cr^aUiaation. By Hehbv OookV, 
. - M. D., Extraordinary Member of the Royal Medical Society 
of Sdinbui^b, Comamaicated by the Authw. 

Xii crystallizing small quantities of saline substances, it hasfre* 

3uent1y occurred to me to observe, that coDcentrated warm soVi- 
ons may. b« cooled down to the ordinary' temperature of the 
ajtmoEphere, without depositing crystals. This property, ibb 
^pertaining to sulphate of soda, is noticed in most of the sys- 
tematic works on chenpstry; but it is usually stated that JtJs 
qecessary to defend the solution from the pressure oi the 9tn)o- 
^here, by removing the vessel containing it from tiia Sire* whilst 

'" '\ Mifttfl "f '^^'l>|l't'"", """^ iininw<iatpl y ffirlfing it ^ln. 

Gay-Lussac*, however, has shewn, that atmospheric pressure 
does not necessarily induce crystallization ; be found that if tho 
liquid was covered with a film of oil of turpentine, it might be 
cooled without crystallizing. And more lately, FrofesstH' Tur- 
ner-f- has succeeded in the same experiment, without the use of 
oil, ", by causing the air of the flask to communicate with the 
atmosphere by means of a moderately narrow tube. 

I have made a number of experiments on this subject, witli 
many different salts; but I have never observed any relation to 
exist between the pressure of the atmosphere and thf occurrence 
of crystallization in supersaturated scJutions. The solutions 
have been cooled in vessels of ^1 forms, from a narrow-necked 
flask, corked or not corked, to an open jar, or even a wide basing 
without their crystallizing. 

'810 Ur C^dea on SaUw CtyttdiBjiation. 

Id other eaaes; ftben the solutioB has been' {tfaserrflcl ^Nin 

atmospheric prewure, the experhneot has aeTerthy«te<'failin}^ 
and die lait has crystallized. It requires some ddiracy to v»a* 
duct the experimeRt successfully, and mere protection frMn dM 
Btmospbers is no aeeurity agBiiut its Mting. And when it'saD< 
eeeda, and a supersaturated Bolutioa isthtn captained in aWsAii 
cloead flask tx phial, I have TouBd it as easily excAtcd faMnFystak- 
lize by.ogitaiion without removhig the cork, as wheQ-it !^ 'aos^ 
buned in an open vessel. 

Atmospheric pressure, then, I do not consider as a co»dtt)<m 
at all facilitating crystaliizaticw in a supersaturated solution. 
Nor bare I been able to determine what cmcKtMHiB ar6' Decessaii 
ry. CrystallitatioQ often oocurs without any cAvkms cttnae. 
The slightest agitation will sometinies produce it; even tbatoc- 
caaoned by stepping across the room has appeared sufficient 
Sometimes, ^ain, the solution will bear to be briskly agitated 
several times d^ly, for many successive days, without rt-yst^-' 
^ng. A crystal of the same salt as that in solution wilt gene-' 
rally bring pn crystallization, when placed in contact with the' 
Squid ; frequently, however, it fails to do so. As a gene^' 
rule, the stronger tfae solution is, the mor£ readily it ia excited' 
to crystallize by either of these means. ' 

Sulphate of soda is the salt most frequently quoted as pos- 
sessing the property of resisting crystallization ; but it Is t^ no' 
means confined to it, or to any genus of salts in particular, aiKa- 
line, earthy, or metallic. Yet there are many salts of which I' 
' hav^ never been able to form supersaturated solutions ; ' If tftere^ 
was the slightest excess over the quantity soluble in cdd water,' 
it was invariably deposited on cooKng,' however carefully khe' 
expnimeiit wast conduct^], and whether dr not t^e'solutStfn was' 
protected from atmospfceric pressure.' . To' this peciJiikHty I' 

sbalt aiihsequently revert. ■ ' 

In stating that crystalllzition Is qdlte indepetldeiit of a&no-' 
spheric pressure, I do not advance it as a new aiicdvery'i (mi" 
Mtheo- as a point requiring additional investigation. ' Thelear.' 
liest mention I find of it, is in Gay-Lussac's paper pubfished lil 
1819; but be seems to'have considered' some protec^oA neces- 
sary, and employed for this purpose a stmtum tjf cat of turpen- 
tine. Guy.Lossac also fomed RupetBHtwUvd adtUiMtS' with 

Aw* MT'ftw df^iwA salts, ehewiDg tluu the property w» sot 
[««MlifU' ta Uife sfilpliatR of aoda. 

.^ R«|Wrtory of Aiti for 1818, vol xzxiii, is apftperby 
P^'UjPe„io.^bicb.are(l«taited somecunous experimeilU, t«iid> 
UtfiT: to ilb^w ^twt ne^bTe electnnty has & poirerfuj effec^ ia 
[WQi»Qti)i£ cryslaiUzalion. H« <^Eat^ od sulphate gf sods, 
aod^^BP' Mrivte a.% the conolouoR that '■'■ nather the tjiQOiical 
(WQfjertiieB.of tjie atmosphere, nor Us preswre, have aoy ivSw^ 
ence on crystallization." 

: .g^jtw-then, Itfr t^rahatn (^ Glasgow has rendered it-probable 
t^ifJie dtfq)K»l prt^tertiefi of Uw atmosphere, or at least oC 
VHDO. giues, .are caf^le of ipduoing crystalluiatiop. His espep 
Oowf^tB rPUoneted in ibjowing up siaaU quantities of ga^ 
tbrougji utarcury ioto super^aturabxl solutitHU of, sutpbAts (b^ 
aodflk find he «oa^Mde» that. " air^etenqioeettMa crystallMatuw^ 
of R^Mrsa^urated *ali(ie..8olutK>p% ,by .dissciving in the wsterr 
af^ thereby giyiqg a shopk to the feeble power by which the; 
e^cew of salt is bold vx aelutjon" Ammwiiacal ga^ was fotind 
iwet «t%aiHtt. Th« ftxprnments are detailed in the Transac-, 
tfo!w,of the Royal Safety of {:diQbMrgb for 18^ They alsoj 
move <!rystallijsatwn to be iqdependeDt. of the pressure of th& 

NotwithsMtndii^ tbese authwties* the doctnoe of abno^e. 
m pr^uure nccasiooipg ajtstaJlizatioQ is yet very geneially re*, 
G«t?e(l, «Dd.iwy be tnaced in.aqme of our best work^oD cheniisr. 
try. Thqre is a certain appearance of analt^ between tbe coib-^ 
««^n of «ta$ticgas>iD^ a liquid Uy. tbei force of Hrqag prc;ssurer. 
iiw4 the.oonvera«> of a a*pffseto«it«)d liqijid into a .crystalljiift. 
aoilidjjy tbpBEUpe qwapsi which basgrpatly tended, to giv^curT, 
u^^uidFilaus^ility' to tbe latter dot^ne. But the analogy ia. 
deficient in one very important pai^oular. The liquefaction fig. 
8 gas is attended witli an immense reducljpo pf vfdume;; whilst iii.. 
tlMa^4^%<^w of a liq,v.i^> the.v9Jmm«-)iU^rgpea.ltttle^rpo 
Glhftiig«>. These ^a «I»q fflrouffistanciip in -thf iq^da |o£ ^(per^ 
QHH^iqg whipbtBayMTeibwo.iqMirunientaliiq perp^vta^.ilhih 
efFfor. When rfie cor^.or stopper. i« remoTed from ,a ,clo(ied 
Yfmdi ooalwiipg.a sHper»mr»ied s(oJujlioo, 0, '» very liable;,^ 
QQM^c« a fow.atpiwi impwoep^bte, ljrngi»«Hs.(rf .*rfi, tj^iite^daTt 
twhpd ffon ibe senk, vrbich. taUi«g4oto,.^be ,)ifyiit4 bfbiw, in^ 


31 jl Be Ogdeo on.Sa^ae CrystaBiiiatUni 

me^itfely lexdfe ^rygtalligatiofi; inid>thuisifi««d)Jj^t>e4qp|to> - 
Bed to result from the entrance «f the ajc. Hut aupponng ^Hh 
there can be no siispinos of aaeh. an ioaoeunw; on the partk^ 
the operator, the agitation produced by the tatriwice of 'die- air 
may, of itself, be a sufficient causet The vi^nwe itf the atno* 
^herif vibrations caused by the disshargaof apietol-isHUffieienti 
to break ordinary window^ass. Evpry ffoe ktigm- tbe loud re-- 
port occasioned by punctwisg the oonoay^ -bladder {trutiag Ht^. 
upper surface of a vessel exhausted by the ur-pomp. Of the* 
same character is the sound in tlie cooHnoQ opertfioD^ opcnla^ 
a bottle of wine. The efferv«Bcefic« of cban^)m;iie hy a«niaEt' 
blow on the top of the gkss with the palm of the hand, is a IW- 
miliar illustration of a change in the coostitidioo ef a liquid^ 
QCtaucmed hy a violent shock. In like maoDer, the aooWssawi 
produced on tbe surface of a supersaturated liqoid, by the sud»- 
dea admisuon of air, may he amply aufficteat to induee' eryalal- 

Besides the circumttance of jH^ssure not bdng essenbtl to- 
crystallizatitHi, nor certtun to produce it, there ara other misor 
ptunts in the nature ol supn^aturated Bolutions, into which Z 
was led to inquire, and which it may not be deemed irrelevant. 
Ip mention. These, as well as the £rst, will be suffioently ex- 
plained by the following desultory experimeots. It is necessary 
to premise, that, in all cases, tbe solutions were unprotected 
from attnoapheric pressure, except vhae the contrary is express- 
ly stated. 

. 1. A bot B(dution of carbonate of soda nearly saturated, sad 
contained in a six-ounce phial, was allowed to slaiul in a bot- 
saniLbath until the whole was cooL Twenty-four hour* aftar- 
wards it was perfectly fluid, but being gently mored* it solidi- 

' S. A strong solutioa of sulphate of soda was filtered whSst 
hot into two phials, one,of which was corked immediately, and- 
the other was left open. At the end of three hours, the ctxiteota 
of each nasained fluid, and each became si^ oa bmngagkatcd 

. 3. A strong Bolution<^ sulfate of soda was filtered whilst bot- 
into an open jar three inches in diameter. TveDty.£>ar houn 
afterwards, it remained perfectly iluid. A crystal of the nine 
salt being dn^ped into it, the whole stdidified in a few seconds. 

Bt Ogiea m St^ie dyrtiHtbaithn. SIS 

/IIWM «iqierfH)ciits ctcMly demonstrate that attniM^wticjnres-' 
Mre abiMr'dm aeC prodece crTXtalRtxtroD. 

Oviog'to its remarkable property of lietng' moet soluble at 
the teMporatUiie of lOO' lUirenbtfit, stflpfaate of soda h particu-' 
larij mil adapted fbr tHeie illastrstions. IC doea not require sd' 
gradual and vM*ef«l '« reduction of temperature u other salts t 
the Btdution may be ottered at any high temperature near the 
MH^ ponit,'for ithasno tendency to cryataMze until ft haa^ 
fSlUen to 106^. With many nits, CrystaHiKation coitim'enees 
«ith'the )eaiit ttediMtion of temperature, ftnd if the attempt is 
made-to filter Aar wdutions fully Bsturaled, they immetliate- 
ly begin to t^yslalKze. It is therefore necessary to Use thetn' 
somewhat iMder saturdtion at the txnling heat. 

'4. A gtKmg station x>f muriate of lime was ckMtid Up whilst 
hot, and' allowed to cool. It ms several times flreely a^tated/ 
without produdng any efl^t. On exposing the phial cont^n-' 
ing it to a blast of cold wind, it crystallized. The same effect 
may be' produoed by dasftJog cold water on the outride oTsTes- 
sri'ContainiAg a supersaturated solution. 

The sectudon from atmospheric pressure in this case had no' 
^bct in pre? mting crystallintion. 

5. To asoertmn if a supersaturated solution was (Apab!e of* 
esbibi^g its propn: chemical qualities without crystalllztng, I' 
affta heated and gradnally cooled the vessd CMittuning muriate' 
at tiiqe. Into the cold supersatunited solution thud formed, I' 
let fall two drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, which pPo- 
Aaad » aoUd emst <^ sidphate of lime, and evolved fumes ^ 
nnistie acid, but did not induce crystalliuilion. 

■&. Tfae last experiment was repeated, shaking the mixtiir« Mr 
tbe. tima tbfr'BulptnirJc acid vax added. It did hot, howevn^' 

. T'DeeootpositlttD was likewise effecited byaddkig ox^te-of 
atmaonia to the same solution. No crystaUsation was pr6- 

8. Nitrate of barytee wMdrr^ped into r supenatoratcd txAa. 
tian. e{. sulphate of mngtieria, forming tailphote of- barytes md 
ritnite of magatm. l!iie sc^ution did not eryst^ffiz^. i' ' 

The oaiy revolt of fte four Idst etpcsianeatir is, tb dttir Aat 


tbe-KitsiB lapenstMBktad aolutkos ooniieue (onnrtcheitftal 
elecbrc attncdiHi, withnit aecaemilj Teveitmg to the stetoufi 
ordinary aeturation. This might have beea conBidered doulit- 
fiilviio eamequeuce :of tbt feebte affinity by whioh dw' salt, is 
Wd' U'fldntifH]. • A dt^ of aleohol, bj omabuBag wtthdw 
Ti>il". wipiritii w niKlinij nnri fhitn CT^ufnHirfn thri Thnln ' 
, It .Q«»iTQd to me'thtt.tbe p«ouUsr confldtHtiea fl£t sup^^ 
■Btoralad wdWiooN' oa wlui^-depeode' timt power of -r««lU8gi 
QiyitallizatioB, migbt be completely changed by the admixture 
of a postioa-*£ ntothst^wBter of tbe Minie aidt, -whkfa Ind af- 
l^'dfd oyatals ;— as (Jm fermentHtive praotaa is vdabliEhed by 
qieans (tf a Jemneot, ma iiqutd capable <^ oadiavgwig fennenn 

0, With tlus view I again- pvepamd the lUpenatuBated sqIu- 
1^ (^ Btmate of iRse, and poured into<it adracliiii of mothcr- 
mterrirf tbe juune edit Xbeve^BeLwas brisUy agitated^ bMtma' 
cT^talUaatioii succeeded. ■.-'■ ■ ■ ■ , 

. Henoe, whaterv may be tbe molecuUr itate or oonBtttuttm- 
of a supersaturated mlaiioa, • it is quite axnpfitiUe in nUKtuzs^; 
of.jn c<«a1tN()»^on,,witlt a sotutioB simply saturated.: 

In some supersaturated st^ulioos cryatallteatioi] ptnceeds sloac't 
tfi -in otjiiprst especiaUy if coBcenlrated, it procMds bo rtpidiy 
vrbea a- nwdfius ii. (Stained, a» to give the idea tt^t the tfi^xion 
tioft to crystallize is commuiucabed ii»tatiuiMouElj, like an ehcb. 
tHc ebocbt'ta die whole nMMt. Tbe iaUoiving!«3Eptfmeiit, bow-. 
evorv proves that this 'i»nat'tbeaaie. -. ;.^-|, 

': . ,1)0. An iBvaperatiag dish was pvepftml -^ith « ntfienaluratcd 
■olotioa of acetate of soda^and l^t&rttreiity-fiaur hours in ai' 
aUteof'perf^qaicacenct. AbFyBtalwastUen'cBrefuUy'drqifed^ 
il% at-oaa^Aai When abeat-one^otn^'or tbtiniass'had'«r^a^ 
lized, aportuxi of the remaining liquid was poured iBlioiwai)thev>> 
lreBiid,;wb«ei{t ooatiiHMd.guid astil tbe nextititayr itvddowns 
ttfen ciyciallized by>4be BMoe maass. -. i 

11. A vessel contuning supersulphate of :dumina«nd pittaUf 
wb&di bad already been the subject of a^riuent, was heated 
in a «UKhbath until aH the salt vas jredissolvedi 'OacbaiUig, 
about one-nhuA t^- it aXystaUived ; the rest resadM^^ntl tmUl 
it. was shidEcn. > . ■ > ■ 

D,a,l,.t!dbvG00glc . 

IhOgiW o»SaUMCtyttalHtMhti. 91S 

-Tlriff'expBrioMDt' shsws Ibtt t^ preHDCC of cryttaii in a 
BUpenatiuated wtuUoo does not necesBari]; detenoine crjrtak 
luntioa, ' 
- 12> 'Riere.daH not appear any limkation U'tfantiaRwhub' 
a fiapenfttiuttted lolatiDD may Tsiain ita- fluidity. Pho^batelrf 
soda wki^ in that state for tbe space of devta days,. thai 
dukea for sereral minutMt aad poured into another veMcl. Jt 
continued perfectly flind uatila oryStalwM^ dvofipMi iote it. 

X bare olfeady stated, that with some salts I have never suc- 
ceeded HI forming supersaturated wJutJous, tlie excess boii^' 
always deported on cooUi^, The mode of determining this 
property may he varied in many ways ; that which I generaUj 
adopted, and found tomt cooTenicnt, was the following. 

Any given' quantity of a sell is dissolved in a qumti^ftf 
distilled water less than is requisite to form a Bstnrated solutitm 
when cold, but greater than is requisite to form a hot saturated 
sdutictij : The o^afatioa is pevfermed in a gUis^^k ovetf a 
dwrcoatfiw, aod'^fter being kt^t a few sewwds «t a Jiwliog' 
beat, the solution i« filtered through paper into another elwan' 
fluk,' ip wbieh it is agun brought to a boibMg heat. . The .fire 
is, thep Qovered wifh ap iron.p)»te, by which ftlQwty Md 
gtaduaHy extnguisbed. The. vessel containing the s^lutioQ ir 
suspended ovef the -)Foa.pIate, and within an ioch of it;- every. 
ibiogiB'tban tefbitodiatufhed fOT t^ or ttret«e,hour6. .Wihm 
opld, if the salt Js^fouad to have citysfqllijied, it. 19 owing to 0Q«, 
of. two«a»Bec; is a i^px^ of ihe ^p^fiffipnt, the 4alt: 
bei^'rcapable of fu-ming- a iup«!)M4tLVftlied solut^ ; qr tJw.palt-:. 
ia <w» <^ those wlneh «Fe incapable lof fWBlan|i in .th^i^ «.t»t«i 
To remove the doubt, the vessel and ita contents mvst^ha agWOV 
biated aadeoDled) ithis.iHQca»8:j«urt,.be. freqtent^y.r^jwtllli; : 
aui if ibeie i» uAiformly adepositioD of itw.mqKrobiJDdMt.p^ 
it tnay be cooehided that it iftiaoqiaMs i^ fpnwflg a m9H«fU»r. 
aitiiimA\iiion.i ■«tMlpwipgjiija)lfB,a5jjUiiisthpK-,»lt»piife»rJiM^ 
I ^f iuft^^. 8H[}ei:^urat»d s^Hi^iHi^i the t9^W^ tbmO'ifhn^ 
appafvi«caiwblp,o|"thp5sVate:— '■■.,,..:.} 



Br 4%clBa>M JShUue'OiffaiaiiKMtiM. 

Carbonate of soda. 

Jgyte^ pf wdaw>d pgfi i h ■ ' > fliilplwt»of inp g nM i»-: 

Sibontf of BQda. Muriate o£ lune. 

Acetate of soda. Muriate of barjtes. 

Mio^hate oFsoda. Acetate of feai 

TnTMTaBite i^potiah. Sii^dMtaanniK.' 
8niwrndfih»l*iif«luaiJ]W«Mdr(4«^ «Hl|ilwte «f mae. ^. 

SUnJ^teofpotaah., _ Saiiflufe M,'!opjfer. ., , . . 

Tartrate of potash and fatimoaj- Bicbiomate of potadi. 
Nitrate of ammoDia. 

TuLxil. ■ • ■ 

jfturiate of potasL BlcUorlde df mercutj. 

Nilnte of potaA. - Nltmte of barftM 

8al|di^e of intMh. MmtoUrf anwin i fa . ; . 

[3Koinate>of|>DfaaIi. Sulphate of a>nmc■^•. 

ChWate of potadu Sulphate of magneBia and^otaah. 
IJTitrateof lead. 

' "hi die fnogMBB oC these ex|)eriiiieBU I couid lot *ytid ub- 
flonrin^ dut lAie prineipal ofa«racta»tk difib-enee bstweea thei^ 
iwo sets (^ nits waa, tbiit Cbe fir«t eontaia water .of crystBUMA- 
tioB, whereas tbc Hcand are anIiydrouB. So geiterally troe ifi 
^s> tbbt Hvas with rforae Hitprise tb«t I fauad ^ndironuteof 
potatifa,«D anbydBHis-s^, toform Rtf excep^oa. OfaU^bera^ 
qT tlie soltB in the &rA taUe, the cry^talf are t^dfEtUa- Is tbe 
MCQlid t^de dwre are two cxcepdfHit, sulphate of atoBOBfa* Oad 
ni]f>hat9 of maguttia ia>d potash, bodt af which ai« ei^etalUtw 
hydrates. These three exceptuMis (floA numy t4l)er^ mfty ^((3t 
4)fr fiHHtd) aitttil tiw distibdtiofrhelwvw hydratcd afi4 uiliy- 
dnMts salto,' stid:iaTalidat& any general rule wluch afi^viig 
&njttbtAoa it. 

r WU(t opetalmg oa B«l^te of noia, I fireqwrotly o b oeHw d 
a depodtion of a portion of the salt, in the form of bn)tiH4 
faTttupnent .CKyseftls^ which beaww vhi» ^agd :(^>squv l6t^ 
CrystaUiBaliw was induced in the' remitling liquid. T'hiB pk»- 
QonMnonifldaccribed by^ Mr S'aradAyia the Jawnal of 'Svimiq^ 
]K^K»<ib(i.fiilda the crystals t»to»tMD-«^«qdy,BWte»d of 
4Cit,fttMlM.fif' water of crystidliaitfiMfa ■Mr'K«mdiyrgefett» j^ 
Ibdr^roducUcn.iii cloied vessds only. Xhavegen^i^y expoi- 
menited with open Tegmb^^opd all the isataDces I baT««mftbww 

a-Ogdro^.JMaw.QytoBifttfiMi. JSXT 

been in such. In aae case the veas^ was an open dish four inches 

. iSutcthBiieJftjinothBr pbenomenofn 'in the habitudM of salpbale 
of soda with water, which, so far aa I know,, bm not beett iw- 
doed by any writer. Under certain drcumstances, a cx>ld super- 
saturated solutioa baa the power to dissolve an addiiioDsl qua»- 
tity of the crystallised s^t. Xot only does U dissolve it» hi|t 
the solutioD is gfMtly faaHtated by aj|[itetion, nnless, hy some 
C8{Hicious incident, the agitation should excite it to crystalliss^. 
To illustrate this 'point, four ounces of sulphate of soda may be 
dbsolved in four ounces and a. half of hot distilled water in a 
glass-flask. The superfluous salt must be allowed to ctystalliin, 
md the vessel centJunio|f botb salt and niotber>water is te be 
placed in a disb' eontsnin^ sand, and exposed to a temperature 
of 120° or 130* F. in a common kitchen^ven. When all the 
salCwitb the exception of about a drachm, is dissolved, the 
flask is to be ranoved and carefully cooled. If this is success- 
Ailly dtne, it is aot aecMapaoied b^ any dcpositioa of ofyatals. 
fn iHb stdge, the flask oantaum a cold Mipenatnrated KdnttN^ 
libng with the pmtim of sdtwhkfa rem^iied undissolved by 
^e'bgal of' the BaDd-bsrUi'*. It is mw Io be geotly hwlined t* 
•oe tride, soastvetevaHs^viradisscilTOterystidsintotbs saptf- 
i^M-jJHrtof'tiieKqtdd. Aft«- sUitdtng- an botir or two in tU» 
|KMtionf tho imst ehvatcd <part' of- the sflk will have been d». 
iKAvei^'^ond) die vessel baiog' iadiaed in another direction, aw- 
vftherJpen «f the Ball is in its turn raised to the superior part of 
^ttle'Utjaidi'atid Aww dissolved. 

-'■ -tit tepeaytig the experimcDt, I havn generi^ fiiak«i die 
"VCsSCS tmskly, "and fotmd Ae-c^su^ to dssoUe with much 
greater rapidity in consequence; thou^ this verya^tatton ha* 
iWttKtines itidaced'C^suUJKBttaB' b«fan the sokoion bad been 
•Wmt^lMed. .■■-■■■■,,.'.,. - 

'- -'*Fh(n,' a loltftioD Bf siriiAnH'al BOdaiBon thamsaturated, auA 
^ifdcb has stood two, thvee, or^four days in a ooel room, actual* 
j^eoBtiiAie»to«xnt a solveat power OB Boh ofilsownkind. -^ 
' I< Was suggested to me, that the mdissolvod aeii might not 
'fabMiIphat* 4rf Boda^ but aone stoodantal impttnty, sdtdile Jtk 

-' -^ F^ttnUUng another pnof Qtat the presence of oyrtida ia a nipenaturat^ 
Matla»dKS t«t DC<)cssutt7 dttanniB* chrWslBntldii. ' ' l< 

_ Cocwlc 

tvirtBeoftbe ki»wo puwer powMod by ssUirated soiutionk to 
' diaacdvea little of another different aalt. I bad no reaomi to 
<dtnibt'the purUyeflheMltwhidi I eaiployedy a*d X trie^ viany 
diffateBU ^wciiiteiw, and always obtained the laina eesult- > 3^ 
put it still further to the tsest* I prepared the S9luti4» as above 
-deuribed, bod wbra cool, pcvred the supcrsatimited liquid in- 
to aootber veaiel^ and crystal lized it. I . then r^urnedi the 190- 
ther «Ater into the flask oontauiag the undieeolved salt; J»uttt 
had no aolvelit efl^t on it. So that the v&y same a^ .vfaiiefa 
would hsTe dissolved in a cxijd sopersaturaled sokition, irm io- 
«oli]Ue in a scAiuion simply saturated, which is \ht eooditiaDiaf 
nothtfr water after the depoaitioo of cEystalsL 
. . Doubtless this power of solntioo potnessed by the superealu* 
ratad liquid, has its limits ; as .the fintstage, or simple satwE% 
tion, is tfafl limit'Of the solvent power of c<Jd water ; but what 
is the limit of supntaturatioo, yet remuns to be aacertaia«d^ 
-And the inquiry is beset with some diffioullies ; faf, indepeod- 
eatly of the great liability of strong aolutions^ffminlyloccyataL- 
Um, the process is sometiineB interrupted by the depqcitioii ,qf 
the bnltiaat quadrangular crystals, containing e^ht prcfxirtiou^ 
«f water of cryBtallisatioD. Sulphate of sods may' indeed b« 
oinsidered capable of three stages of saturation ; the :first is tb*. 
Hmit of the solvent power of cold water; the second ia the lU 
qoid which has depouted quadrangular prims ; and the third 
cMttoins ft still greater quinbiy of salt. The next ^Eperiment 
fflilstrates these three stages. 

13. A supersaturated solution of sulphate of tddof with a pot*' 
tion of niidissolved salt remaining at' the bottom of the vei^, 
was allowed to stand at rest for four days. It was then'UisUjr 
agitated, and most of the salt was dissc4ved. All this time it 
Jiad existed ih the third stage of saturation, althodgli not at Uw 
limits of that stage. The next day then had been a' consder- 
aWe depoiitum of brilliant and transparent erystids. Thtf^ie- 
mldning liquid was now in the second stage of saturation. Th» 
whole Was again repeatedly shaken in the cdurse of tbreei' betfrs, 
without effecting any change. Two hours afterwards, the liquij 
suddenly become nearly Krfid; witboHt any apparent cause ; tbd 
smal] quantity of fluid now remaining was in the first Etiigie^ «f 
saturation. .■■.-i;V 


Dr Ogdeii'on Si^e CrysUdkxaHoii. 819 

: I-iriw cduM AtlcQlMe witli any onUraty on ^e. ftheoeMnAK 
whldl these e^peritnente would present. Th«y Were oft«n teCtl 
AiiltR-in, ftfti} it tffts enly by ft«quent repetHion of. them t)Mt 
their i^Multarittei cOUlitbc obtfei^M). The A>lkfwing )« dQ iA- 
MMice ftf tlrtirreg;ularitie8 I Hiet with. 

24. A pound of crystaUi2ed scetste of sdds was fused' In its 
mterof ctysHallization, and poured into a oleftn gtsMnebort 
Six hmin aherwards, ft was cold atld perl^ly fluid, with tbe 
«'xeept)ott of a ntass of cryBtttls about the sioe of a hesel nut, 
whic^ lay at the bottonv of the retort, and it fVw nm^er mMMfe 
Vhlch were floating' in the liquid. It was sef er«l timn shaken 
without its shewing any tendency to erystaltise. A small cry- 
filal of the same «alt being then dmpped \n; the eatire mass be* 
caflat edid' In h few Blonds. The eVohilibn of sensible' beA 
which attends the transitioit from the liquid to tiw BC^idattKte, 
*a* in this case very oomatderable. ' 

IS. Sulphuric acid sufficient to decompese the aoMatfr df smft 
was then added, taA the acetic acid was drawn off by distilla- 
tion. Water was poured on the residuary sulphate of sodn 
when cold. The next day about two-tbwds rf the salt had di». 
snived ; but on attempting to pour it out of the retort, it sudi- 
d^ly crystallized, and became a fiemifluid mass. 


On the Magniivde ^ the UUimale Particles qf Bodies ;, fn- 
Jkutry, Ammala not Jbirmed immedaatelyjrom Dead Matter ; 
EietraordinaTj/ Mmuteneis <^ the Ir^usoria ; Improved Ar, 
ra'ngemf^ ^ the Infutoria; MarveUaua Midliplication ,qf 
ihe,Ii^fitspria ; EstimcUe ^tke relative vaiite gf iAe Microsj 
copfs of Chevalier, Ploestel, and Schiek. By Prof. C., G. 
£ig( Berlin.. ., ,, , ...■>.. 

Magnitude qf Ultimate Pa/rtktes.'^WiKhlia these few years, 
the «IoiwstB ha.r» bfcome pr*tty confident ip their doctrines re- 
lating to the minute particles <^ bodies. They have not rested, 
satisfied with viewing atonia.i(«slupitiea of ao infinite degiee. 
of minuteness, but have sought for appro^iaatiw ouiDezical ex,; 

S20 l^ag^ude^Vl^maUParmeg '^Bodies. 

pretsioiig oflbdr mBgniludes. Hay, many bold HieoretiAal' ex- 
perimenters of the present day seem to hare fall^ little 'stiblrt, 
in their oftn imagination, of in reality seizing the ultimate ^#- 
mentE of IxxSes, and of reconstructing thbm at pleasure. 

Newtmi long ago taught as to believe diat the elements of 
«oIour were of tolerable magnitude. ' His words are, " Could 
the jwwer of the microsct^ be so increased as to represent ob- 
jects at a foot distance, magnified 600 or 600 times above wbat 
they appear to the naked eye, I imagine that We might discovu: 
K>me of the coarser elements which enter into the formation of 
colours ; and that, with a microscope which magnified SOO&or 
4000 times, we might recognise them all, even those which form 
the black colour.'' Supposing that Newton Ii^ correctly esti- 
' mated the natural power of human vision, his elementary parti- 
cles, as appears from the following observations, would, (or the 
red colour, not exceed s minuteness of judco"' '° diameter, be- 
tween which and yii^sg'", all coloured particles, not excepting 
the black, would be included*. But it is probable that Newton's 
estimate of the acuteoeas of vision is below the truth, when these 
elementary particles would become considerably larger. But, as 
has been already observed by Herschel, in his Optics, it must 
Dot be forgotten that Newton, made a marked disUnction be- 
tween the elements of colours and atoms, as well as later philo- 
sophers, allbough he does not expressly say so. In the above 
passage, Newton does not speak of atoms, but of colodrii^ par- 
ticles. — {Traiti SOpti^ie, 1704; lib. ii, part iii: Ed. Franc 
1720, p. 357.) '"'*. 

The smalt magnitudes which have been required for the ex- 
plication of the phenomena of light upon the theory of undul&- 
tioD, are exactly enough determined by calculation, but they 
can only' be considered as hypothetical, not as really observable 
quantities, as the whole theofy, however great its probaUlkjr, 
still requires more complete demonstration. The smallest MUgth 
of a wave of light on this theory, calculated from the most fiiaci 
data, does not exceed IB g'ong", or about ^oSsis" Btit, tfi["tlie 
particles of ether must be considerably smalls- thkn their'ttttSi^- 

■ Tbe general reideT ma; l>e infbnnei^ that 0* is tlw marie Ibt Itii^ tf* W 
Une or lath part of an Inch. ' ' 

L ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

latfffjr .iD9^i«ii, thb. puBibw. gives, s ■,taiigibl.e,I««t.f«' Jibw" 
|Dafiii)uiB> aliiiough somewhat 4i)biLrary,,aixcl therefore one .^- 
jjiK^aioD for theic. ifgree of tniniueaess.. If ve y^ftn. tp <^iiflu(^ 
ihe minufcnpss pt tbew elementary pvUcles Jrom the, wan.t of 
^jf^^tpf highly. c9tldeiiE^ ^g'''* ^ oiA&seg of .ether,, the hoiits 
of these maxima. t^ust:be coDsidembly extended. All these^ 
boweye^,.a(e mere hypothetical mf^itudes when we come^tf) 
egress theig in Dumb^^ , ,,„ 

. Tkn coloured pbenom^ja between glaEMS wbich «re Dearly, }^ 
^o^iacU .permit lil^ewise of Qoine inferences regarding the mf^ 
i^Ui^!^ «f the ao-cajled el^.ments of colour- Ne^.top has alreody^ 
;^j^ at tqvitf",, the saiallest interval, which gives a white ra- 
lo^^, which is a little more thqn. ivmo'"* ^>i>d Haiiy hpB calcij- 
^te^i from the.different refractive powers of mica, that a plat^ 
f>f. this nibstance,. vhich produces tl^ ^me effect as the above 
^et of air, muBt be hjb'bbs *>f a millimeter, or vBo'nBB'".in 

, With re;q)eot to solid inorganic as well as organic bodies, 
Robert Bro,wn'& niicroscc^ic measurements of the years 1827 
and 18^9, fixed the size of the stnallest observable particlea 
.which he saw in active moyemeift, and of a globular forqi, at 
*bout (jJbb" to j-,Jon"a 0' ft'oi" Bo'oa'" t" aiao'" ip <i?anieter. 
J. F, W. H(3C?chel, in Uis Optics (1829), says, that he has 
Ken.bodJes, through an Amician microscope, magnifying 3000 
timesi but that he was far from supposing that he bad at all 
m(:(;eeded' in resolving bodies into their constituent atoms. , 

_I^fiiMix:y 4n*mdl3 notjbrmed directly Jrorn dead matter.— 
j(C. P.uiqafih the. chemist, from' his own observations, piain- 
$aiped, .jn 1825, that the elementary globules of dead orga- 
nic matt^ ^ight be seen and counted by the aid of a good 
suDTp^wpe; that they formed qt1|er larger bodies by the simple 
VW9i9k W^L augmi^tation of their masses, which were at first io^ 
fT4«>Ty ,^flUiLcules, ciq)able of being resolved by the electric 
shoclt int^i their primitive elements,- when they ^unvd th^ 
fbnq.of.^ rn^bprry .7— (i>ic(. Cltas. d'Htst. Nafftr. Article Ge- 
NBBATioN, p. 195-) In the same place, p. 81, the author be- 
J^Vj^ that, in the^presenl^ state of chemistry, it was 

vol.. xm. NO. xJtvi. — ocroBEB 1832. _ .^ ^ , , ._, 

L .iizodbvGoogle 

322 iTifkttory AfttmaU notJbrtne4J'i^J>ei*d Q^i^e Matter. 
(ana aynthetically an artifici&Ujr (x-gaBized matter, and cww 
etudes, *' If infusory animus could be obtained in this way, the 
BottDetian theory of generation would be overturned." , 

Eoelle also gives a peculiar chemical microscopic explanation, 
{Kastner'a ArcMv. f. NaturWtre, xii. 348, 1827.) He says: 
Zymom con^sts of microscopic glt^ules, and forms with Glyadine 
Celatin (p. S60.) Zymom is the substance from which the 
simplest oi^aoic forms are produced on the occurrence of fa- 
TouriA)le circumstances (p. 352.) The ^bules of milk and 
blood are zymom; gelatin, caseum, starch, sugar, &c, contain 
zymom, (p. S.^0.) Silica assumes first a vegetable stmctiire, 
and from the zymom formed from thence arises wnmal lif^^ 
(p. 358.) Vegetable matter can be immediatdy changed into 
an infuBory animal (p. 360.) In favourable circumstances, the 
different kinds of infusory animals can be fbnnetl from zymom 
(p. 358.) The first infusory animal, the lowest organic f<mnj^ 
is an animated zymom globule (p. S58.) Zymom may, in cer- 
tain ptHnts of view, be considered as an egg, (p. 360.) The 
yolk of egg ctHisists of zymom united with mucus, (p. 857.) 
These are not hypotheses but facts, (p. 361.) 

That the origin of many organisms is the effect of putrefac- 
tion or fermentation, and therefore a purely chemical {wocess, is 
a very old opinion, and therefore could not fail of being repro- 
duced in an improved form in modern times. Gruithuisen 
{GehlcTCa Journal der Pkysik, viii. 51 9> 1809) has characteri^ 
the formation of the smallest co^anic forms as a peculiar kind 
of fermentation, and spedfies, besides the vitious and acetota, 
the infiaorial fermentation as a source of organisation. For^ 
merly the autochthoniens were supposetl to have been formed 14 
this way, afterwards it was limited to insects, and the plants, 
produced during the process, but now insects and the lai^er. 
plants have been withdrawn irom this cat^ory. It baftsinoe. 
been extended a little to include the Infusoria and Fungi, on 
account of their difficulty of observation, but from' which, as ou^ . 
observations have shewn, it must be equally withdrawn. 

Berzeliu^, who notices the sul:^ect in his .classical Lehrhtuck 
der Cficmie, but does not giveany obserratioosof his oWn, con- 
siders as probable the fact mentioned by others, that deed ot^- 
nic matter, on being moistened with vrater, generates infusory. 

ExtraonUnary SfimUeneii of the In/iuoriO.' 699 

animals; alid views Professor Horascfauch's idea as not' impro- 
bable, tliat the prima germina rerum, or infusoria, may be 
formed in different bodies, under certmn external inffuencei 
ta other respects be has followed MM. Dumas and Mlloe Ed- 
wards in the' doctrine of organic atoms ; and the inorganio 
atoms^ wbiA bavfe been of so much service to the doctrine of 
chemical proportions, by the simple process of addition and sub- 
traction, are more or less ideal unities, which will long contiiiue 
of the most decisive practical benefit to chemistry. 

Quite recently Mnncke of Heidelberg has observed the march 
dr organic bodies in infu^ons with a microscope of Ptossel, and 
has »-riTed at the result, that a passage of organized matter 
takes place from vegetable to animal life, and from animal to 
vegetable life— (/iJs, 1831, p. 1088.) 

I must state, in the first place, that the whole range of mj 
microscopic observations are completely opposed to the prevail- 
ing opinioh, that in fiisory animals or fungi can be produced by 
simply pouring water upon dead organic substances. It must 
be admitted that such appearances are deceiving; but when exa- 
mined minutely, sometimes one kind of infusory animals, some- 
times another, appear under the most similar modes of treat- 
ment, and I have never been able to obtain certain forms by 
Dieans of certain infusions, although this is stated in all the met- 
nuals, and has succeeded with all the earlier observers. Ao 
cording to my results there are certain forms, but few in num- 
bOT, and tfiese the most diffused, whose ova or individuals are 
found in every kind of fluid, even in those of what are reckoned 
the most poisonous parts of plants. Blainville (Diet, dea Soc.' 
Nai. Art. Zoophytes) has also arrived at the same opinion with 
regard to the generaiio equivoca frbnf his own observaHons. I 
bare often laboured in vain to produce, at will, a certain spei^ 
ctes of organic bodies in little gloss tubes, although in oth^ 
eontainihg the same water,' and situated in the same circum- 
ataoce^ ihey multipli^^th the utmost profusion. 

Extraordinary Mhiwtmeai aj'the Infusoria. — Mybbserva- 
iJotiBf in regard to the smallest' organic parts, "have enabled me' 
td RttSertain the fbtloWihg smallest magnitude, as actually exist- 
iflg^and discernible by the senses : 

- X 2 '.OOgIc 

9^^ ErtToordmary JH'mutmeu'ofSa H^Haoria.- 

By meapBof themicl-osctope, I saw dlltinctly ttJohSdeslii WiiiiK 
the greatest diameter of the body was from ir^i^'" IJ> joVb'"'''*^ * 
line. This, which is the smallest of known animrfa; Ibave liamed 
JUonat termo, is the same as t)iat described by Otto F. Mallet^ 
under this name. In tbe largest individuals of thi* aoh»(flj-I 
was able, by colouring the liquid, to discover in sbtdtf, 'ihe iaSf- 
ger, six, in the smaller, four sacs or 5t6macbs ; aiid in 'some 
of them the stomachs did not occupy -the hSif of the ■♦hote 
animal. Such a stomach of the Mdflas termd; rittrefor*?,- tf 
the anim&l is only jj'aj part oF a line in Axe (if ■rtWft'we 
only four stomachs which occupy the bblf of' the anntia)), 
is jbJdo r™""' °^ * ''"^ "* ""gTi'tude, conseqaentljf ■flVe'tkaes 
gmaUer than the smallest molecules observed by R. Braw'n. We 
observe in the forepart of these animals, as lo all the mouades, 
a violent projection of still smaller bodies than itself, as soon 
as these come near to it, hence these have probably a' w»*«tb at 
ten or twenty feelers around the anterior moUth bjieHin^, as in 
the Monaa pulvisculus, and the other still larger mOnades. It 
15 probable that each of the stomachs which are filled in our 
experiments with colouring matter, contain more than one 
Atom; if each stomach contains three coloured atoms, this af- 
' fords a proof of the existence of red and dark Uue particles 
ojT colouring' matter floating in water, with a magnitude of 
sssiti; P"'^ "^ "■ ^'"^> sxiosn P^"^ o( aa inch in diermeter; and 
If the same objects are calculated according to the smallest ani- 
mals we have observed, which are ggim of a line in m^nitude, 
and sometimes contain four coloured points in the hinder part 
of the body, these latter parts, which are no longer individual- 
ly distinguishable, even by a power of 800, but are distingtA^ied 
in the aggregate, have a magnitude of U^^q of a line^ ^ 
iTiraua *^ '^ inch, whidi is twenty timM smaller Ihwi fbe 
smallest molecules of R. Brown.- We may also noUce the fine- 
pess of other parts of these Uving organic 6ehtg9^ Tbd 'small 
stomachs of the monas appear isolated in the body, and sbn^ly 
bounded. In Urger infusoria whidi are j^^'", or upwards, in 
diameter, we see these receptacles as dtstinct'bladderB, and t)*ere 
IS no reason for assuming another structure in the cotouFedcar 
vities observed in tfae smallest of the monades'Jn (Air-oi^ri- 
ments. If we assume the thic^nen of the wdft of rtts rtblMch 

Jxpn^gamail qf the Jitfiuona. 99S 

Mitft M-J>* cUamner, it apoupU m the Moors tenno, having 
« tjjamet^r «f rsSv"') *bere the stoouob appears w the {th part 
j^,rthe I9«afur9l>le . length of the wbde animal, oooaequentljr 
.-nivlyf '"* diaii»rtw,taT,B^8o,af alineor ijaSnonof "> "«*♦ 
foA ju there^ia ivaapD Car siqipoaiDg that the walla of the eto- 
iWch. Contois TCMelfij it. afib^* a stiU further minuteness of 
MMns.. ^ut magi^mles even , smnller than these may ba 
yoHtted.out, Ip, the PolygBJitric infusoria there is an ovariuoi. 
;The gimim of.tiua QvaritKn are as 40 to 1 in the female of Uie 
Xpipoda aictiJlutt ia otbeis as 80 to 1 ; and they appear to i»- 
fCease. in fineness .as tb<e body dimimshes in magnitude. Is tt 
^kA |Ht)bat>le,thAt it is oo^ the transparency and the imperfec* 
tign of our lifHcroBcopeB that prevepts us from obeerving a a* 
nilar ovarium .in the monade*, which are similarly organised, so 
IJHal it ofHUWt be,oTerlQoked that there may be youDg mooadet 
Aoftaincd iq the ovum, or wl^ich have escaped from it, in whidl 
itbe dismeter of tbe whole body measures only gi^oa'" ^ 
Bbbbs "* Mtd which also are provided with stomachs, which, ac- 
$srding .to, t{ie same relaticni, will have a diameter of from 
«i^««v'" ^*> siosaa"^ ^^ ^^^' ^f ^^^ monadal stomachs 
-will be about ^ivhtsis'" "> biooddo"' '» dian^eter. 

,By the kindness of Professor Ensler of Berlin, I have bem 

, enabled to make many observations with a solar microscope. Oo 

, newing.^M Monas atomust stroogly filled with indigo, I dis> 

«pv«red ia the intervals the shades of smaller monades, which 

«qMld not have amounted nearly'togg'sj,'", but which were quite 

inviuhle in, the water when examined witl^ Cbovalier's naicro- 

so^, perhaps on account of their transparency. Whether these 

;' bodiea w«re tbe young of the Monaa atomutt or independent 

, jig^iaeef i( follows that yp'si.'" *' oo^ die limit to a size of ,o«jft- 

, »ic£:^s,wtij(Jipmbe^ifi^i(C%s«P' , . i . ., 

; . , a/fl^MTOffl^I 4tj(u^^ment gf the Cima /n/i«!orJa.-f-Hitherto I 
, ted;o9}fi:bs^ .»%■ ^ tJjfl^e in. Jt^taoria, Pfi^fgtafy-tca, .the 
nwawultH't digestive, and gfuer^tiye systems, la fne genus o^\j 
of thfi,tJaiM,99,i4d I,det^tthe poiD]t? of the eyes.. Recently I 
.hiDM.beeq (wz.,thR ^^giww) de^.t.tb^,ex^P?i"'* ""P"* 
.%pi^Uj,»o. tfesjli.flow, the g^petp,posE^saj|d with ejescanbe 

996 motipiioaiioit <f^ikrJf^airia. . 

ibtut art woe ey^heurtag nknn^m-iit^ ia^^moiXa. t'Ehok 
lfc« traces of « nerfous ajMem ^eecend to the; nwnadeB. 
- I hate extended ftutbw my first endeavour to oUsadie'Iiif*. 
soria according to their intcrhtl d^aaieatia*. The digaBti?e 
i^stein funiisbes, in eat^ of tfwtwo e*»BBes,*inlyfo«rdtfFer«MeB. 
The Pbly^Btrica fall under the Anentera, lte>« witioat mba- 
SfteythfeGyclocarfa, thoBe-with a drcnkr ioteBtine ; OrttioMela, 
those *ith a Btiwght fntettim ; find Gamp^oeaela, those mkb a 
eufved intestine. The Houtona fall unckr the Twdielogaa- 
trica,' iBflg-throated iwnhout Moroat* ; Cftlogastwu, k*ig ■"»cnh"« 
withouf a stomaeh, 'and with a shcMi; throat ; ■ GaatModda, t^aa* 
with ti stomach ; Tradtelocystica, those tnih biadderR. TheAt'- 
testiae of the latter is very peculiar. 

The Kotatoria alone, ftom my fiirther observftfJonBi hmre 
been capsWe «rf being divided acoonlii^ to thdr deirtary'oi^aM. 
They fall first under three groups: Agompbia, todthleM, they 
wie few in number ;;Gymnogoniphia, free tootbedy U»y are the 
most numerous; Desmogomphia, hook-shaped teeth. Tiiuse 
with free teeth fall under two great natural diviaons, viz. the 
Monogomphia with one tooth in each jaw, and- the Pc^gcao- 
phia, with maiiy teeth. The DesoK^mphia,. whose teeth-are 
Hot free but inserted into a cartrlaglaous plate, faU also into two 
naturelfflibdiviBiDns, the ZTgogorofrfiia with teeth disposed- in 
p^rs, and Lo^ogomphia, with teeth in rows^ » (iiat the fiA 
towing- Bchetlle may be formed : 


MonogompUa. Folyf^ompliia. Zygogovoji^ Lochc^onipllU. 

"I. II. ni. IV. : V. ' 

"^Utarv^Udus' l^tdti^lietttim of ^- 'Infiaoria^'l hxvi abb 
made some' observations "on die devebptneiit add Kfutttplica- 
Uon of the Infusoria, which I deem among the most im- 
portant of alt my researches. I hAve iAherfeA- ftir ef^^VKM 
days suctesfflvely a- smgle Hyda^na- ttnto, aWd tf* it witf ''j^r- 
ffertl* grown *ben I' angled it ontj, amdiifid'not'tJitfwPtM age, 
being accidentally destroyed,' the life-of 'this aiAnkl- must be 
iliore than fwetfty day*. ' Sihih ' an"HidiTidi]iil, "when arciim- 
stabces are fa^UraUe, TS'Capabledf AfotirfU^-pvjpagarion'^ery 
twenty-fimr— thirty honVs. ; It Cah in \Ui time briil^fbrwatrdS 

iAKi&e^B>f«Mil{mieii)]»jo-ft»to t/a tbes^dum^-.oS- :tim,fatia^ 
But tiiis.EauifoldiMrwBe JB tiie apiwe «f a day, wbaniwotv 
aade ^ioiecv&Desj and tiua stmt indivuilual, pmtt ia ten dyya, 
jEulTii^a^.alid caised to the tenth power (therefore oo ^ Kkb 
^t^JA millioa of indiviebuls fi?imi on« stotlwE; ami oa (he lltb 
Jnjr$HU'Tantb«12thsutlet»»fqiiUii»)i)Sfc .A^boughtbiaprodue- 
Mv»|»ttBr is the gKstett which bw be^ yet^perved ia^iUtjinit 
Ar«iCGcsdii^lhstjrf<ii»«Ql3,.it is Su tnm gtiwrn g thfltof tbf 
Rjij'gB W iica ilo the Pj0raai<vciufnawr^^ which is V«*" i^'iwk 
■■d wfc iA hfls teaaMCBHtaiped to live.Mveral da^a* « doubUag <^ 
Wik^uiAndHBl by traMife(W'iaUiiusi(«i.h«B beea.pbecrved.mlhiB 
<ge«^-fiMg;hpurayite Ptteof iiKKWc ia thqreforq {double thfft^ 
the preceding. But as theie ^imtUs, beaidea dtRtaiDQ), r1k> ptlfpfr 
ff^ ^J'^gS^'^'^ them eggs we not sepoi^jted frooi the,pfvcat 
jwf^yibut an iamaest,»9d sa they als9 &>rngFmB,'t^»'pq«)ihl« 
iwcMWift jntbin forty>^[fat hours becooies quite iontimerajbltt 
Who can laomler thftt, under sueh <ara<»wtwtceH, fliiida ahbuld* 
jrith'the brood of two or three d<iysiOi)ly«awfirm with tbeee^anir 
coalcules ?■■ 

EtHmate ^ihe relative Valtu of the Microscopes (f ChvoaS^t 
JVoessei, andScki^.—Tha f<illoHiDg,arfiiiiy iadividual views re- 
ganlii^ilhe nunreaeopeaof Clwvalier, Fl|pes3e(, aed Sohiek, which 
MB'thejbcatoC the preaeot .day. .Th« ady^ottges of .all thflas 
instruments rest upon the discovery pf Si^ligw, aodthe.iiioBt 
important advances upon thb basis have been certunly made by 

The chief practical advantages of the microscope of Chevalier 
are,— extent of field of vmod, disUnctness of oudine, even with 
tbe higb^t powera, high magnifying power, a sufficient distance 
Qf .the obj^t-lcinB from the object, which amounts to a line eyeff 
w^h jh^ higb^t powers, simplicity of sj^ratus, ^nd, coneer 
qi^^9jUy, a yery moderate price. 

. ..JPloes^l's joicrp«»pe, compared with that of Chevalier, isdi*; 
languished, by the;. foUowing properties. With as ex^en^ve a 
^Id. of vigifkn, it b^ still greater, perbspa too ^reat, light, it 
q^gi^ifies tiA^ly double . the diameter with great distinctness ^ 
i^uOi^^ ; its ,\i^e i^ tnor^ cfHivefiieDt under high powers, frpm the 
Kf))]ill9j:w<Hit of '.swfifX eyc-ghtsses, instead qf tbe.elongation of 

98S Mr IbBdir> 0NtiHir^^ 

ibetofae«!qi»i9adbythelamK#. ThciDc<»teaimM«rniin9aHi 
■licnwci^ are^ — its akooKt entire iiK^GMneHi[>rUi»0b«anatiMi 
<^ fluids, on «ooouDt of the small diitancs of'thcot^fect'lcHi 
from the object under th* high powers, aod thfl impouibiU^' ttf 
«ntployiiig apparatus for pressure, tiot-evett mka. ItudhMi 
(m account of its varied odjustioent^ and fMfrtieulju-ly ave^ 
fine KTew-micFonneter, twice the priee ot CbtfTali0r''s [ xhepejEoi* 
oaly half as uB^ul cMisideried i* the abtfxact. - Its.focBi isoiiieb 
handaoDKr than that of Cberalier, and msFB wnvaiimtSor.aat- 

Schiek's micmscope unites the advabli^gea.'of bo^ «f •Ui« 
others. Its field of vJHon is extenrive, Bxtneinely'BbBt|>«iid 
clear illuminatioD, even to the highest pdwen, appcariag to<.iQe 
much clearer than «tber of the others wkeu I coinpftrad then 
together. Its magnifying powers equal the highest of Ftoe»sel\ 
therefwe twice that of Chevalier's, accoopaoied with consider- 
able focal distance, permitting of the use of wat» and prensun 
tot the most minute <Ajects. Its uae is soiaUer, wid form mora 
convenient and haodscxner than the others without b«ng weaker. 
From the simplicity of its arrangements, the price is very mo- 
derate, and therefore particularly adapted for the working na- 

The greater clearness of the image, and sufficiency of li{^l^ 
IS a step made by M. Schiek which is a dear gain to optics; 
irhich, united to alt the other advantages, hava appeared to ma 
quite new and surpriang. 

OtttHne of the Gedogy of the Bhurtpoor Dialrict. B; JamkI 
Haboie, E^' Bengal Medical Establishment. Commnni- 
cftted by the Author. 

7his district may be described as formiog a portion <^ the 
south- western boundary of the Vatley of the Ganges and Jumna. 
It presents a level platform, elevated about sixty feet above the 
bed of the latter river, and is in most situations covered with 
the (isual alluvium of the Gangetic provinces. The country 
Is fertile and highly cultivated, and impresses us with a favour- 
able idea of the industry and enterprise of the Jauts, as coi»- 
trasted with their Rajpoot neighbours of JeypooT. The tesson 

Geology Y^* B^wtfoor bi^ct. i^ 

«wght thdm tfy the MtoT tH^'r ito4)Mi«d'c8^ibd^'in'!retS, bU 
HOC b«M 'thrown away upon theinhabitantov'mrf'iA Ao'paitof 
Itidtd dMs the Ei^tish traveller meet vrth tuwe-lntfllltjr'taid at^ 
teDtion^hfln'in'lhfti district; where a (kwyeinagabewMtTetLteA 
-KM* lAsUlt atid'OoMewpt.'- 

The rocks vbttjh tnnnedlately uifderde the OatfgeUd de|Md» 
ki rirttne' few ^tatubma, appear intit the surface, attd iir« quarriect 
(br architecture- purposes ; «rh^ strata of an ' anterior date ui 
tftme h^i^' ttnd there 'emp atit, fbrming, especially in the nortj^em 
p^i(»), fimill detaehed Wife, «rtiich are gertcrrily topped l^ » 
^foge 6r stronghoM. Td' the irest the Shurtpoor district U 
flatiked by a bell of roclffi of the aeeon^iry dan, vhich stretdie* 
in a north-easterly direction from the anciettt city of Btana, 
situated on the south-westem portion of the dbtrict. This belt 
19 mterposed between the newo- strata joit allnded to, and the 
tfeeidedly primary formations of the Jeypoor and'Ajmeer terri- 
tories : its easteni Hmrt is marked by a low hill range, seen a tHuitt 
^tAnee to the westward of the dty of Bhurtpoor. 

The sandstone quarries which have for centuries supplied aH 
this portion of India with materials for building, are situated in 
the Bhurtpoor district, and, aS these are important, both in a 
statistical and geological point of view, I shall, in the first place, 
eommunicate what little information I have been endiled to 
collect relative to their natural history. 

Of the sandstones there are three varieties. No. 1-. k a cios^ 
grained argillaceous sandstone, more or less slaty; of a uniform 
dark red colour, so soft as to be scratched by the knife, and ap- 
parently composed of unall particks of quarts, ceneitted toger 
ther by a ferru^no-argiUaocous basis : minute scales of .mic*<are 
distributed through the mass, to which ciicumstaiice' it "fp*- 
rently owes its slaty texture. No. S. is also a close-grained ar- 
g^laceous »itdstoa& This is a very beuitirul varisty, its c^ 
Imir is dark red, speckled with wbUe spots, whidi are generally 
roundish, and vary &om an inch in dituoeter to the tiie of, fi 
pin's head. This rook is less schistOK than No. 1^ coatsns leaa 
mica, and, when slabs of it are properly cut and squared, boB, 
at a little distance, exactly the appearance of a fin? red pratv 
phyry. No. 3. is a rock umilor in ptnut of texture and f^po- 
■itioa to the last, but is of a uaifmn salmoiMolour, paiong into 

8fQ Mr Hved»'3 OutUae i^4he 

gf^Jil^'Vlute. It eaa. with difficulty be obtained is slabs less 
tftan foot UKfaea ihiek, vliile No. 1. may be bod in plucs kte 
tfwd oDfl-ftatf an- ioeb. 

The above rocks are all of tbem; employed in ardritectDre, aod 
are r«Bwk^y free wt^kiag stooes. -Sabfr-c^-tbe"«ltfy— «a^ 
nety, rydaninj^ from beAm to beam in flat roofs, bave been sup- 
Witutad by. mj frirnd- Lieut J- T. Btnleau of the i^engai 
Engioeers, f instead of tbe brid^g joists aad tiles in coram^ 
BK ; and be hh% found that the ropfii completed upoa thii prip- 
diple ^ave,.in eviny instance, proved perfectly water-tigbu a^d 
d i a t th e tCTraceihwd over tbe.BtooeBbfts jnv a ri aHy driedi mcye 
— ifnnnly. rniil frrrrfrnpi rrnrlrn thm wbea bridging joisu tufe 
been used. By a. series of expetimeots, lieutenant Boileau b^ 
demaOBDated tbnt do appreheneitHi need^ be eotertained in regar*^ 
to the traiifiverse strotgth of the tumdstones, pbjei^oas on. t^is 
Jiead baiting been tuged against his plan, while the advaptag|es 
attending its adoption are invaluable, inasniuch as it secures 
the buildings against fire, and, w^t is iof still more importance, 
teoders them safe from the attadtftof wMte,aBts. Thecmiexed 
iT^ile will shew the results of Lieutenant 'B<Mleau>^peri«ients, 
'wbich are. iotereating both in. a minnalogical and economical 
font of view. 

' ' By.a.EefweB(% to the T^hle, rit will been aeea that tbe red- 
8andst<Hie does not lose mutJj, if .any, of its strength by biijqg 
Mturated with water, wi^h- renders it particularly fit for the 
;pin^>oae» of roofing ; < and though, in< its dry state, it is far in^ 
■lionto Lbe iBaleaon-coV^ured variety, (aall to 17 yearly), yet, 
■«j|waijFt:t^U'i9 pMBe<^g wipeiaor ^it«.tbe lUt«rrV«GU*ytioikbg 
AhQHt>on»4i9lf its,.8tM»gth by iquq^rdwa.iM.'nftter. EarithiB 
MW W wetSwyiJoi^ tfa tb«-difiereafi».ob»a^illll»i)Bibe.'«rnVfl^ 
«ett<»£',tbe>««ipot)Wt'paiti«lw of wdKr>^v«iKty.' 



Xmu jftf^ifl#,«fe./j!eMte ofSigKrimmU iM«fe ok Sqnditone Siabt, 


























71 . 







. »7 . 




















. .86, 
















.. 7* „ 








5fi , 











39. , 








' iThem^ontTiaf dw'buildiBgsof-tha-Agni^and ncigbbawrinj^ 
dialiictf ate aonaMicted df tiieiSSKdatoDoi MHleE rvkw v «Dd 

'MKiDg'.tlMefran'^aiaebS thettacwt ^ndid cAticnvtfiHtnAM. 
jun. The fort etiA^ucm, Aaig^mnitji-ot'titB-'li)»3,: tbe'tombar 
.Afcber at Saeundra, the ma gn ifi cent gatewsyito the ■hiine'of the 
ibwsulinan sajnt Salim Chisti at.FuttypoorSiduaj.and:!^ 
jH-fiiaed,EiHib Jdiow attDelhi,JDaiqr beceumera^fldamoD^lhe 
.may «$6oes ODrntmcted (£ tfa&red «bd spukled.ivarietMs; 
while the palace in the garden at De^, some magnificent, mo- 
dem temples at Muttra, and the tombs of Buldeosing and 
Sunijmull at Goverdhan, the clas^ haunts of the Jadua 

_ Cooglf 

Apollo, are atamples oF the «iloioti.*ok>nraJ wri«ty «. ' ^Bk» 
toota of many of these biiU^gs ar* toy wide, bite nweKtelM^ 
covered in by a series of sttibs, ipaitTiiiig from wall to \valh ' 

Ttie dark red colour and tnick-Kke aspect ofths iiMvari^, 
as contraried widi Uie pare white of ttw Maknmi «BarU*, vt 
which the cupola pavilions and trellicee of the buildings we 
generally formed, ^ve to maay of the most Btupendtmg monu- 
ments of Mogul architecture, a fantastic and party-colonred'aj^ 
pearaDce; and it is impossible not to regret that the Eglttth- 
coloured varieties had not come into genentl use at tea eaHHr 
period. To the employment of the red saodstcme there is asdU 
stronger objection. This rock seems but little capable of nest- 
ing the decomposing effects of the atmosphere ; hence it is diat 
so few of the edifices, for which Agra was oace bo famous, ntyw 
remun entire, and of the few which still survive, the majori^ 
are rajndly falling to decay. The splendid mausoleum of Altber 
St Secundra is likely soon to meet the fate of its fdlows ; while 
at every step we take we perceive the moat stupendous ruins of 
palaces, and courts, and gateways, which less than two cAntnries 
ago were the favourite haunts of the monarchs of Hindostaii. 
Id every climate this is a nio§t serious objection, but in a climate 
Uke India it is quite ioeunDountable. In, comparatively speak- 
ing, modem days, an Indian monardi, surrounded by a court 
more goi^eous than Europe ever witnessed, pronounced this 
capital the " first city in the world -t-," destined to be etemd! 
We may smile at the vanity of Jehanghir ; but let us Bot negldbt 
the lesson which the fate of Akberabad J has so emphatically 
taught us. A day must come, distant thou^ that day mAy be, 
when we, like those who have preceded us, must rengti to oiilEA?s 
■the «ag^ empire aS the Bast; and I know not if at thi« faour 
''tbweexiaiiin India a sii^ecGfiee of British Atwtnwtionwhieh 
■will survive our fate, even for a few years. We caonot but-i^ 
gret that this should be the case : independent of every otF^ 
'cmsidcirstion, we feel a sort of melancholy plMsure in the idea 
ibot wethail leave behind us somenMrnuineat-of fnir grmtnTwa. 

. *F«rsdM«iptia&i^diewm(gDlflceiit«dlfiQe*M»BUhaiiHabei:>Tnv^ 
t flte the Ufb J«lm){tiir, wrfttea b7 himM]£ . 
I Tlie Uumulnun nune of Modem Agnu ^ ' 

L ,i,z<,d.,.GoogIf 

GedU^^ the Shuripcor Diitrict. 888 

•aontethlngi'anid lC>e wOBas of our adtievementa, to tell to futme 
SfbelwlioDa rflbe exiatence of one of the mast atnardiaary 
empiiHi that die world ever witnencd, and to mark the spot* 
i^tere'OiwfeotBtcpa baTebeea. ia thiapc^otof view^ thelaboun 
'«f tbe geolagitl acquire additioul importance : but to our 8ub> 

. The sabnon-coloured aandHtooe ii less liable then the red 
to be a&eted by atmospheric influences. The former is a re^ 
;inarkably fine Jreestoae, and may be had in slabs of imy magni- 
tj>de; il is admirably adapted for paving and hearth stones; 
and iseven capable of being used in the finer kinds of ordiiDieb- 
tal arebi lecture. A remarkably handsome chimney-piece of this 
rock is in the possession of Colonel Lockhart, our political agent 
at.Bhurtpoor, which, in chasteness of design and minuteness of 
sculpture, could scarcely have been surpassed had the finest 
iparbla been employed in its fabrication *. 

The sajodsttKieB under review belong to that great formati<xi 
•o extensively distributed throughout Hiodostan, and which has 
been pretty generally considered as the type of the new red 
sandstone of En^nd. The rocks of this series, which occ jpy 
so conspicuous a place in the geoli^ of the southern boundajy 
of the valley of the Ganges and Jumna, appear to be continued 
on with but little interruption into the Bhurtpoor district, where 
they occafflonally ore found near the surface, though, generally 
■peaking, they are hid from view by the alluvia of the Gangetic 

: provinces. The hitter in many cases seem to octaipy extensire 

..internal basins or valleys in this formation. 

In the Bhurtpoor district, as elsewhere, the sandstones are 
characterized by the nearly horizontal posiUon of the strata, and 

* The waxWe which wan go extensively emplojed hj the A^arcbit«cti du. 
ring tb* relgiu oT Jebangfair and Shah J^aii, was brought ftom Haknaa In 
the jAudpoor dUtiict ; and af^wars to be a verj durable itone. TTnfintinuite- 

, .]^ it via but too often anodaled in the nune building with the more periafa- 
aUe aandiUmea. Shah Jeban, indeed, eucour^ed a chaster etjie of arAi. 
tecture ; and the Z.^ Macfaat, where tbe aahes of this monercb now raingle 
with thoie of hja beloved and be)iuUMBqp)n>,ii itillpreserred In all itapHs. 
tine Bplendour. This maftnlficent mauBoleum ia, indeed, well sulled to hla 

''gi>l;geoUttiIlear'<nii¥<if'thBW\HM." In tiM azcfoi Aa nrnqna* Ar #hldi 
tliB Lq ia M> celebrated, a vaiiet/ ^f igatet, ]avw«i a]la«r«l wUcv.liel^ 
trepea, with lapca lazuli, plaima, and. nmUsi' mineraLj, are emplof ad t but I 
have leen none of the nibiea and other gems which travellerB have described 
■a abounding In this edifice. 

3M M^Sttra^^OiMint^the 

li^ die «b(ieiM»' of ehcknecf : D^inic l^mnn. - TbeK are tao pa^ 

ingB interpDBcd between the strata, the seetions'of the rocka ex- 

UUtiDg'a aoecQsdon of huge Tectilmein" tabter,' piled directly 

one on another. Tbeie strata are remarkaUy fite fnnn warn or 

fimnree of an; kind, abd cmtaia few, if anyj cmfaedd^ tnaie- 


The geoUigy- of the mart recent BMidatoneS'irf' the ^ivtfioor 
diatrict may be beet studied at Ru[dMu, a> Uma. aiumui Aoml 
thifty^wQ'inileaiDa Botrtb.-westeriy direcuaB'.Aiiia Agra. There 
a«e olhar- qoanies near the Tillages of Jugoeer, Bunai^ Aqd 
FuhaApaor, ait of which pW^ lie withm s'lunitcdpatdiof 
country, distinguished fajr an uodUlatimg surface, and by 'seveml 
low >nou»d«l' hib ' formed, of the MndsMoMj 

As.for ■»! bame baas enabled to atcenun ihe Ueb, Arrtf'oM 
vttid tp oi J t»:ef rbch-i^i or gjfpsumiimhtdBi in-Ae radejbrma^ 
tions iiftiit Bburtpoor dutrid.. The bdi), h ume iwr f -'ia ■ia nprqjt. 
nated -to a great-depth with-\gdin»partidu,aad<«aBia)« Mb^- 
reaceoce T^y genecatty. appeorsiat- the Bdffkcei -Ftom'tbeHi 
toorces are nianafactured lar^-(|amtibev of a salt vtdlod tT-ht*- 
rmmm^ (L e. Biuev Sahj a name by-the^byva-y ndcftiilaty 
appKedlo aeveral saHue coropoundaiin whidl au^at*of> soda 
existaas an ingredient), which, is used by the natives' as. a con* 
dimeflt.' The xaita collected at the rsurfawj togethar -with a 
quantity- of the galioe soil,- are wa^Md with iwater from 'd« 
braddsb' wells, and ihe airiution'thus formed is left to evapoiste 
indiallow pita-dug for.thrpnrposei The pits are lined with-a 
thin coating of lime,. which is rcMewed' after vvery deponlioai 
The.ealtiadepoated in-oulnc ceystds, manyofwhkhneTferjr 
fMtfect and ToaloHrleas^ thoHgh ocoaaionaUy they ore tinged'wilh 
iron; they have a bitterish taste : the principal ingredient in 
their compoatidn is chloride of sodium, which is cOnibided with ' 
sulphate aad .carbonate '(rf* soda > in small propdrtioo, and a-tni- 
nu;«< qiWOti;^ •£ iroa^ ,. Amaneaccorota aairiysis-I'had-Betwi - 
ofjporluiHty of malting. .... 'i;:] 

The wells from which the salt-water is drawn VBty in d*fitH 
from 43 to 64i feet, the richest water being, that' which is pm> 
cui;ed.^.tMik¥Mdt-of-fi-eai^lto>4ia<Mt' Tbi»4aBt7ieldsf-ae>. 
oardhigrito''cinnmatance«, (rom a eAedamtoi^ pin xeig^ht(i.t. 
fr*M Ito 8 percent, by weight), and one well will produce in' 
a season from 100 to 1000 pullahi, a puUah, or bullock-load 

Gealo^ ^the BMuriptor tHrtriti. 380 

bang equal to-Si ffiUM, *t 90 Mno'.nipMt to tbejiHtrV Icjf 
said that.the water below 65 feet i» alw aaliae,.but tfastth* nU 
iothiscaae does not form into MpenttecryBtvle* butulcftja* 
splid crygtsUtne cake at the bottooi of the ovaporatipg. pitSi 

The Goil through wtikii the wells are suak is likiyey, mnti 
with calcareous matter, fine siliceous sand, and scales of mimt 
It eftmatces itfDOf^ . with- acids, tfac inferior beds are men 
tcoadiouaaad reteatiTe than tbe upper> and bedii of lootesaod^ 
eshiMaDg«oaechiBg'af'astT8tifaaB'af)peannae^ occur at vaiioKS 
deptfisbdkMr the aHr&ce. The principal aalt mnnCicteries an 
fit ']ttunpo(»> Oeeg, and Eunboer. . from aouvraa anailar to 
Uie-above, salt tS'inanufaotured in vMioueatherdistrictacrf' lo^ 
dia ; and an inquiry iato: tba phenoBienii Mtendiag its oQmiTreDBe 
would- be esIreiBely intereating. Are auah >aline< sotli found 
tmly in connexioD vith> racks' of the 9o«aUed Indian newred 
sanditone fonnstiBat' Or,^ in olher irorda^ when ua-sdt'ia 
fouad ioloESBSBd with tbe anlatof ibe G«ogetio provinces, is 
there any reason to believe that this drcunistance has any co»^ 
nffinonimtbtbeioccurrtMorof rooks-of tbe above. An-matioobe- 
neatb sudi soils? Or, omthe otber hand, have these ealitie^mi 
tides been Uansported froor a diitnooe, in nMituiie vitb'thv 
other ingredients of the soila^ luid by. tbe ense obusm whieb 
operated in fornung tbe ^uvia ? Or, ace they the produoi of 
so«e chemical deoampaaitiDn tiili goiog forwiird ' iu tbe great 
laboratory of nature P Tbe experiments of Sir James HaU 
have rendered this a meat intnsKing sidgecl -of inquiry ; and, 
supfNJsing &t a p)(Hn«it bis>th«Hy'rdstive to the influenes-of 
seftrsalt BS a coQoolidAtaig agent to be correct, migbt w« net alM 
aupfwse. that die aalta n»«r fotmd iniemwed with ^escHafind 
tmgmtHy cilbcted >lbe coaioUdation of tbci strata below, ml ' 
tbftC,; having passed <tbiougb tbese atratain asiat»i^>VBpomt - 
tbe 8uperjacent«eiiaiw«reitbiu ioipfegaated witb'ialiii^'aiMters 
witboub tfacmaelfiea baiag emnolidaltd.? TfasJatter aretanBtaileQ 
' inigfat perhaps be attributed to diminished- pranur» frort 4belt - 
supennriparitian-; add I cantseeinetfaangiin thephenomelto«f 
niblimatioMto OHUlaleiagaiBat^tuebr^aB idea; Jn dlis vji^ tif ' 
tbs caec^.tfae period irf depoocimBof tbciMuvia«i^tt baive'beeb 

• The weight of the Somii Rvpee is about 7 : H "Troy i a JWun coDsistt 

■■■■ - -■■-■■ ■■': '""Sl^ ■ 

866 Mr Hardie on the Stfiogy <fihe Bhurtpoor Diitrid. 
either synchronouB with, or aDtertw (o, the consoBdatkHi of tfar 
sandstone strata, and future observation perhapB may identify 
tome ftt th« lojwetv bed* of the loasfe M-esacetAis dtpoMtswidi'' the 
BHpeiiar beds of -tha new red andstonefotealiaB containing 
rock-salt. Might not the identical ageitf, apposing it to liave 
been a body of water concerned in the transport of the loose 
.depoiiu, have «appli«l the preasuEe mKxmwj&r tbe^iagntbioDs 
pt'Sir J.-HallVhypatbeuaP Ai)dBitgbt'Oa*<UM|»ctelivei»f ao 
. large'ail >ocean"in «oiMtEna-iww % mMied^wiitllc sea), be 
CDBMcttdlin .aDnie<«ay,witl) those great r«4>bf«rii^j,iigRtcies 
wi lmb are- anpyosed.toi have nftcttd -the dkwtecp p6 (H^jnOun- 
OuU moBsosP W>illiiiiwiiiiil iiiilJMiMata iifilhiiniiiii>>niii i|f liiiiii 
.Mofa.flgsnnea-Dny'bs'^eMasad'W'^ tMJgtiboitring MUicaogeB-, 
/ wdveJnightitbBs Jximayedte tnnew.HgtilBi< ^bMBot pbe- 

. ■awuiui.wlndi ^nigbt mH-Aw jrcfanred Mioaa giiaodn»rigw4 tmuae. 

■■ 'TlMi8|wt»latiaito«f.Btie dU BMnHncnti.aodMban^ibcwimcet. 

J' .fld.4hiS')nti$eot'-«iA->a>degnw ofi^intoreslnWdtaniigyaltaMfcon 

Unfortunately, we know as yetibnbiinl«^ lhti«t«utBLgp>- 
;'ilig;fi<:f>tlMrGatigKia ddporitsliMud^tliajliukivedlrKilBaatf .tends 
'i«atfcer>tbaH«heMnfe tbifM9filewtbe;flubiteti-i .,fh^ilbari|)g&for 
"ifMkl mte^'■owfrn&g'£>^w«^tkilll OdlctitlBji m^HprisAaUy^Jvad 
hrito vKfWEtant re«alta^>>aBd(tbe ottemidBiof'ii^ Kif«li£n>iDjiadia 

■: H u dl W .'''' ■■t-\>-. ■ '.•■•■\--i-' .■■■1.[;fi., 9-11 J(u:r ':J^,\^ 'BKi 

• >ct>«tMd ii¥ itbfe depoHtt ^ndcvt odidderatM^^-i i>iiiii[ill ^tsiilajKi 
i."«ni)b>neeM>fchW»tbwrd(>nbe(UiA3nikl diB>4a[fa(ai.iiii ttift Aut 
>'fanMd'o£tha'dilhalaZI«Hfa.v ]{iiul«i^aaicvi<itra«]f «f tbrl«^er 
o'antfectiluftflM'ianitMiB.bMteJibuidaat^ ithti^iabu^ let* '(twiihave 
' 'TH^ni'iirtriUritaivii'ivttiw Awiqh^nufehaiiijdwpidiBBaetRtifi^ the 
''«l^fc""V1nin'4b»^l»(»» n«tuwi ^wtbar— >nHnl»ifo*iiik^i«iilw, 
■- wtii t B ii, oftgp itrf - gfMCyt*p»ndiciiftu"hwfett^" 1*1 i h dsi j wiy Ig- 
'fwMdi' WbMd'thettbsMioa<ofiorgBnut'rMliiDe^-t0bMMilit;toiily 
'^AKmWMtH,''tGndHb- uiyidegMCF tv^oaAiAtJMte.-chd-^dea^ the 
idientity, -Itl MgHrd to agCi'M* the infenor bed^ of ^MBe dcpoou 
with the ealiferous sandstone fMTnations f - ' « 

Mtttaralcgietil TabiUr tiai¥eeijhm a X^gitttr qfthe Wealher, 
Jupt at Btx^coarmh in A« Eatt JnJUu, during tht Yeart 

lan and 1828. 

DoKlne'a MttdoMa of seven yetn in Bengal, I pakt • good 
deal t^ attenlioii to the veither, and kept a legiater ks tiMUHct- 
edly as I conldtortbegivaMrputof the tiiiw. Ilmwuire. 
uaxkablc umilsritjr in tfae cUirate iber^ and I foDiid' that 
' though the monthly reeultB varied in tome autancn eoMider- 
obtf, tiM ytaaiy average did not materii^y differ. Thteking 
thuitmay be of some unportaace to know facta at a time wfaen 

- «v0ry thing etHineOed with (^ibate cauws an umlsual intAtwt, I 
hare aentydu the results of two years which were considered to 
be extremes,— ^e cHie in vcapect of rain, md the otho- unques- 
tietnbly of drou^it, a order that the medium of the -two may 
be estimated as the weather commonly to be looked forat'lhe 
^ace wlicre I was stationed. 

BaoGMmdi, ntoatsd in 98° f^ North Latitude, aadST If Bast 
Loi^;itude, is a civil station in Bcngd, distaiu a bundled nnles 
we>t>DQnh.wG6t fram Calcutta, on the ^leat road to Benares. 
ffhe coiiairy is vemarkably level upwards from CakjuUa, until 
yeu reach Buvdwan, a dttfailce of fitly milflsgiuid itt« Ann this 
last place that the country ascends in a gradual elevation' to 
iBancooiab, a distaBoa of fifty miles, above wfaiafa'[dace dte-ascent 
is mocb more rapid, and the counliy bMomes billy. The &ce 
of the country about Bancoorah is corercd' w&h Iwp wooda, and 
the aril ia gravelly, with a dtyeysnod on the surface, that-bc- 
comeei perfectly bard in the dry weather, and reqiunsntuchmin 

- oTi manual. irngati(« to nmderprodtwlive- Thetiver DalkiMih, 
. that. pAtsea. Baneoorab, luinga doani in'fleodacim^erable pieces 
,.»f:lraf>aad also ofquartz nook, eantatiiingalari^e portion oTmica 

^iirhioh is largely imbedded^ in the .gravelly seal of Bahooorah and 
fts.O0ghbant4i0od), from the hilU.aboutits Souicea; but about 
the- (dace ittelfr with the exception of two or three motaea of 
.^«tajutt4g above ithe surface, tbera.isDo nock or stone (^ spy 
ClOiteequenoe. Theie ia a.conaidemble bed. of coat and freefone 
VOL. Xlir. NO. XXVI.T— QCCOMn .18SS> ' ■ . Y, r! ; i ■ 

I ,l,z<»i:,.,G00gIf 

S88 Mr Macntchie*3 MeteoroUsgictd Tables, 

upod the banks of the Damoodah river, about thirty miles 
iioTlli-«oflt of Bancoorah ; the coal resembles our Scots coal very 
mIMh, and the fVeeatone is duraUe, thou^ coarse in. its texture. 
Banooorab is a very suhry phu% dnring die hot seaaoD of the 
year ; but frmn its being ntuated above the low swamps, and 
in a great degree free from the noxious fachalations emitted from 
UleirsurflKK, it is generally accounted tO'betbe healthiest sta^m 
in that port of India; It is elevated above the sea 21£ feet. 
Had above the ttdfr'mark 160 fe^ and at a distance of about 
14S miles in a straight line nortii-by-west fram the nearest sea- 

Aft the te*npm-ahire in the acoompanying table was noted 
frtMD a tbratnomeber jdaced against a wall in the moa, it will 
be' Kkquisite timt' I should say sotnethiBg regwding the- coo* 
structiMi of the bouses in India, so very diflerent from tbaeciD 
this country. The homes there at>e all built of briok, flat> 
roofed, and thickly covered over and ornamented with findy 
pulverized lime wrought into plaster, that ashaita of a h^ po- 
lish if necessary. Every hoose has _&n Open verandah or porti- 
co« irifh a^ many docr-iwKys weadi roam as m^ be oonastent 
vritb fflKlnteetural proportioa and staU^y, running along the 
whole leogtb add breadth of the hOam, from the varandah aad 
fbe ouler-wedlt, ta alhm tfee^xtemklaiiv vihen reftedling, tne 
tetsesi to the Kmatett ootaer. Theu. ddonways are-oaoupied 
%y f<4diiiig dooi^ wkh- Venetian Uind» in ea^' h^^- which can 
bbopiiied'or shut as reqaired, and gkaed Hmdowaare huDgiji 
'^«Mte st}>le' immediately Within thaae, Bn.AS-to.pnvenC tile 
hot wind from ■blot»ing''in upon' yo» withodt dtarkema^idie 
roomi 111 this mamer the tem^Tatureiif the fooai,inti)iwhidi 
the M^ttr beamerdo not dlreetly'peti^vaBes u'propoly tiiU'of Ac 
akadci A» on- die otiteide ctf^the houMi it^udilkBltitafindia 
plBoe free irdm die h6t wiild^ atiddiK direct oo^nfleoted i^a 
uf M venioal 8U*, wtdA sub^te^Ae -tbeinlUiMtar tcandden 
tises beyodd the true teviperiUtte, aa iridib^ed in aiTaaB{eta- 
pcHOd to the hei^ uf bodi without ibb dimt iatfumNwiQ^-ail^. 
The Kttemalair, dilring tta<e bot imson; isiiRBappdVUdile^willi- 
aQt ooverto^ie Eunipem ; BO tbtirlt'iBtlw'hbuBe, ^uodaT'tibe 
fbr^mng citcarattancesj tbathe igl^ aott pattialtOt aDd-<oa»> 
sents to be reguhtfed by the (ampepMnre of his sitting apait. 

matt Bvt it u 'only whilst the>bot wbidseeBtiDUB that tbetvo 
ikKBioKWters natenaUjr difbr; at all otto WMaosof Qttymm 
tlM'tempentturvio both ntofttioiifturtbuiriubLy equal.-. Thwt 
was to at^£mil- means morted to, ai totieea^ £w cqdJm^ Un 
lUdm iH'^nrii isy thenaonieter hung, » thait the tenpnatun 
is ^van- as: it TeaHy happened, wilfaout aoy mfliieace upoa it 
b^rald -theneceflaary ^qwBneiB of die dweUing. Tatteee aie 
yery ganeiaSy had Kcoume to tot proeuriag eatataix is tbeliot< 
wxaiher. Tbay are ooastructcd of- an oUeag woadea Ixame of 
split bamboo^ having the body of ietMokty wafettcd with thewB^M 
sprigs of the bamboo, and the interstices filled with the coaRM 
grasr oommoD to the countty. When wasted, tfaas ftpaitf u 
placed against' the' tloar-way u|x« which the hot wind if UoW* 
ing, wiA theiiidtied-door diut, and the Venetian-blinds apva^ and 
bei^ constantly kept wet with water, the wind paasee thvqucib 
it'CDoi'into the room within. Whetba tattees conduoetothe 
A«aMof those under their influenoe is a question )e{t fer nuedt- 
««1 man- to detsmioe. 

Tha mtm Mj ikericnI-pretaurt waaDotedfron an excnUentiQAHiM 
twnmaterin an adjfliDing.roam; and thequuttity t»f raiawwcare* 
ftlfly mbasond hy a raintgau^et^laoed iq the centre at a..0W*- 
pbc ittgoimg the- house, wid Away fpom-aU werhai^ng impedi- 
meut& 1 did'iH>t0b9ervetbe.hygiK)ineler. . Id thftr«i^.waiKni 
tbeiataaaaphece ispeitoUy mdist, wdin thflhotwea^enitiftdty 
to^very gnat da^»e) nodew ffiUiag duflisg diewgihtAt'^ 
seasani Erom.tehat lobtened, ( wa» lad to cQuo^da (hat the 
(bieat- month is April, «ad July thatiiowbifih thoreis the mojt 
noifMwe. ' la tbeCoU weather^ the atnto^ere isMssdiiy than 
the clouvew' of ^ sky- would iAdkcste, fnnn- the. h^vy ^dew 
tftat falls daring^ the ot^ being evapendcd. by Um .BiMM«dutg 
dayfs 8nn,t«id remaining in a slate, of. v^our, to of>v<lensp«gui 
after'tuaantii^ TfaegrMtestiraage'of the-therffioU9(et is tt^ 
■rotim^a* from 60"'to.d8^, end-tbe greatest^IiJi^nee dmnng tV-a 
dayMffecexceededSf, and that on^foHowngia ssv«e6t^>m. 
aAtFia.p>c«>id)aig>tmperat-(m of!90^Rndu^ard» Inever-sair 
Ark bwonetori lower, thanadSfiO, nor liiglKr than aftSOQ ; >«l»d 
«-vanaUapn.^,%<.liuKa[betweeti ibe two.QbBen^tio9»,.ni^a1vr9ya 
teoldedd ufio»aft-,i«i»«tJuibK<KGd. never. b^p^fliedb^tjaw^ 
mtiwaotbcv^ The teivfWWtUK of tha CSternal.air inj^a.oc^ 
y 2 

340 Mr Macritchie'B Metmrologieai Tablet, 

sesEon has been seen so low as C€° or 50^ at sunrise : but this 
coOhien only took place ins clear morning, after a &li of rain, 
ftr, when clouds made thdr afipeanmce, there was no di&bienoe 
between the temperature of the external atmosfrfKre and that of 
itte room, although it mi^t have amounted to 13^ or 14° on the 
■ptece^g morning at that time. The heavy dews that fall du- 
ring the night, at this season, in clear weather, give a chilliness 
to the succeeding unelouded mornings more sennble to the kA- 
ings than a much lower degree of cold in more nor^em cK- 
mates. ' The weather becomes warm in February ; and the hot 
vinds commence about the beginning of March, but seldom in 
eamett bntil the vcmal equinox, and continue until the setting 
hi of the ndny season in the first or sectmd week of June. 
The hottest month is May, and the heat increases in sultry 
oppresdon as the rains approach, until their actual presence 
abates its insupportable tyranny. The heat of the night com- 
monly exceeds that ri the day in closeness for nine months in the 
year; and the most pleasant part of the twenty-four hours is an 
hour or two before sun-rise. 

The rainy season in general sets in with heavy rain from 
the eafrtward, attended by severe thunder and lightning; the 
higher clouds^ motion having previously come round by showers 
from different quarters to the point agreeing with the wind on 
the surface. The heaviest rain falls in July, and lessMis in 
quan^y until the middle or end of September, when the r^ns 
usually take their leave with a Jhod from the east, in a similar 
^tyle to th«r commencement. 

iVo/or and lunar halo* are very frequent when the atmosphere 
becomes hazy imd slightly overcast, but without that effect up- 
on the coming weather expected in variable climates, excepting 
when it changes from dry to wet, and the contrary. Lmutr 
rainbows are not uncommon in stormy showery weather. I 'hud 
an opportunity of seeing three very perfect ones, in one instance 
so well 'defined as to appear double. ParlteliA, «ith bright ^pd^ 
on and around the halos, are of general occarrenCe in Uie mares- 
ImIh and mackerel formatiofl, which the tjonds so'oftcn ffisume 
in an Indian atmosphere. Edipses do not materi^y influence 
the weather : in 18S8, the great aolar ellipse erf" April was not 
'-ftloWedby any alteration, with the exception ■ofhappeoing near 

kept at Bancoordh during the yearn 1837-38. 341 
to a periodical change of season, when they hasten its approach, 
as has been before remarked to be the only influential attendant 
on those jAenomena. Eartltquakes are g^ierally attended wiUi 
a hazy atmoBphere, with small low modonless clouds, and the 
breeze m the-surface blowing irr^ularly in stnnig eddicif with 
calms inta^emng. 

It is in May and September that Cholera Morbus and other 
diseases previul most In the year 18S5, the rainy aeasan did 
not commence before the 19th of June, continued throughout 
very mild, and broke up in so light a manner as scarcely to be 
remarked at al). In consequence, the weather, for a month bc:- 
fore their setting in, and at their conclu^n, was unusually close 
and o}^ressive, although the temperature was not higher than 
that of oth^r years at the times in question. The cholera raged 
in C^utta in June, visiting the country here and there on that 
and the following months, and reached Bancoorah, among other 
places, in September, sweeping off a vast number of the nativ:es 
in its way. After continuing for a fortnight o^ three weeks in 
the town of Bancoorah with fatal effect, ahuost in every cose 
baffling the power of medicine, it all at once left the place and 
appeared in Chatna, a village about eight mile^.to the northward. 
In tliis manner it travels through the country in continued hot 
moist weather, carrying off great numbers oi the native po- 
pulation, and, I believe, in some instances talking one portion 
d a village, or even one oA^ of a street, leaving the rest. of 
the village untouched in its progress onv'Brd. In Calcutta, 
tbt! cholera is among the natives in the Black Town almoat at 
all saisrais^ the bff stuation of the city, and the cr<»rdei} and 
narrow streets of the native part of it, being exceedingly well 
suited to keep the disease from abating even during the coolest 
pattof the year. At this time Calcutta is almost daily visited 
with a deiise damp &>g hanging over the city and the Biver 
Hoogly in the morning aod evening. In May 1828,. the cho- 
l^a was not only mortal to the natives in that (nty, but there 
were mar^ numerous iosUncas of its proving &tal to Europeans 
there and m other parts <^ the country than former yeivs had 
exhiluted. This o^t have arisen from the unexampled heat 
of diat season. There cannot be a more impressive case of dis* 
tress than that of witnessing a padent labouring under Cholera 

S42 Mr MacrHohie's MeteitnAigicai Tabkt, ■ 

Morbus. In the maroing he nu^t have beeo perfectly wdl— 
before sun going down (« speedy inteniMit it in that cliBiate 
bidispensably necoasary) the tomb covers sll that is mortal al 
him ! Fiom tjie great evaporaticm that takes place before and .departure of the nuny seaaon, i^ving^an intolerable 
dofteness to the beat, S^)tMaber and the firat wetka of Octol|» 
hive been «ln:ays cansidered tbe moBt unhciilthy seaiKn of the 
y4ar. Tbe cold weath^ is not generally thought to be tbe ti«ie 
most Goodunre to health, from the coolness of the air giving a 
cl)ecl( to perspiration, and the beavy dews that then fall at night 
proving BO damp and chilly as to make tbe least expoaure to 
them he attended with pequdii^al coowquences. The season 
commonly considered to be tbe most bealtby is the condnuaoce 
of the steady nonh-veat hot wisd, wbea a ct^nous perspiration 
is produced dhd ^i^edily evaporated off the sur&ce ot tbb body 
by ita warm dry influence, ^viug a light cheerfulneai to the 
B^iitf th^ never can have under tbe pressure of a sultry, still, 
and cjoae atmocfibere. 

GsoisE Mackitchie. 

Clihtii, ISA Mmrdt 1832. 


ktpt at SaofooraA during the year* 1827-8. 

TASldB iheiciit§ tht TVmfwntfwv <md Prttatn, and Ae qwtnHty <f 
RainftxBm, dmittg A« ytan 1637-8. 














- . 


Januuy . . . 





i.^a? , 






















June . 






July . 

















October . 





■ .584 






DMembCT ■ . 






Yearly avemge 







Januaiy . . . 




























Julb . 






July . 


















October . 















Yeu-Iy avemge 





1 |3B.615 

Avenge 1837 . 






Z IBM . 





Medium &r the) 
twoyem . / 






Mr MKritchie'i Meteorolagkal T^ikt, 

TABLE Atm^ lie aamUIXtMim of Ae Wad,,sniac 




Dnjs Dsn 























Jumirj . . 







FabruKy . . 



M»d.- . . . 













June .... 






July ... . 







AugiMt . . . 






September . . 



oSobet . . . 








December . ■ 






Number of day 













J«iu«y . 


February . 





Haich . . 













June . . . 








July . . . 







AupW . . 








September . 







October . . 








December . 








Number cf da; 

■» 58 









} ». 








N-B— Under NE.UliitludedBllaiemteiinediateiHiInta'frDinN. to f:.i aiid 
tU Mine with ttgud to SE., SW., and NW 


1 W f f ii ■ 

liil Ii 



" i i !::;;■ i : : i ■ ■ i i i"-^" : : ; 


1 i 1 ; : ; I i i ; ■ : i i i ■ ■ ■- i ■ I ■ ■ 


^ i 1 : : : ! i ; : i : i 1 ■ : ■ : : ^^ ■ ; : 


:■•:-■•-: — i i : ■ M i-- i 1 1 • i 


; — "-■"■"■'"!: - 1 : i"-" ;- 1" ■ 









-i"--"=s— • 


-'- !••«"-••"- 




„,=,., ,g„»-« 


»«..,. .g5-2«. 





:p222 " i~25SS 






.-::: ii ;:♦-=. 











( 8*6 ) 

On the Graphite or Black-Lead of Ceylon. ~ 

tSzTEKAL years ago, splendid apedtneDs of graphite were pre- 
sented to me by one of my pupils, who brought tbem from the 
island of Ceylon, where, he informed me, the minerol occurs in 
masses vaiying in magnitude from the size <^ a nut to several 
inches in diameter, imbedded in gneiss. Mr J. Prinsep has . 
latdy, in Ae " G-leanings of Science" an interesting periodical 
pubUsbed at Calcutta, published the following analysis of one of 
thevaneties: Carbon 6S. 8, iron 5.4, silica Sl.O, alumina 9-S, lime 
. 0.2, magnesia 0.1, manganese a trace, and loss 1.2, = 100. Su»< 
pecting, from tjie lai^ proportion of eartliy impurity in this ana^ 
lysis, ihaa some of the matrix had remained mechanically mixed 
with the graphite, Mr Prinsep mode the folbwiag adtUtional 
analyses: 1. The graphite^ uncleaned, left, as above, iron and 
earth, per cent 37.S. % Rou^ly cleaned, left a reeodue per 
cent. 18.5. 3. Crystals selected with care, 6.0. 4. Another trial 
left the very small proportion of l.g. The two last residua 
did not entirdy dissolve in muriatic acid; indeed the former 
yielded O.S of silica on analysis. This statement is illustrative 
of the accuracy of Earsten^s view of the composition of gra- 
phite, namely, that it is a mere modification of carbon, and 
the iron and earths are accidentally mixed parts*. The gra- 
phite of the HimoU Mountains yielded to Mr Prinsep the 
ii^owing ingredients : Carbon 71.6, iron 5.0, silica 15.0, alu- 
mina, &C. 8.1= 100.0. The English graphite was found by 
Mr Prinsep to yield, hygrometric moisture S.7, carbon burnt 
off with difficulty 53.4, iron taken ,up by acid 7.9, earthy inb- 
purities 36.0=100.0. As this variety was. marked of *^sup9- 
rior quality," it follows that, chemically coBsidt^vd, it ig inferior 
to the kinds found in Ceylon and the Jlimalas. 

The Ceyloo graf^te, Mr Prinsep informs us,,. bos oqly b^ 
known commerdaUy for five at wx years ; ^ government had 
shipped small quantities of it to England by way qf trial,, and 
it answered so well, that they were induced to receive it, amongst 
other articles, in lieu of revenue, at a fixed valuation, when tbey 
were suddenly surprised at the quantity of this novel currei)cy 
B graphite iriU be found in one of tW 

Anat^tit of Indian, Ckinete, and New HoOand Co^. 34T 
ofiered in payneat A Urge hei^ wu thus accumulated ; and 
as the island rixHinds id tins voiiwral, «nd there are no padloeka 
upon Hbe minee, ai in Ciunberland, it might soon effectually de- 
strt^ the iDCMue of the B<»Towdide Company, if introduced 
lately into the English market. The natives of Ceylcm make 
no UK of it. 

Andiy$es ^ several Indian, Chinese, and Nea HoQand Coals. 
By J. PxiNSEP, Esq. Secretary to the Fhyncal Class of fhe 
Amtic Sodety of Calcutta. 

Xhe folloving table, published in the Calcutta Gleanings of 
Science, comprises the results of several aiudyses of Anatic and 
New Holland ccols. The fourth column, containing the waXat 
expelled, is kept distinct from the three -whicfa follow it, under 
the bead of ocHnposition, as it is usual to include all the volatile 
products tc^ether. Shocdd the water be looked upon as hygnt- 
metric, the per-centage of cwbon and ashes must be iocteaaed 
to obtain the true oomposition of the coal : thus the Baghelpur 
slate-coal, after deducting 10 per cent, ofvat^r, contmns 

Tohtile iDktter, ta x vv' •- **■* 
, Ctfbon, . . t».i X do. E. 4».0 

4Ae«, . . . S7.5 X do. « SILS 

From the last column in the table, it will be seen how totally 
. unfit are most of the Indian coals for the purpose of making 
coke. The Burdwan coke, with the exception of one specimen, 
would contain nearly a quarter of its weight of eutfay impurity ; 
the SQhet would be sull worse ; the anthracite of Baghelpur 
would be nearly half earth; some of the mountun coal from 
Ava would yield a coke of better quality, but of very little den- 
sity. The Chinese glance-coal alonfe forms a remarkable ex- 
ception to this un&vourable conclusioa against dtientat coal, 
and deserves to rank at this head of the hst in respect to its pu- 
rity as a coke, although in specific gravity it does not come up 
to the character of the English fuel, neither has it the spongy 
texture which must contribute much to the glowing tfoitibustion 
of the latter. It will be remarked, that the ashy resdue on the 

348 Analyait ^Indian, Chinese, and New Holland CodU. 
analyus f^ Engliih coke (No. 2)> much exceed what lAtould 
have been exjjected from the compontion of the coal whence it 
was formed ; this may be explained by supposing that portitHis 
of the ashes, probably the alkaline ealts, are vi^tilized along 
with the gaseous matter, when suddenly decomposed at a high 
temperature; or that considerable variaUon exists ia the quality 
of the material charged in the oven. Whatever may be the 
cause, the same deterioration might be looked for in the coking 
of Indian coal, which would tend to lower them still more in 
scale .of comparison. 

TABLE <f Indian (m4 other Coalt anah/xed at Ae Cakutta Anay 










Enffluhpit^wO, . . . 








Ditto, on the lane scale, . 

New South Walra eQ«i(average) 













Burdwan coal, .... 













Ditto, (from China-Kilrl) . 
Mampdr coal, Tant-Kiouk, . 















Silhet brown coal, (from Laour) 













Ditte, IBshter odour, datj, 
Ditto, Boh friable bUumJnoui, . 















KasjB hilla, (Chirra-ptinji), best, 








IMtto, slaty. 








Ditto, broini frtabfe, . . 






■ 20.0 


Palami alaty coal,' . . . - 








Dittos without luBtre, . 








Warda naU Anthracite*, . 








Dtehelpfir ditto', . . . 








Silhet bituminoua shale, . 






















Ditto, lignite 








Hiinalwt dittcs . ' . 








Ditto, dul^ ... 








TraTanoore ibnil seeds, . 







aiin«K glMceHMiil, . . . 








Ditto earthv, blind coal,, . 
Coke fiom Elfish coal, . 
Coke from Burdmuii:oal(Chiaa^uri) 






















{ 3*9 ) 

On the Fo«»il Flora. 

1. MX fact that we do not know more th&n a f^ hundred Bpeci^s 
of fossil plants, shews the impossibility of our preteodiog at 
present to form any very plausible estimate or conception of the 
nature of the antediluvian flora, and also the hazard of att^ropt- 
ing, from the dUappeorance of a few species, in proceeding from 
one formation to another, to determine the abundance or pau- 
city of faifiiliea or classes of plants. It is surpriung to ob- 
serve naturalists characterising botonically whole antediluvian 
epochs, when they possess, as in the case, fw extunple, of the 
second epoch, the period of fonnadon of the new red sandstone, 
a groiip of twenty miserable remains, as the whole of the dis- 
posable riches from which such a result is obtiuned. Tt ia evi- 
dent also that we cannot, from the present fossil T^;etable re- 
mains of single families, form any satisfactory inference as to the 
number of their species, because it may have depended in part 
on acddent, or some unknown circumstances, that in one family 
many spedes and individuals are preserved, while in another 
but few remaius are met with. In other cases the circumstances, 
although easily understood, are not attended to, and the num- 
ber of fossil species found in the deposit, are coo»dered as the 
fuU measure of what has been destroyed. Thus in the first 
epoch two mosses only, but sixty-four lycopodis, are enume- 
rated ; but this circumstance does not prove that mosses and 
lyoopodi» formerly existed in the proportion of 3 to 64 ; for it 
is very natural that gigandc lycopodium stems would more easily 
reast the storms of time than the d warf moss ; and although we : 
Ob that account have only two mosses remaining from tbatpe- ' 
T^, it does not follow that they have not been more than ten [ 
tvries more numerous than the lycopodia. ; | 

It is ddubtful if botanists can determine with accuracy even 
the tasBoiy of the fossil specnes. Many of the remains at present 
considered as Lycopodiums, may prove to be Fems, or even ■■ 
Pines, the Sel^njtes excepted. Many of the gigantic, so called 
Equiseta, resemble tree-like grasses. The Marsileacese of the 
fmncr world may have be1ong(tl to the feme. The Vottnia 
has not yet been proved to belong to the Coniferse, and as the 


3fiO On tie Fomtflar^ 

D of the (ioiiilBrou>.chantetcr will gire ft deadad pn- 
pooda-ance to this cla»-of:plantoi in tbtf period in wlw^ it 
occuiv, we aee from this example hoir unoertain single condu- 
tmu am wbf^ have been considMcd' «' goBkntM is ngui 
to the praraUing cbamctet of many : Tege(aU» cpacbti An 
error, whitdi <wn be so eanly committed, ia ccdeAvourii^-to 
dcttermine tragoMnts ve^ diftcult of detsnmnatioii^ '» doubly 
pR^t^ieul, wImh we attmnpc to found on it a history of tlw 
gradual succeenon of Uie fantiliea of plintsi - The tffaole sfody 
of the aadent flora,— 4he flora-of an nrly woirld,h-<B bssed/'oa 
Buoh ft syitem of the histwy trf v^«tatfen, and on- thei fffoofi 
that it riees gradually from below upwards in i^^lat nHxa«> 
am- epscfas of more and more pevfed vc^tables^ Bnt ib order 
to judge of thi»' history c^ vegeUtion, it h preniiMd that We hart 
prerWidy asoertained-'the'WiesuecesaMi, thsinteraal^gradatioa 
of v^etatien,- in short' the trda natural regetabte ^eitem. But 
wbo^haa discorered diissyalem', and ^hatare itfl«t9raotenf - 

Kotice hy Dr Graham qf Botanical Excuraiona into tHe'Sl^^ 
lands of ScoHaniJrom Edinhurgh this season. 

XuB-growiog attention whicb has been ^en here to^botanwal 
scieooe, biw been evinced in many ways of late- years, and, anoOTig 
otiiari^ fay-thainerraaing decir^ to extend tha'sp)ler»i^obaetTation 
from the -Botanic Gardento tbeDe{gbboiu4loodiof'£)oliBb(H:gh} 
and thence to thunotie'diatBnt and alpaiemgioni'ofSeadandi:-rti 
myfint ^curnon into the Highlands fram JBdnbtirghiailSiM-gif 
waB'aocompomcd by Hr Meciiabahne^andjodied-by'lifeMylne 
and-'Mr Drummood' from Fcnfar. In 18D&, I «ralhed tboAA 
lbs weft and nonh of Seotiand aDtomptailcd by one<;^upii'asly; 
Mr Home. In l'8d7 I walked over ne«t4y'tbe''sanic''gTwiDid 
wah eight or nine pupiift' Brery year anoe,-^tbe'pbr^'faa« 
becB' qukras lerge-w the aaeommodatfonrtfere^ ati^adw|i(>*^ 
tO' receive j and io'the fasti' thtetr- years, I'have >beeir''ftVaund 
VTtk'the company df- friends, aU of whom' ha**' added gn«t)f 
to)<the pUasaraa of the' party; and Ae' acquaiiiCBncexnih Mt 
tany which several of them "possess, has gvently ihdreaGed'idw 
meaOB of'-eaplorn^ the wide extent of the' only' batfi'^ttb^ned 

Bokmkai-EwcurMtmM into dte- Itighkmdi 351 

mouDbun-mnges of Scotlmd. My academkid dutia- neoas. 
urBy detain me in EdinlHir^ till the ebse -of the nmnwr 
veaaaa at the end of July ; but the impRtieot nal' of some 
(rf my most dastic friends could not be cempreMed ao loog Xtm 
year, and, ex|doding during the BumiBer beat, carried, tfwn to 
For&r on the ISth of July. A great additional interest has 
beea given to Uie excurnon of this party, )xy the- barometrMri 
obiervatioos of nly excellent, intdbgent, and quietly penevee- 
ing friend Mr Hewett Wataon. 

After a hasty glance at ^e neighbourtieod of Farftr, tliey 
proceeded to Kiri^ton, Clova, speiiding five days in tbat neigh- 
bourhood. The weather Hooog the mountahiB vn wEcesaiviily 
rainy and foggy, and it soraeliBMB blew eo violently, that th^ 
felt it dangOTOUs toventare amiM^ unknown predpicea.- Se» 
Teral attenq>ts were made to explore, new p<0UDd, in which 
diey lost their way and each other, and, upon one acoasoii, 
after walking for honrsy they met unconioiooBly near tho spot 
from which they had set out. They therefore generally con- 
tented themselyes with gathering the rare plants from the al- 
ready known stations, and then proce^ing by the same route 
as last year, along the White Water to its source, and throng 
Glen Callader, reached Castletown of Braemar. From this 
they: mited the mountMns around; but. here also the: lA, 
fluenco of tbeu- evil stars chased them, ohiUed tbetn wilfa a 
nuitr stw«er on Lodnu^, pelted them with rain on Betboa- 
biBxd,'and buried then in the nwts of Ben-Arasi. No wonder 
ifisucbitnentninit moled dwir Bad. The party broke ap-hevet 
tfute- grossed' CMmgonun and Beti-na^nnic-dui ito Aviemore 
and Ibvemnbv the otherawsnt directioaa, leaving 
lAt WAtaon ^One to conUnue .his r B ti tricat obtem 
valienft' fie also subsequently pcnceeded to , Inremen,. and 
thfoice along'tbe coattauf Caithaess aad thenorth Ehmieof iSadt> 
lHklasdaraS'EEnboll,iH ^teoT-coadoMed rain and dtaee fogn 
bati fiadingi fatnaelf an fll)jeot>crf<extireiBe-3uspi(a<Hi, frou having 
(xMufrom ft^ceuBtry ii]&cted--wHh:.<liolaB,. h»'delioale^>alK 
•Uiocd firom^prtMOting his ktHcs of inttoductiHrV^aml, leaving 
&t country^ietumedto £dinbui^b,'^y>InvKranS)lbe|Cat*doi> 

ttbn Capali.doaeee, KilIin«-aBd. Stirling. 1 - 

: i.TJMpwty with. which I. had the:pleaBure Da be. aoGompaiatd* 

858 Botanieal Eaxurtiont inio fAe HigMandg. 

\A Edinburgh on the SStfa of July, and proceeded dire^ly to 
KirktoD, Ck)Ta. Wer^ouned there till the 7th of August, when 
put returned to Forfar, while the rest went to GAea lala, and 
theice we proceeded aa the 9th acran the mountains directly to 
the station of Corex FtAKi, at the head of 6)en Callader, and 
paaang down the glen, reached CastletowD. Ho^ our short but 
most intereatiDg excursioo tenoiiiated : I was obliged to set off fur 
Edinburgh early next monuDg. Our fratune in regard of wea- 
tberwas thevery reverse of that of the party which had preceded 
us. It was hot, calm, and, without an exception worth noticing, 
fair. We were therefore enabled lo adhere to our resolution to 
devote almost our whole time to visiting new ^ound ; and the 
<»ily old stations which we went to were Loch Brandy ; the 
birch trees at the top of Glen Dole ; the rocks on which the 
A^ragaUit alpintu, the Oxytropi* campestrit, and the Cares 
Vahm severally grow. Among the fruits of this restduticm ex- 
hibited in the following list, I would particularly point to a fro- 
fusioo of Lychnis alpma, not seen before, except by Mr Dc»i ; 
to five new stations for Sonchut alpinui; to abundance of Gen- 
tiana tmtali», never before found in Britain, excepting on Ben 
Lawiers, and there only sparingly, and at long intervals, by two 
or three lucky botanists ^ to Thlatpi aipestre, new to Scotland: 
to the frequency of Sialaxit paiudoBa, in various stations ; and 
to Carex rariflora, gathered to satiety iu all the bogs at a par- 
ticular elevation od (rae range of mountains, thou^, before this 
season, two stations only were known for it. These discoveries 
are accompanied with a conuderation which multiplies many 
times the pleasure which I derive from them. The late inde- 
fatigable Mr Don of Forfar, by his unceasing researches among 
the Clovs mountains, made many, little expected, additions to 
the British Flora. Doubts were stated as to these being realty 
iodigeDoiia, and explanations, the reverse of charitable, were 
oHered of th^r appearance in places which Mr Don was wont 
tovifflt. That a plant stated to be noticed by Mr Don had not 
been re-discovered after his death, was not a reasonable ground 
for doubting his guod faith ; but it cannot be denied, that co- 
lour was ^ven to these su^dons by the re-discovery of ^on- 
chua a^mu in one station only, without a seedling appearing, 
though the station was such as seemed to insure the dispernon 

_ Cocwlc 

Botanical Exenraions into the Hi^Amda. 35$, 

of its seeds if it could ripen them. Mr Dronmumd, I believe, 
fcilbw- Toart sbttTORs ; bnt no otb^ living botanht hid mM diis 

- plattt growiTig in Britain beyond the fimita of one small shelf 
of nick: We sa* it in five new stations, two of them more 

'4han tvo miles from the original spot; and not one person 
among us hHi'lhe slightest doubt of the plant being it^y io- 
digenous! "WTlen we know this,— ^when we s« it as certainly 

- proVed tfcftt £^(ArtiV alprha is indigenous,— when we recollect 
the^Jscovery- in' Gfen Catlader, during our excursion two years 
agir, df Caria 'PbAW, aad atJttrt^^ua oipimu in Clova last 
yeaP; 8fid' thte-season tof T^klkspi aipetire aad-GMtiana nt- 
'Wife in Gl^n -Ilsla, xcti of ' Carer VahKi'in Clova, — when 
ve see how wide the range of mountains is, and how very cir-' 
cnmscribed tbt stations of all the rematjcable plants in the dis- 
trict, so^afrti^lastfoiir ptants I have mentioned bad escaped 
even the' practised' e^e of Mr Don, I do think- It wortld re- 
quire a much stronger case than has yet be<en made out to shake 
the credit of Mr Don for perfect sincerity •. 

1 8ha!!'n(i*^ve-aIiSfftom both parties of the plants noticed 
!^ tfi'ein;'iiHrrh(JtftM>^ df 'theif irttWest by (heaatotrtifgireti 
of former excursions; marking tfie observations of fhe ffrsl and 
second parties by the figures!: And 2. added to the names of 
plants. Iti'coficlusion, I shall give, in his own words, the ob- 
S£*vatiohskihdTy«tamii(iicatedttfth(f by Mt Watson, regiurd- 
ing the" elevation at'Vhich'he tiiuiW'pIatit^ tbgtow in dHR^rent 
parts of his route. ...... -.,-..,. 

jtmtm vulforit, 1 — Dry pastures eastward qf For&r. 

^jtiga alpimi, 1, 2.— Thla plant was 'seen' In large quantity, partcuIarljaliOTe 
' - (M'&tM ptM^JIIfBs-'tlMwD »ny%fQunt,ml*-^Bemmbi!KimA. 
■ -..-i» ji j<w» a,fte:tt«7*e^.rl^U &r, theuglvKiBoactll^ly.UepbM &. 
^red in £ii^. Bpt. as A. alpinot and though there is a verj sLgbt diffe- 
rence in habit fi-itm the ordinary lo*> country form, I cannot observe any 
' ' ' "r^t speci^c dla'tlnclien. ' It prMtces aMtMtntie dF Rtldiynst thoii^ not 
'■ ■■ tyft-ii^tf jjliit. -^ "•■■•■■■■■:■ -'1 •.. --' ■...., ...•■.*:, 

. * 'We have always npreMed qiir indignalioa on heanng. the Mots UiFOwa 
ont against the veracity of the late Mr Thin, whoae honour Was unimpeach- 
aUe ; tiai who, aS an ajute, active, and BuccesafulofiaerTer and collector, wa* 
Ady equal to any eftbe MotlWi tetanbta of tb* ptartnt ttm— ..Bw*. 

■ VOL. XIII. NO. XXVI. OCTOBBE 1838. ■ ■ 

:,, Google 

864 Botanicai Muxursums into the Sighianda. 

MhmMrmumimloiiln, 1, 2 — IdATtbet near Foifitf. 

Apa^ia Taramui, I. 9 — ^Frequent on the Ublejuid In th« upper dUtrict of 
CloTB. I cBUDot Me aaj good apedfic diitinction between tliis and A. 
autmBBoRt, »nd I thinli both pass into the A. alpina, which I found in 
1625 and 1827 on the mountains in tiutherlandshire, and in the present 
Btation last year. 

AtM» ptlr^a, I — Near the sununit of Ben-na-muicdui, and at its base, where 
It had bean brought bj the streams, and where oe obserred it to hare 
established itself hi 1 S30. 

Arbulia alpina, 1 Found bjMrWatsoD on Ben Shith (so written, for some 

good reason, I dare say, but pronounced Ben Hee), Ben Lojal, Ben 
Hope, and the moors about Loch Erribidl, in Sutherland t Ben Neris, 
and Cairn Gaiidh, Inyemess-shire; and the hills to the north of Loch 
£11, In Argyleshize. 

^sfnvo'tu alpinut, 1, 2 — This was onlj fotmd in the station where it was first 
recognised, and seen abundantl; last year. The station of Orj/tropit 
eampeilrii was most careHiUy examined for it by both parties, but not s 
tot of it was finind. He Watson U now therefin^ dispwed to think that 
his belief tliat he law it there last year originated in a mistake, and con- 
sequently we only know one station for the epedes. 
' Corax agualilit, WahL 2. — Very abundant in bogs on the extended table-land 
in the upper district of CloTa. This Carex ha»been many years known 
In this station, and particularly was first remaiked as peculiar in Its ap- 
peuancs by Mr Walion in our excurriiw last year ; but though its cha- 
racters did not well agree either with C. tumta or C. ttrieta, it was hesi- 
tatingly referred to one or other of these. On our return to Edinbui^ 
this season, Dr Greville found in his herbarium a spednien from Fries, 
under the name here adopted. It is undoubtedly identical with the 
Clora plant, and agrees in all material p<iint8 so well with the cbai&cter 
in Flora Lappouica, tiiat I do not hesitate to agree with Dr Grerille 
that thus another Carer may be added to the British Flora, It scarcely 
ever exceeds a foot and a half in height, and is often much less; where- 
as Wahlenberg desmbes his plant as sometimes nearly equalling the 
hed^t of a man. In lower ground, and in sheltered situations, I enter- 
. taiBDodoubl that out plant would acquire a much larger size. We ne- 
ver obKrred it bdow Ae taUoJand, though it reached the edges of this 
in almost every direction, filling thelx^ in many places with its creep. 
Ing roots, and visible at a distance by its large foliaceous bractese, rigid 
slightly curved aspect, and pale green cobur. I aught to add, that the 
plant distdbuted by the Unio Itineraiia, as Carex aquatilit, is altogvtiier 
difierent%im ours, and seems to me nothing but C. os^itDso. 

^_ atrata, 1, 2 — Found in great abundknce on almost every cliff we Tint- 
ed, particularly on the south side of the Fee, and in Glen Ida. 

.^—piilla, I, 3.1 — We saw this onl^ in <Hie station, on wet places amang 
the racks on the south ^e of the Pee. Dr W%ht ftvt gathered it, of 
sudiUBUSualdze{ne9Tty twofiiethlgb), audinallTetpects haring cor- 
responding proportions, that it was with difficulty I eould believe in the 
Identity of the species, though the characters perfectly agreed, till I vi- 

Botamcai Excunioiu into the Highiandg. 805 

sited the ipot, ud found UDoni^ the Ii^er speciineni oUmm giwhiaUj 
earning down newl; to tbe (ize I had found it on other mDuutaiiiB. Mr 
Watson alone of the flnt party (bund thii speciea, not in CloTa, hut 
Karcebr of itt unial sice, on Calm Gaildh, near Ben Neria. 
Canx roft/hra, 1, 2 — The first partj found this hitherto scarce Cartx In one 
new station, we at least In a dozen ; and there is not a doubt that It ex- 
ists tu the utmost proAinon in almost uyerj beg on the table-land. 
I Fahm, 1, 9.— Mr Brand, who accompanied the first putj, had the good 
fbrtune to find thie plant in a new station on the south side of the Olen 
of the Dole, near its lower extremity. We only gathered it in the old 
aUtion at Olen Callsder. 
Cieula nimia, 1— Forftr Loch. 

CaMearia ^kinalu, Tar., 3 — Leavea beautifiiUj variegi^ed with broad white 
edgea, or entirely white. I found only tme patch of this on most rocks 
on the south side of the'Fee. The plant wag remarkably vigorous, and 
the leaves v*ry large. 
Mityat oftopetala, 1, i. — On the cliff with Aiiragahu alpimu, in Glen Isla, In 
the parish of Farr, and most abundantly in tbe parish of Dumesi, where 
it is confined to limestone rock. 
EpUabhmt mtguMfi^ium, var. imgu*Htrim»ini, 2.— Dr Orerille found this in the 
descent to Olen Ida. It had a very peculiar appearance, was not in 
flower, but seemed distingulaliable only by the eztrone narrowness of 
its leaves, varying Arum 3 to 4} lines. 
Bqmtehm Drvmmondii, I, — In a ditch by the road ride, about fbur niila» porth 

of For&r, and on the banks of the Caledonian Canai, near its east and. 
Erigfron alpimu, ), 2.— Both in Clova and Glen lela, but especially in the 

latter, where Dr Wight gathered a few specimens with two flowers. 
GoKion patillum, 2.— I gathered Uiis sparingly near the OxglnpU eamptttrit. 
GenMona mvaXi, 3.— Found in abundance at a moderate lieigfat npon the 
nx^B on both sides of Olen Isla by Dr Greville, Dr Wight and myself 
varying from a simple stem, scarcely a quarter of an inch high, to one 
greatly branched, and 6 inches in height, but always with tktweca of 
equal beauty, and not differing proportionally in size. Tbe sparkling 
of this most rare and lovely little gem among the scanty mountain her- 
bage, cured me of hunger and thirst, and made me (bi^ tiiat I was 
gathering it at tbe risk of my neck, for wbicb I have in genenU on such 
occasions a regard at least equal to its value. 
GMcli/eTtt rtpent, l_^bundantly in old fir woods at Cawdor Castle and at 

Oordon Castle. 
iMiM^a borealU, I, 2.— Mr Watson first feund this in vast profUMon, and co- 
vered with flowers, among the heatb at a consideraUe distance from any 
trees, on the south ^e of the Olen of tbe Dole, and a Uttl* way from 
the stream. 
Lgdmu aipbia, 2, — This very interesting plant, not bdore fbund in Britain, 
except by Hi Don, was gathered by Sir John Ogilvy on the aotb of 
July- We went to the station next day, and gathered it in abvndance, 
and in fbll-fiower. Tbe locality is circumscribed, but Mr UiOMb af- 
terwanlB observed it in smaller quantity on another spot, at a little dis- 

856 Botanical Kxcvrnoaa into the HighJamU. 

tance on the wme mountain. It ffoma on ■ bare, Atj, tMay nimniit, 
or in the edge* (rf' the immediitelv adjeintBg peat, at an eleratioa wtiidi, 
ytigaifi from the heights aacntoineil by Mr Wation, I lUppoae maj be 
about 3390 feet above the lea. The rock in both itationa ii a mixture 
of felijiar and t»lc, ii much weathered, hai a deep Kream colour, and is 
quite different from anj thing around. We obierved that lu thti same 
■pota groir ^niKn« rndgmnt^ CaMearim ^fianoHt, and Cbarbri^ tioida, 
and there only at this elevation. A ^epherd whom we met uptm Use 
ground hdd us he had seen the plant ((rowing on a mountain top, either 
between the Glen of the Dole and Bachnagaintjor between thb' and 
Lochnagar, I am-uncertain which, because, aa he evidently did not dia. 
tinguish between the Amelia and Lgdum, I paid little attentim to his 
report at the mom«9t| bat reflecting since on the one never haviog 
been seen without the other on theae mountain topi, I think the ibep* 
herd's accuracy should have been inquired into. The capsule of LytA- 
nli ai^inu is defined as unilocular. Our plant, which i»certainly that of 
UnuKUK, u I learn from Mr U. Don, wbo has compared it with the 
Linneanherberium, ismoat distinctly S-locular when &r advanced to 
ripeness. Whether the dissepiments ultimately dis^pear, whether the 
Hwisa plant is In this reapect difierent &om ours, or whether Uie des- 

1 oription of iJ( capsule be incorrect, I am ucable, from want of ripe fruit, 
to determine. 

Malaxi* fwIudMo, 1, 2. — This we found in many ntuatlons, and in lai^ 
quantity. In the bogt and by the aidea of the rills in the vallej of Clova, 
or a few feet up the meuntdna on both ndea. 

IteSaia dspauparatu, 2. — Extremely vigorous, and in large quantity, on the 
cUfT near the Oiflropii can^mtm. 

NattarHiaK Itmttrt, 1, 2 — Not a common plant in Scotland, but found by 
the^first party near the Lech of Fot&r, and by Dt Wight near JUcb> 

Nvp^r piKtila, 1 — In vaiious statious. 

Paa alpma, 2. — In lari^e quantity In Glen Isla, and not in a viv^Ntrous state. 

PatentUia alpMlru, 2.— Widely distributed on the rocks to the south of the 
Fee, sod in Glen Isla. 

Priimila leatica, l_Fnund by Mr Watson in vaiious stations from Thurso 
toFarr. Soaw of the specimens have several long single-flowered scapes, 
the same variety of fbim which separates Prwiuta vuigatit from P. elatior. 

Pfrvia nttrnd^aUa, 1, 3.— Very sparingly in Glen Dole. 

MDundo, 1, 2.— Much mure common than the last on rock* in vaiious 

places in Clova. 

SaRa lanaUif 1, S. — Both male and fenude plant* in graat perfection on many 
rocks in Glen Dole, Glen [sb, and Glen Caliader. 

T9miarinifi>liaf I. — Probably from the same buab as that seen by Dr 

GreviUe tw% years ago, and in no better condition. 

SaMJn^ uupiloM, 1 — Picked by Mr Barry, but sparingly, in the suae •!■ 
tuation as that in which it was seen by him last year. 

niealii, 1, 9.— Jn tolerable quantity in Clova, but much mora abundant- 
ly, and ia better onditton, in Glen Isla. 

StOxrwiilarU, I. — On the oU statiooi on Lochnagar and Ben Ijte*^ , , J . 

Botanical Excunuma into the HighlandM. 357 

SAaiuu niffricaru, 1 — Variou* moors In the north of Sutherland. 

Smhim Mutm, 1, 2. — Rooh in Forfar, where it iraa introduced bj Hr Don. 

Silan ooaufu, tu'. flor. bO. I.— In coniidenble qiuntitj on the Bummit of 
Ben-na-mnic-dul, and on the south side of Glen Dole. 

SoncAiu o/jrinui, 1, i. — Found in five new stations in Glen Dole and Glen 
Ida hj Dr Wight, Dr Greene of Borton, U. 8., and Dr Grerilie. The 
first partj found it <nilj In the old station, where, from being conabmtly 
plundered,, it U becoming weaker every jear. Fortunately some of the 
new statloiu are wholly inacceidble. 

Jtrofiote sMdst, 1. — In the Loch of Forfar, where it was introduced by Mr 

T9ii(upi alpetlrt, 2.— New to ScoUuid. I gtihered a few spedmens at the 
foot of the rocka in Glen Isla. 

Ptraaiom-a^iaa, 1, 2 — Kiceedingly common all over the banks of the White 
Water, in Glen Dole, upon the Fee, in Glen laU, Glen Calkder, and 
the Aberdeenshire mountains near Castletown. It is not common in 
the other parts of Scotland which I have vidted. Mr Watson found a 
few spedmena on Calm Garidli. 

ta^tUUit, I, 2 — Common In Glen Dole ; but in much larger quantity, 

and of much greater size, in Glen Isla. 

IVooMa Itt/perborea, 2 A ringle tutl was found by Dr Greville in Glen lata. 

ifenuu, I.— Found by Mr Watson aparingly on the cliff with Oxyltvpii 

Observatuint of Mr Hewbtt WAvaas*. . 
Absolute altitude is of bo little importance ia the geography 
«f f^Dta, that my attentioQ was for the most part limited to 
the observaUon of their relative heights in regard to each other. 
For this purpose, however, it was necessary to determine the 
hoghts of a few species most commonly met with, as points of 
comparison and reference. The fallowing are the averages of 
various observations^ made near the places mentioned ; the nu- 
merals denoling the altitudes above the sea-level in feet f . 

' We trust Mr Watson will continue hia interesting inTestigatioQa, and 
in' bis next communication inform us how hii heights of stations were ascer^ 
tained. — Edit. 

■f- Arbuttu alpma does not grow in Clnva or Braemar. lt« southern li. 
mU In Britain is probably near Fort Willistn. There its lowest limit (ave. 
rage of three obaerva^oos, several miles distant) is at 1070 feet; on the north 
•Mb of Ben Sfaith (prtoiounced Ben Hee), near Tongue, 970, and by Loi^ 
Krriboll, fburteen milea west of Tongue, alwut 960. (These lost measure. 
tnenfai g^ve a good example of the influence of longitude, particularly when 
taken in co^juuction with the descent of ThdUetrwit al^vm to the shores rf 
Keoldale, a tew miles to the westward of Loch EiriboU, as netieed in the ex. 
cursion in 1827. Mr Watson did not find it so low in his route, but was par- 

358 Botanical Exatrnont into the Highland!. 

Clon. Bnimv. FcrtWDHub Toogue. 

Upper limit of Mjricm gale, 1360 1120 

Fteds aquilini, 1600 1200 

Eiica duerea, . 3100 3200 2100 1730 

Cailima vulgBiia, 2900 2620 2440 

Empetrum nigrum, 4100 3&00 

Lower limit of C«rexrigiila, 232A 2300 2070 1560 

Azalea procumbeov, 23!i0 3300 202S 1500 

The Idgheat gtoUoiM oC— elm. Bimok. FomwhUida. Tangub 

Dlex euTOjaeua, 1&50 1350 280 350 

Loidceia Peiicljmenum, 1&80 ... 700 

Cot;1iu Avellaiu, . 1600 1400 730 

Cjtiaiu Scapaiiiu, . 1700 IBOO 

Taking Braemar as the standard, it is found, from the ave- 
rage of the first table, that a similar climate in Clova is 125 
feet above this ; while at Fort William it is 269, and at Tongue 
595 feet below it. The difference ia greater at lower elevations, 
80 that v^etation, both natural and cultivated, is very litde 
better near the sea-level at Tongue than we find it at a thousand 
feet above thia on the hanks of the Dee. The influence of si- 
tuation is well exemplified by the fact that Empetrum nigrum, 
under the steep snow rocks on the northern side of Ben Nevis, 
ftiils 600 feel below its height on the western side ; and Cai- 
htna vulgaris, on the northern precipitous slope of Coini Ga- 
ridh, ceases 400 feet below its limit on the western declivity of 
the same mountain- In our ascent, we find the following plants 
about 1500 feet below Carex rtgida : 

Saxifraga fdzoidea. Tofieldia palustris. 

Alcbenilla alpina. Epilobium aldniliitium. 

Oxyria reniformis. Cares capillanB. 

About 500 feet higher up, we be^ to see 
Luzula fplcata. Silene (icauli«. 

Thalictrum alpinum. Polentilla alpestris. 

Saii&aga opposilifolia. Drjaa octopetala. 

llcularl; atruck witii the rapid descent of alpine veffetaUan aa be went west. 
He found at tbe aea level, on limestone cliffi at I-octi Eiriboii, Carex eapU- 
laru, Draia ineana, Sai^fraga igrpmUifolia, and Drfot octopetala i and the three 
last equally low at Farr, but thej were not aeeu at Tongue. The neigh- 
bourhood of the noTth shore enables PiofftdBala luntaniea, generally confined 
to the west cowt, to grow a considerable wa; to the eaatwaid. I formerly 
gathered it on Ben Hope, and Mr Watson found it still brther east, at 
SInthey — E. 6.) 




T ^ 



T ^ 

I 1 1 I I I ' 


BoUtmcOl Excurriont mio the HigUmds. 809 

A little higher we have 

Rubtw CbAmieiiianu. Coniua Suede*. 

B«tula DUift. Artnitu* ilpiiiB. 

Epilubium ■Ipinutn. Drab* Incuit. 

Bordering closely on the confines <^ Carex rigida, are 

Juncua trifidus. Onipbalium sufnnum. 

Arabia petnea. Htendam tl[uiiuin. 

Above the cotnmeQcenent of Carex rigida, we first see 

Sibbtddia procuinbeiu. Pra alpins. 

Cenatium alpinum. SiUz herbacM. 

Ain alpina. Astragalus alpinu*. 

Here, too, is the natural climate of some spetnes occanonally 
carried lower by streams or delms from rocks, via. 

Yeronica alplna. Fhleum al^um. 

saxatiUt. Sonchiu alpinus ? * 

Carex atrats. Saxl&aga nlvalu. 

VahliL Cherleria sedrndes. 

Alopecurus alpinus. Spei^ula sigiiiudn. 

SteUoria ceratUndet and Sax^aga rivularii are scarcely seen 
below ihe upper limit of CaUtma vulgarig; and Luztda armata 
on Ben-na-muic-^ui only commences a thousand feet above this. 
With respect to the upper limits of species. On the small 
space of Beti-na-muic^lui rising above Empetrum nigrum were 
only observed 

Luzula splcata. Carex rigidia 

arcuata. Festuca viripara ? 

Silene acaulis. LjcopocHum Sel^o. 

Salix herbacea. 
These constitute the vegetation of the summit ; and, very near- 
ly w high, were 

Vaccinium MTitillus. Juncus trifidus. 

Aira alpiua. Tiola pttluatris. 

Gnsphaltum supinum. 
Excepting LuMula areuata, all these were seen above Empe- 
trum nigrum on the Ben Nevis range (in which Cairn Garidh 
is included), and, along with them, several others, which per- 
haps may exist equally high on Ben-na-muic-dui, viz. 

• Mr Wataon marka thU with doubt, from being neceaaarUj ignorant of 
the elevationa of the new atationa at which Sonchui alpiTOu was found. Nei- 
ther can I ppest podtivelyt but _mj impresaiou is as he states it. All the 
new stations are, like the old one, in deep shaded ravines, with a northern 
aspect — R. G. 


' Bolaniatl Excursions into the Highldnda. 

BoxUng* st«llaris. 


Sibbaldia procumbeDR. 
Bumes tcetou. 
LeoDtodon — ? <not in flowert- 
Alchemilb alpioa. 

— - vulgaris. 

Galium sftialile. 
Cochlearia offidnalis ? 
Stellaria cerastoideB. 


Epiloblum upiDum. 
Rhodiola Tosea. 
Cerasdum latifalium. 
Ranunculus acris. 
Teronica humifusa. 


SUtice Armeria. 
Pua alpina. ' 
Oxyria reniformii. 
Silene maritiOia. 
Aira fleiuosa. 
ThymuB Serpyllum. 
Cryptiigramma criapa- 
Polypodium PbpgopUrift. 
Thalictnim alpinum. 
Ctryaosplenium oppoutifblium. 
Cerastium latlfoliuin. 

Polygonum Tiviparum. 
Carex pulla. 
TrolliUB europffius. 

Nearly at tbe same altitude as Ev^trum nigrum, terminate 
Lycopodiutn alpinum. Vacdnium uliginosuiQ. 

Blechnum borc&le. Caltha palustris. 

Descending toorards the line oi' CaUuna vulgaris, we meet 

Finguicuk vulgaris. 
Campanula rotundiiblia. 
£riophorum anguBtifolium. 
Eleocharia csBpitosa. 
Sutius Chanuenionu. 
JuDcua squsrrasua. 
Luzula campestris. 

Scabiuta succiu. 
OxaliB Acetosella, 
Nsrthecium oasifraguni. 

Solidago virgauree 

Arbutus alpioa. 
Azalea procumbenE. 
Arabia petnea. 
AnthozanthuiD odoratum. 
TormentlUa offidnalis. 
Carex pilulifera. 

liycopodium seUginoides. 
Vaccinlum Vitis-idiea. 
NarduB atricta. 
AcbiUiea Millefolium ■. 
Saxifraga bypnoides. 

Such constitute the most alpine vegetation of Britain. On 
descending from the upper limits of Callwna vulgaris, the ac- 
cessions become too numerous to detail : a few may be noticed. 
Betvla alba I saw a seedling of among the rocks of Ben Nevis, 
2700 feet high, there almost the upper limit of Empetrum ni- 
grum, and equal to 3500 on a better aspect Between the up- 
per line of Coiluna vulgaris, and lower limit of Carex rigida, 
is tJie greatest height reached by 

Flous aylvestris. Junipenia communis. 

Pyma aucuparia. Aibutua TJva-urti. 

It is only below Carex rigida by 1000 feet or more, that we " 

* I bare seen both theK plants on dry broken quartz, within ■ few feet of 
the summit of Ben More, Assynt, dwindled down to one or two inches In 
height, but in full flower; and Hr Watson observed the same thln^^ cm Ben 
Hope.— K. G. 


Dr 6nbam''8 Denription ^New or Hare Plaatt. 861 
find the upper limits of the oak, ash, beech, sycamore, holly, 
cherry, and hawthorn. The roses and shrubby brambles (ex- 
cept Rubua idceua) are almost equally distant; sad with them 
is found the upper limit of agriculture. At Clova, UUx euro- 
pcBUS exceeds cultivation by six or seven hundred feet; in the 
other three stations it is rather below. In ncne of them does 
the climate admit the successful cultivation of wheat : Braemar 
is too high ; Fort William is too wet ; Glen Clova, a narrow 
valley shaded from the sun by high hilts; and Tongut, exposed 
to a north sea, and with high ground to the south : — all there- 
fore are equally unsuited. At Clova it has been tried, but 
failed to ripen. 

Description of several New or Rare Plants tehu:h have lately 
powered in the neigftboitrhood of Edinburgh, and chiefltf 
in the Royal Botanic Garden. By Dr Gbaham, Profes- 
sor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

Sept. 10. 1832. 
Banksia media. 

B. media ,■ foUls cuneato-linearibus truncatls dentato-ferrstu bui tlte- 
nuatia : subter reticulaUi' venis venalisque gbbiatis lacunia tomen- 
tnsis, pertanthii unguibus seiiceU; laminle gubris, folliculia ^BbriuB- 
culls immerris floribus nurcescentibus. — Br. 

Banlcsia media, Br. Vrodr. FL Nov. Hnltand. Suppl. 1. p. 3fi. 
Desceiftion — SArui erect. Brancha sub verticil late and spreading wide 
fllightlj oitcendicg at Ihe extremities, grey with short dense tomentum. 
Leavet (3^7 inches long, 6-10 lines broad near tlie ap«x}, scattered, pe- 
tioled, spreading moderately, linear-apathulate, serrate, truncate, above 
glubrous aud shining, belov reticulated, pale, pitted, and the pits filled 
vitb whit« tomeatum. Amentvm (3 incbes long, 2^ broad) terniiiuil, 
cylindrical, its scales covered with red-brown tomenlum ; the lower 
iloveis expanding a little before the upper. Perianth 4-partcd, s^menta 
linear, narrowt claws covered with yellow tomentum on the outside^ 
glabrous within ; limb green, streaked with. brown, at first hairy, after- 
wards sut^labrous. 
This species Is placed by Mr Brown immediately after B. taanemens. It 
promises to be a very handsome additloa to the species in cultivation, 
aud is now flowering must freely in tbe greenhouse of the Botanic Gar- 
den, £dinbuifll, to which establishment it was obligingly communicated 
from the CSapton nursery. The first amentum expanded its llowen in 
the b^inning of September, but as the whole plant is covered with 
others in all stages they will probably expand in succession fbr a veijr 
long while. 

Euphorbia cruentata. 

882 Dr Grahun's Detcr^itiiM ^New or Rare Plaatt. 

Dilibui mibU 

ra cyathifbm: 

DzscRiTTiov — Sttn herbaceous, erect, branched, hair/, paiCiculartj ta> 

virds ita eztremity. Leavtt (2 inches long, 10 liuea broad) petioled, 
lanceolate, unequallj Berrated, above irregulHrlf aprinliled with dull red 
■pota,hairj,particuhuly below, where they are much paler without the red 
Bpola, BDii with very prominent middle rib and veinB. Braetea linear, 
lanceolate, more entire, but in other respects resembling the leavei. 
Cynia terminal, Bubtrifid, crowded ; primary rays trifid, and their sub- 
divisionB irregular. Involucre fimbriated, provided with only one cup- 
ahaped entire appendaoe. Maie Jbwen on pediceli longer than the fiu- 
meotj^thera yellow, lobei buTstint; tlong the vertex. Germen green, 
glabrous, but not shining; styles re volute, white, /'rtof smooth. Seedi 

Seeds of this plant were sent along with specimens to this country (rom St 
ZA)uis, North America, by Mr Drummond. The plants powered in the 
greenhouse of the Botanic Garden in August and September. The only 
difference between the cultivated and wild spedmens arises from the 
greater vigour of the former : they are larger, and the leaves are nearly 

(Enothera perampla. 

O. ptmmpla ; caule ramoso, tetiuiasime rubescenti, foliis runcinatis, pu- 
beecentibus, lobo tfrminali maximu acuminato undulato basi sublo- 
bato j floribus axiUaribus, omnibus diffuais ; calyds limbo petala sub- 
rotundata inteeerrima Kquanle, tubo longisstmo; capauUs muticis te- 
trapteris, alis deorsim truncatis. 
Descbiftiow — Root perenniaL Stem herbaceous, robust and much branch- 
ed, covered with very line pubewence, gret^n ; branches red only at th^ 
origin^) ascending. Leaoet alternate, petioled, minutely pubescent on 
both aides, undulate, denute, runcinate, pale and with prominent veins 
below, terminal lo1)e very large acuminate incised at its base, lower 
lobes much smaller lioear-lanceoUte acute spreading. Flowert solitary, 
•illlary, very large and handsome, sessile. Cidyx [»le green, minutely 
pubescent, nearly as long as the leaf; tube (4^ inches long) erect, red on 
base when young ; limb (2 inches long) acuminate- CtireUa white, with 
a yellowish tinge; petals subrotund, entire, equal in length to the calyx, 
9-ribhed and veined, the lateral rit» furnishing secondary ribs from the 
outside of their base. Stamem included, declined; filaments tumid at 
their insertion into the throat of the adyi, subulate, pale yellow in 
their lower hal^ white above. Anihert (tfaree.tburths of an inch long) 
linear, nearly entire at both extremities, versatile, bursting long before 
the buds expand; pollen granules triangular. Stigma 4-parted, lobes 
spreading. Stj/le as long as the stamens, flattened, linear. G«nnen ob- 
long, covered with the same pubescence as on other parts of the plant, 
4-winged in Its upjier hslf, wings narrower upwards, truncated below. 
Owiea very numerous, and closely imbricated. 
The seeds of this very fine species were received from my friend Mr 
Cructsbanki, and were probably gathered somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Lima, but at a considerable elevation, for the plant is quite 
bardy, and has flowered in the 0]>en air at the Royal Botanic Gu^en 
during the kst two seasons. It is very deserving of cultivatiOB. It 
most nearly resembles O, laraxacifolia, but is distinguished from this by 
Us less prostrate growth ; by the green colour of ita stem ; by tbe cap- 
sule being more attenuated at its base ; by the absence of the conspi- 
cuous glands and hairs, which are miied in O. taramcifiilia with the finer 
pubescence on the ca]:sule and stem; and by the tinge of yellow, not of 
purple, in the flower. Its foliage more nearly resembles that of O. tri- 
loba, but it is distinguished from this by its much greater size, by its 
nearly white flowers, and by its much darker foliage. From both, tnese 
■pedes it is &rtlier distinguished, by the flowers bdng altogether dif. 

Dr Graham's Deicripiion of New or Rare I^ntt. S6S 

fated ovtx tfae tsancliet, and never crowded near the root, u n n»D7 
of tbem ire In O. taroMteifiiia and O. IriMa; ind, lutlj, b; the absence 
of the lobed crovn to the capaute which both of these have. 

Fhysianthus albens. 

P. alberu ,■ herbacea, vnlubilis, foliU oppoaitis integerrimis aculis bari 

curd ato-trunca til subtua albo-pminusi, fluiibus Bubdicbot[)iD<M;vmoaia. 

Fh;aianthu« olbeDs, Mart. Nov. Genera et Sp. Plant. BrasiL i. 54. L 33. ' 
DxBC&iFTtoK.— Aw* woodj, bmuched, and fibrous. SIrm woody (at least 
when cultivated in the atovE), round, branched, twining; bark green, 
cracked, lod on the recent shoots, which are verj long and slender, 
pretty densely covered with short adpressed pubescence. flnmcAe* op- 
po^te and axillary, spreading. LrnKxt & incbea long. If broad) petiol^, 
opposite, oblong, truncated below, undulate, entire, acute, deep green 
Bud pniinose above, p^r below, and there especially clothed with mi- 
nute pubescence. PetiaU about one-third of the length of the leaf, nf 
the same colour with the shoots, channelled above, spreading. Pe- 
duneiet lateral, more rarely axillary, subdichotomouslv cymoae, 4-ft- 
flowered, about as long aa the petiole, and Lke it ; pedicels (about 7 line* 
long) spreailmg, strait. Caly» 5-parted, green, very minutely tomen. 
toils, obscurely veined : gegmenta ovate, acute, spreading below, erect ll) 
their upper half, reflected at the sides. Cerolla Jkintly perfumed, some- 
what fleshy. White, when in bud pole roee-coloured, hypocraterirorm, sla. 
brous; tube (half an inch long) one and a half times aa long as the calyx, 
at its base ventricoae with five gibbosities and slightly hairy on the In- 
ude, above G-gtuious, aide!) depressed, and having a ridge in the centre 
of the depression ; limb (IJ inch across) spreading, 6-parted, segments 
ovate, acute, reflected at tbe apices and at the sidea. Croon attached to 
the innde of the base of the tube, 6-paited, lobes connivent, blunt, con- 
vex on the outside, alternate with the gibbosities of the tube, glabrous. 
Slamgni opposite to tbe lobes of the crown, and twice al long aa these, 
adpressed to the pistil j ^laments coarse and fleshy, monadelphous, con. 
cave on the inside, flat on the out, sagittate above, terminated by a little 
ovate subacute point, below the sides of which, and on the inside of the 
filament, are the cells of the anther; pollcn-massea yellow, elliplico-ovate, 
flattened, reticulated. Stigma large, conical, angular, terminated above 
by two appendages longer than itself, which diverge below, meet above 
near the apices, and again diverge; glands alternate with the stamens, in- 
dented into the angles of the stigma, deep lilac, cartilaginous, slit verti- 
cally along their outer surface, terminated above by a cordate brown pro- 
cess, emarginate at the apex, and below by two processea, which are brown, 
Enear, flat, swollen at both their extremities, each becoming attached ob- 
liquely to the narrower extremity of a poUen-masa In the stamen next 
to it. Stflei 3, short, connivent above. Germetu 2, turgid, ovate, acute. 
Ormlet very numerous, small, imbricated, filamentous, attached to the 
receptacle placed on the inside of the germen. 
Seeds of this floe plant were received by Mr Neill fWim Mr Twecdie, 
Buenos Ayres, in 1830, and, climbing along the roof of the stove lA his 
' " ' " ' "n August last. I possess ftom Mr Tweedie an 
'■'" mtiromtbeci ' 

lO respect different from tbe cultivated plant. 


lum junceum. 

8. jian:eum ,■ foUis radicalibus linearibus : sci 

tantibuB bracteisque medio adnatls, caljcii 

plici, fauce glandulia stipitatis coronata, lobello inappeodiculato — Br. 
Stjlidium junceum, Brown'i Prodr. FL Nov. Holland. 1. 6(t9. 
Desckiftioh. — Soot fibrous, perennial, pushing several stems (scapes) from 
tbe crown. EooUeava crowded, linear, glabrous, somewhat fleshy, cal- 
lous at the tip : ttem.{eave» (bracteae) minute, green and fleshy, attached 
by the middle, acuminated at both ends, or rarely emar^oate below, ad- 
pressed. Scapes (nearly S feet bigh) erect, slender, green, round, gla- 

364 Dr Graham's Description i^New or Bare Plants- 

broiu. Raeenit tenuinal, Ux { pedicela resembliiis the extremity of tlie 
tcape, Eotitary from the axila ol the bractes, and n«queDtlj' bracteolste, 
pubescent on their upper side, pubescence glandular. C^yx awmeuts 
subulate, unequal, glabrous. ConBa small, rose-^oloured, tube ItHlKer 
than the calji, twisted; feui very oblique, crowned with a few glanou- 
lar halrij limb glabrouB on the inside, aparinj^iy covered with glandular 
pubescence on the out, segments ovate, blunt j labellum oblongo-ovate, 
Inappendiculnte. Gtrmen green, turbinate, with five gibbosities at the 
top from which the caljx-segment^ spring. Column nkt, much longer 
than the corolla, tapering below and above broadest where first deflected 
over the labellum, and at this point lilac, below white, above rose-co- 
loured, everywhere glabrous, itiUted fleshy and reticulated at the sum. 
mJL AaOien small, yellow, gkbrous. S^gma prominent, green, pubes. 

mameulal than p 

King George's Sound, at the Caledonian Horticultural Society's Garden, 
last year. One of the seedling communicated to Mr Neill, Canonmills, 
' came Into flower in the bt^nning of September 1832, in consequence of 
the judicious treatment it received. We have raised it at the Botanic 
Garden this season, and many of the plants are pushing up their scapes, 
but the flowera will not be expanded for some time. 

TropEeolam pentaphyUum. 

T, pmlajihsUum ; foliis digitato-quinatis; fbllolis ovalibus, integerrimis, 
petioUtis ; petalis duobus, subrotundis, subsessilibus, calyce multo bre- 
vioribus; calcare recto, apice ovato camoso ascendentL 
Tropgeolum pentaphyUum, Lam. EncycL Method. 1. 612. pL S77- fig> 3. 
—WUld. Spec. PL 2. 299 — Pert. Synops. 1. i05.~De Cand. Prodr. 1. 
6Si.-SpTaig. SysL Veget. 2. 2aG. 

Descbiftion Root tuberous, large, oblong. Slem slender, greatly eloiu 

gated, slightly twisted, round, glabrous, coloured, branched. Leava 
(about 2 inches across) petioled, digitate, of G oblong entire petiolate 
soft glabrous spreading leaflets. Common petiole (2 inches long) twisted 
in form of a tendril, and farming the chief support of the stem, as well ta 
the partial petioles and the veina of the leaf purple and glabrous: partial 

Etiiolet bordered by the decurrent leaflets. Peduticlei (1 inches long) so- 
tary, axillary, longer than the leaves, purple, glabrous, thiclcening up- 
wards, pendulous. Calgi (l^ inch loog) persisting; spur horizontal, 
fleshy, dull purple on the outside, yellow within, nectariferous, conical, 
till towards its apex, when it ia contracted, thinner, and somewhat shri- 
velled, the apex beina ovato-acute, fleshy and erect; limb (71^ lines across) 
6.parted, green, brighter and spotted or streaked with ileep purple with- 
in, s^jpienta ovatiMicute, the uppermost the narrowest, the two next to 
It the broadest. Petali 2, small, subrotund, subunguiculate, reflected, 
bright vermitian.coloured. Inserted into the throat of the calyx on each 
side of the upper segment. Stamera 6, longer than the calyx segment* ; 

than the stamens. Stisinaia 3, acute, divei;ging. Frvil 3-coccous, gla- 
Mr Nelll received at his garden At Canonmills a tuber ^thered by Mr 

cutting taken from it, flowered in the greenhouse for the n. 
most &eely, during June and July 1832, and will probably ripen its 
seeds.. From Mr Tweedie I have excellent native specimens, gathered . 
In he^es near Buenos Ayrea. Its taste is very simikr to tlut of 7V*> 
pmottm moful, but lew pungent, andlesa agreeable. 

i-™:. Gobble 

( S6S ) 

CtkaHal Phenomena Jrom October I. 1833 to January I. 1833, 
caiculaledjbr the Meridian of Edlnbu/rgh, Mean Time, By 
Mr Geo'&ce Innes, Astronomical Calcul&tor, Aberdeen, 




iKu' e" 

5 First Quarter. 


19 17 is" 

Em. II. Bat. y 

21 33 4 

Em. I. saL If 


20 6 IB 

< Lost Quarter. 

3 34 12 



17 SO 4 

6 Diss 


dH" t 


19 82 48 

Em. LuLlf 

16 48 36 



22 41 18 

Im. III. Ht Tf 

19 48 41 

Iin. IT. »t. y 


1 43 9 

Em. III. Mt. Tf 

32 46 1 

Em. IV. Mt. y 


7 21 

dJ b 

13 49 17 



8 28 ^ 

Sup. d 9 

20^4 Gl 



9 26 38 

enter. IIL 

6 38 87 

dSi-n ■ 


16 17 9 

6 D9 

10 2 37 



18 20 18 

# New Moon. 

6 47 41 



21 59 46 

Em. II. >at V 

17 49 17 



21 48 26 

Em. I. Bat. y 

S 32 8 



3 46 13 


23 28 36 

Em. I. sat. li 


10 63 14 

<lDy^ . 

19 10 43 

O Full Moon. 


14 41 16 

dE ? 

7 6 13 



19 21 33 


IJ 87 18 



9 3 44 


8 U 8 

d J)2iCeti. 


11 37 3 

d B t Oph. 

12 67 38 



10 41 33 

d <J2. B 

21 41 60 

Em. III. ut V 


11 1 68 

rfSi^ t 

8 7 88 



12 43 7 


8 3J 40 

d D21 tJ 


11 51 34 

6'i» t 

12 13 34 



14 39 

61' t 

14 68 48 

^d: « 


2 27 12 

6 bpn? 

23 48 69 

6 9 2-^ 


28 20 

Em. II. ML y 

23 36 7 



15 36 48 

]) First Quarter. 

1 23 66 

£ii>. I. aoL V 


31 61 


1 83 9 



23 44 11 

Em, I. Mt. y 

7 82 1 




H- , „ 

3 e - 



21 23 44 


4 28 26 



8 1 

FuU Mooo. 

14 43 68 



13 46 36 


18 12 12 



10 29 18 


18 13 10 

Em. I. aat. If 


IS 36 41 

dHU B 

22 34 42 



16 6 38 


16 SI 28 



39 9 2 


13 46 31 



10 31 18 


366 CeksHa Phetumenajrom Oct. I. 183Z to Jan. 1.183S. 

21 ! 


la SO 48 
IH 19 16 
17 43 36 

7 21 61 
IS 33 8 

5 47 13 
IS 27 22 
23 6 » 

1 d3 29 
4 23 36 
22 4 e7 
10 43 41 

17 50 62 

18 67 26 
14 4 27 

6 57 41 

8 60 48 

7 24 IS 

dK 8 

d J/'H 

6 J-n 


d S^Oph. 

<J 5103 
d JBOph. 
( I.sst Quarter. 
Em. I. sat. 11 


£.m. III. sat :;/ 
Em. IL sat. ^ 

© enters f 
9 New Moon, 
d 5 A Oph. 

18 44 16 

19 64 36 
7 63 48 

18 66 43 

20 13 14 

20 63 10 

21 7 12 
21 33 6 
21 62 68 

1 63 8 
10 II 38 

18 29 63 

19 42 14 
23 6 19 

5 40 32 

13 1 


22 38 
2 7 43 
13 34 6 

d 5 e Opt 
d 5 » oph. 

iDi. III. sal. ii 

dBi/' f 
dI12^ t 
d 9 B Oph. 
Em. IL sat Tf 
Em. IIL sat V 

d?> f 

Em. I. sat If 

dB- f 
d »•■ J- 

d J¥ 



J) First Quarter. 

1 41 16 
3 39 26 
S3 60 11 
7 38 87 
Q 52 16 
3 62 13 
1 90 S 

1 68 36 
10 16 ~. 
SO 6 30 

e 64 S6 
3t 3 36 

31 23 2 
6 38 

2 26 33 
16 36 67 

21 35 41 

32 21 64 
6 69 13 

16 60 66 
12 13 64 
19 6 27 

22 38 16 
IB 46 59 

d JV 

Im. III. Ht y 

Em. I. sbL ]/ 

d?+ / 
(J S2|CetL 
d >f CetL 
d9A f 
d Hi 

d jiJ a 

d])2» a 

tj greatest elong. 
O Fall Mood. 

dsc a ■ 

Im. IV. sat Ti 


d J tn 

Em. I. sat. V 

d Hm 

Em. I. sat V 
( Last Quarter. 

d Dh 
391' r 
Em. I. sat V 

1 29 61 
10 11 33 
IB 38 21 

3 34 

18 39 4 

2 22 12 

14 32 17 
22 3 58 

2 68 10 

5 22 IS 
33 IG 43 

12 30 S4 

15 48 63 

14 M 44 
17 34 33 

20 42 68 
22 8 33 

6 26 20 
9 16 26 

13 3 22 

19 8 41 

21 14 16 

20 4S 41 

16 21 8 

7 69 43 

15 2 47 
10 64 66 

d D9=^ . 
Em. II. sat If 
d D e Oph. 
©entera V^ 
New Mood. 


6i" t 
d J. t 
61' t 

InC (5 © 9 

1) .ery near ? - 



Em IV. sat. If 
Em. I. rat. V 



6>lir t. 

ci?if ; 

Em. IL uL If 

6 tV 

]) Fint Quarter. 
£m. llY. aat. 7f 

Celeilial Phenomenajrom Oct. 1. 1S3« to Jan. 1. 1888. 867 














"2SSS = S 














a — ••as 





12 57 

13 4 
13 8 
13 13 
19 18 












( 368 ) 


1. Uneiuotu Dew- — In the nd^bouEbood of BoUerdaia, it 
faaa beeo recently observed,- thftt the moTDing dews, iastead 9r 
being pure and lunpid> are of an unctuous (wos^tfoey. . 

- - CHElHSTBr. 

3. The Netn Vaetmm Sitgar.—The grains of this beantiAil 
Bi^r are true and well-formed crystals. They do not melt so 
readily ite common sugar,— a circumstance that induces some 
inaccurate observers to imaging -that this sugar is not so sweet 
as eominon mu9covada. Thetasteisjusttbatof finecStu^. TIm 
Bdvanlage is, that this sugar is far less hygroraetncfhan common 
law sugar, and suffers less from a mMst atmoephere. The ap- 
paratus used in its pi«pardtion is a modification of the lafe Mr 
Hdvard's apparatus fbr belling sugar in vacuo; 4ith dtraitieM 
of eopper-plates pierced with minute boles, or several fold* t^ 
n^e^^auze for clarlfying^ the syrup. T4)e process iSj imme- 
diately on crusbing the canes, to heat, lime, and scum the 
jutoe; *bich, while ■wanto, is fdeced throilgh the str^ner, froirt 
■n*i6h ' if runs into the boilers. These are provided with air- 
tight covers, the tops of «4)iefa ^re connectedly tubes witfaa 
large ait^ump, wrought by a steam engine. The ateanl, as 
generated, is thus drawn off, and the boiling is carried on at a 
temperature far below the boiling point of sugar. Wfeen suf- 
ficiently concentratedi the syrup is crj^staltiBeJj and, when con- 
solidated, It ifi carried to the cunng-bouse, the temperature of 
which is kept up by steam-prpes mmiing into it. This profieM 
saves much sugar, fbr the heating being low, little or no molasses 
are fbrmed, and a large quantity of sugar is obtained, whibb^ in 
the old procecn, is converted into molasses. VChw af^rattn 
was adopted by sugar-growers in Demerara, on the auggiMtion ■ 
of a distinguished philosopher in Liverpool. The experiment 
has succeeded admirably; and the sugar bears A premium ta 
the Liva-pool market, especially when required ftr ooflfte. ' • 

^ ,-™:..C00^lc 

Scientific Intelligence.— dumittry. 3(i9 

8. On Ae Grease <^ fllne«.—- White wine is subject to an 
atteratioa whkh is deagnated in Switzwlaad, and other coun- 
tries, by the terms greaty and rojpy, {toumra- au gras, grainer, 
filer), a change which takes place after the vioous fermentation 
has apparently ceased, anA the wine has been bottled or closely 
eonfined in casks. The wines of Chunpagne, <^ Switzerhnd, 
and most thin and light winea, are very sutgect to it, especially 
when the vintage has been wet. The cause <4 this mdady r«< 
sides in a mucilaginous principle which is devek^ied in light 
wines : it 'pervades the whole mass, and puts on a reticulated 
appearance; a similar change is observable in beer, and in 
syrups made of sugar of an inferior quality. Various methods 
have been pursued for remedying this defect. Commcm salt 
is added to the wine, a ]wactice which was adopted, it is 
said, by the Romans, in consequence of an accidental disoo- 
very of an amateur in wines. Having opened an am^^ora 
of wine, and being struck with its excellence, he demanded 
of his slave what he had put in it. The latter, mistaking 
his master's meaning, fell on his knees and confessed he hod 
drank a little wine and filled up the vessel with seo-watH*. 
After two or three months, it is impossiUe for the moat ddicate 
palate to distinguisb the taste of salt, and it is admitted that 
such an addition improves the taste of the wine, but that it pre- 
vents the grease is a point much more doubtful. AQoth«' re- 
medy is Um addition of brandy or alcohol. But the more dB< 
carious means of all is a frequent racking off, or decantation. 
Wine must never be alk>wed to icAt^en, that is, to admit the 
rinng of a milky subsioQce, which destroys its tran^Mrency. 
Wh»i this disease has been contracted, it may oRen be removed 
by clarification with fish glue ; but this remedy has two incon^ 
veniencesyit does not always succeed, and when it does, it di- 
minishes the strength of the wine. This deterioration arises either 
fr(Hn the glue, or perhaps from the disease itself, which has occa- 
sioned the operation. Another method of clarifying wines and re- 
moving the grease, consists in filtering them through shavings uf 
hazel. For small quantities this method is very good. When the 
sale of wine is not pressing, and care is taken to keep the vases 
which contain them full, and they arc allowed to undergo a slow 
and insensible fermentaiion, and are exposed to the change of 
temperature which the season brings round, this disease spon- 

VOL. XIII, NO. XXVI. — ocTOBEB 1832. A a 

9W Scimiyie intel^geuvt.-i^C^jm^ji. 

Mpaf)U4(y dif|BI^>«iira. , It ia x^^ tjiat g/KWe^ WVi9- thus 

tremd we ngt wired w pfmpg through the «vM pI qiw nimtsr- 

Tbe «ttenttop «f «h«(U9^ b48 be«D muoh ^ffgfgod. w>Ui. t|^ 
nature of thia quftlity ia wipe, M- FraitV<^B of Ctivlops^wr-. 
Mtume, ascribm it to a siibstapce whi«h U fou»(l alfp in tha 
gluMt of wbest B(HU-,aa(i wbicb M> Tadda, ^d It^iva «hewft, 
diKOvered an^ mipaed 61iadi«e. It is the p^nioa which ui 
■otuUe 10 alco))(^t the inaolijble pmljon he called Zipiqme. If 
ui alcohotio aoWtion of glWIiae bo added to clear vin?, it h^ 
eouM milky, and asaume^ a^ording^o M. Fran9««, the eipe<A 
of greased winet. BerseJius, however, does aot believe in the 
gluAoe «f Taddn. He cwaiders it to be gehaioe, and the 
liisoaie to be alhuyieD, both of which have been loog known to 
«xiBt in the gluten. The same cbonist ha» proved that vt^e- 
tabV and aumal g^atiue are id«>tioaL ui the pr^>erties of unit- 
ngwith tiunln aad fonnipg an ine^uhle pcwi[Mtate. Howerer 
diiamajr be, M- Franfua has beeoinduoed to regard taniw a» a 
ranedy for th^ grease (^ wise. He! aac(»dii^ly nukkea an ob- 
snva^m whipb teenu to have escaped all tbofe- who Juul pee- 
vionaly examined th^sul^t, that ^ wioas are never subject 
to dte gmiK- Now, the difiereoce belweep red and white wine 
iMi that the red always fermepta in pcesence of the hu&k «4d 
aeeda o( the grape, Bubstttnces which oootain tannia Iq abuo- 
danee, while wUte wine retaatpa io contaet with the bask hitf 
■a vepy short time. It ia also a fast, that light wines iiia^ ef 
geife» deprived qf theit s^eds are more sitbject la this 4ittwe 
-thaq others. Hence it is pcobabte, thut the pceaeooeof tajii^n 
may, by pn^pitMisg the gelatine, prevmt the phenomenB -of 
'the grease. The followuig are Mr Eran^ots's directitona: ^ 
adduig tonniiD to wiae a month or six weeks prior to buttlii^, it 
foay be [Mreferved from the grease ; imd this mbataiice heii^ one 
«f those which exbt to wine, it may be added without iear, for 
it communicates no ummtural odour or taste. Tweatyga^nsof 
tannin to a bolde of wine, or three and a half ounces to a hun- 
dred bottles previously well decanted fnnn all sediment, is. the 
prcqwT dose, although in frequent cases this, dose vuBt be re- 
peated. If any sediment remain in the wine, a much ht^r 
dose of tanoin becomes necessary. M. Franfoie affirms, thst 
this malady in wine, when once destroyed, never i^ueds. As 
the laauia «f chembts is an expensive article, obtained from the 

Scienli^e iHteitigemx. — Zociogy. 971 

gaDmit by snlpfanik arad, or bjr poUsh, it js probdble tbat a 
^Intituie niy be found in Mmeof the utringent barks, or even 
hi tHe •ecds of the snipe. 

4. Obeailjf — Tile cdebraledyut /iivr ptu of Strasbun^ ore 
made of the livers of geese, fattened with grest attention. The 
animal ia abut up in a cage, but.Uttle larger ijun iu body, and 
in taken out but twice a-day, and then to be fed widi about a 
quprt of: cmde peas. The/ am introduced with a fingec into 
the pharynx of the animal, which is thus made to swallow this 
enonnous quantity of nounsbmept, and is then immedwtely 
shut up io its cage. The immediate result (^ tliis kind of life 
is a remarkaUe obesity, and an enormous development of the 
liseTr which, without any notable change of structure, attuned 
~ia triple, or quadruple enlargement of vohime. Bibulous pflptr 
btDUght into close ccmtact with this fat liver, immediat^y ab- 
Borba an oily m^ter, much like melted fat. These Uver» aome- 
times weigh ei^t or ten otnces^ and sell at frmn three to fire 
fiBiiCB. The fattening of geese in this manner is a good specula- 
lion, for every part of tbe animal pusseEses an intriiiBic value ; 
the tat on many occasions is a substitiue for butler, and tbe 
fleda is served at table, and althou^ somewhat tough, is not 
the less nutritiauB ; the feathers are mucb soi^ht after, the quiUs 
aeEve for writing, and even the excretqents sell at a high price as 
one iof the richest of manures. 

.. &. Partable^ MUku—^Sl. Dirdiofi^ the Russian chemist, who 
some time nnce disMvexed tbe process of making starch' into 
sugar, has lately made several experiments upon milk: the result 
of wbicb he h^ arrived at is curious. He is satd to have found 
a nude of keeping milk for use for any definite . space cf time. 
The process of preserving is this : he causes aew milk to be 
evaporated over a slow fire, until it is reduced to a powder. 
This powder is then put into a bottle, which is hermetically 
sealed. Whfn the milk is wanttd for use, it is only to dissolve 
some of the powder in a seasonable quantity of water, and the 
naixtuce so dissolved -will have all the qualities, as well as the 
taste, nf milk. — ES/nburgh JgriatUuralJoumai. 

6. Quantity of Eggs consumed in LonJoii.~-The egga of 
heas are those most commonly used as food, and form an article 

372 Scienti^ IiUeUigeiwe. — Zodogy. 

of veryconsiderable impu'tanGe in a couimennal pcunt of view. 
Vast qnantiiiffl are brou^t from the couotry to LondoD, and 
other great towns. Since the peace they have also been 
largely imported from t}ie continent. At tbb moment, indeed, 
the trade in eggs forms a considerable branch of our commerce 
frith France, and affords constant employment for a anmber of 
small vessels. ' It appears from official statements, that the eggs 
impelled from France amount to about 60,000,000 a-year ; and 
supposing them to cost, at an average, 4d. per dozen, it foUowft 
that the people of the metropolis and Drighton (for it ie into 
them that almost all are imported), pay the French above 
t,. 88,000 a-year for eggs ; and supposing- that the freight, im- 
porter's and retafler*s profit, duty, &c. raise their' price to die 
consumer to lOd. per dozen, their total cost will be L.S1S,000. 
The duty in 1829 amounted to 'L.m,\%%—MacCi^ocK3 Cotr^ 
mercial Djctionnry. [About fifteen years ago the number rf 
eggs exported from Bernack-upon-Tweed to London amounted 
to L. 80,000 worth a-year.]— £di«AurgA AgricuUvral Joumt^ 
7. Destruction of Fresh-water Figh by the admitaion cf the 
Sea into a Lake. — The following particulars of the phenomena 
attending the opening of Lake Lothing at Lowestoft to the Sesy 
where sea-borne vessels were first received into the new harbour 
at that place on the Sd of June last, may prove of inter^t in 
natural history. They are extracted from the East Anglian 
Newspaper of June 7. 1831. Some of the circumstances at- 
tending the junction of the salt and fresh waters in the first in- 
staoc£ are remarkable. The salt-water entered the lake with a 
strong under current, the fresh-water running out at the same 
time to the sea upon the surface. The fresh-water <rf the lake 
was raised to the top by the eruption of the salt-water beneath^ 
and an immense quantity of yeast^like scum rose to the surface 
of the lake. The entire body of the water in the lake wbs ele- 
vated above its former level ; and, on putting a pole ddirn, 8 
strong under-current could be felt bearing it from the seii; and 
at a short distance from the loch, next the lalte, there was a per^ 
ceptible and clearly defined line where the sah- water and the 
fresh met, the former rlishing under the latter, and upon this 
line salt-water might have been taken up in one hand and fresh 
in the other. The consequences of the admission of the briny 
waters have been fatal to thousands of the former inhabitants of 

Scientific Intelligence. — Gedogy. 378 

the peaceful lake. Its surface waa thickly studded with the 
bodies of pke, carp, perch, bream, roach, and dace, multitudes 
of which were carried into the ocean, and thrown afWwards 
upon the beach, most of them having been bitten in two by the 
dog-6Bh, which abound in the bay. It .is a singulur foct that a 
{nke of about 20 lb. w^ght was taken up dead near the Mut- 
ford end of the lake, and, on opening the stomach, a herring 
was found in it entire. — Edinburgh Qttarterly Journal of Ag- 
riculture, No. xviii. ' 

r. Kor.oGY. 
8. EiemOiona in AuslraliOt New South Wales. — The fol- 
lowing elevations above the level of the ocean, of points on the 
road over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst, and interior to the 
westward of its meridian, were computed by John Oxley, Esq. 
late Surveyor-General, from differences of the column of mer- 
cury,, taken simultaneously in Sidney, and at the respective 
Stations, in. the year 1817, which barometrical admeasurementfi 
have been, since that period, fully verilicd by others : — 

Spring Wood (Military Poat) 12) miles tivm Emu Ford. 1297 

Bddge orer RaTine, 17 diilo ditte, ..... 1814 

Cftle/s H«pulfle, 18 ditto ditto, ..... '2110 

Christmas Swamp, ii ditto ditto, . . . . 246(r 

King's Table Land, MJ ditto ditto, . '. . . 27M ' 

UiTitary post, !8 ditto ditta, . 2S3« 

-Samile^ 8203_ ,. 

a«l mites, 3382" ^' 

Blavlclieath, 41 ditto, 3411 ' 

Summit of New Pass, S24S - 

' Base of ditto, ......... 2714 i 

-SuidmittirUount York, ttr.fM Pw^ . . • • 3309 ,. 

B«eofiStto, . . 2610 

Vale ofQwjd, near Collitfs Inn, . -' . .' .' 3G42 ' 
Depot at' Cox's Uii'er, military post, (Lat. 33* 33' S., Long. ' ' 

leO'O^E.) .......... 2l7i ./ 

Hount'Bkxknd, . . . .... . . . 3074 .. 

,. Hill abavp Jnck's Bridge, . . ... , . 3444, 

Fish Eiv^r Bridge, . . - , . . . . S(6S0 ' 

Hiil above ditto, ". . . '. . . '. ' .' ' 'SsSt •' 

Sidmouth Yalleyi . . 360S ■ 

lUthurtt Flafptatr, <Lat. StP Of Sti 1m^. 149° tV W B.) 3332 . , 
' D^Mt df 1817) on tfae.Laditan Rivet (,1*1. 33° 40' 8., Lonf[. , 

148°2»'E-)i . 600 

Field's Plains, on ditto (Lat, 33° 15' S., Long. 147° 16' F..), ' BOO ■■ 

374 ScientijU JnUUigtJue. — Geology. 

9. tfn Subterraiuous and Ominoui Sound*j—Ja a tanoer 
▼oluincof the Journal, we communicAted some cutious details 
in regard to what have been called subterranean andommtmg 
sounds. Sir John Hersuhell has lately considered this subject, 
and conjectures that the nuises of Nakoos, hi Atabis, tnay be 
owing to a aubterraneous production of steam, by the generation 
and condensation of which, under certain circumstances, sounds 
are well known to be produced. They belong to the same class 
of phenomena as the combustion of a jet of hydrogen gas in 
glass tubes. He also remarks, that wherever extensive subter- 
raneous caverns exist, communicating with each other, or with 
the atmosphere, by means of small orifices, considerable diffis 
Fences of temperature may occasion currents of Mr to pass 
through those apertures with suHicient Telocity for producing 
sonorous vibrations. The sounds described by Humboldt, as 
heard at sunrise, by those who sleep on certain granitic rock^ 
on the banks of the Orinoco, may be explained on this principle. 
The sounds produced at sunrise, by the statne of Memnon, and 
the twang, like the breaking of a string, heard by the French 
naturalists to proceed from a gmnite mountain at CanraC, an: 
viewed by him as referable to a different cause, viz. to pyrome- 
tric expansions and contractions of the heterogeneous material 
of which the statue and mountain consist. Similar sounds, and 
from the same cause, are emitted when heat is applied to any 
connected mass of machinery ; and the snapping often heard in 
the bars of a grate aiTords a familiar example of this phettomencn. 
The following amusing account of an ominous sound is^venby 
Gairdner in his book on the " Music of Nature :"— In one of 
the baronial castles of the north, vbtch htta been'tinirihalnted for 
years, there were heard at times' such extraordinary jwiisea, as to 
confirm the opinion among the country people that the place 
was haunted. In the western tower an old couple were per- 
mitted to live, who had been in theSCTviceof tbefonoetterd.but 
so imbued were they with the silperstitions of the cbuhlryj that 
they never went to bed without expecting ' to hear the cries of 
the disturbed spirits of the mansion. An old story was current, 
that an heir-apparent had been tnurdefed by an 4fnol«T' that he 
might possess the esiate, who, however, after enjoying •it for a 
tjnae, was so annoyed by the sounds in the castle, that he re- 
tired with an uneasy conscience from the domain, and died 'in 

Scieiityic iMieUiffemx.-^Gmioglf. 076 

FrflUOe. Not many jedrs ago, the [iroperty descended tb > 
bmach of the female lide (one of the heron of Waterloo), wlio, 
BothiDg daunted, was determined to make this castle his place 
ef rMidettca. As the noisefi were a subject of real t«'rar to his 
teMDIry, he formed the reaalutitni of eleefnng in the castle oa 
tiM flight he took poBaemon, iii order to do away these super- 
Mllious fears. Not a habitable nxnn could be found, except 
the otle OGOUpied by the old gardener and-his wife in the western 
turret, and he ordered hb camp-bed to be set up in that apart- 
Meflt. It was in the autumn, at nightfall, that he repaired to 
the gloomy abode, leaving his servant, to his no small comfort, 
at tlie village inn ; and after having found every thing com- 
fortably provided, turned the large old rusty key upon the an- 
tiquated pair, who took leave of him to lodge at a farm hard 
by. It was one of those nights which are checkered with occa- 
sional gleams of nwonshine and darkness, when the clouds are 
riding in a high wind. He slept wdl for the two first hours ; 
be was then wakened by a low mournful sound that ran through 
the apartments. This warned him to be up and accoutred. 
He descended the turret stmrs with a bnlliant li^t, which, on 
tioming to the ground floor, cast a gigantic shadow of himself 
upon the high embattled w^ls. Here he stood and listened, 
-when presently a hollow moan ran through the long corridor, 
and died away. This was followed by one of a higher key, a 
sort of scream, which directed his footstepg with more certainty 
to the spot. Pursuit^ the sounds, he found himself in the hall 
of his ancestors, and vaulting upon she large oaken table, set 
down his lamp, and folding his cloak about him, determined to 
wait for the appearance of all that waa terrible. The night, 
whtcb had been stormy, became auddeiily still ; the dark flitting 
clouds bad Mink below the horizon, and the moon insinuat<<d 
her sUvery light through the chinks of the mouldering pile. 
As oui* hero had spent the morning in the chaBe, Morpheus 
cAtne unlndden, and he fell asleep upon the table. His dream 
was short ; for close upon him iastied forth the horrid groan ) 
amazed, he started up and sprang at the unseen voice, fixings 
with a powerful blow, his Toledo steel in the atrds. The blade 
WUi fast, and lield him to the spot. At this iHometn the moon 
shot a ray that illumined the hall, and showed that beldnd the 
waving ftJds there lay the CBUse concealed. His sword he left, 

SW Scientific InieUigeme.~Ge6logy. 

aoi to llt& ttinet retraced Ihs Bt^w. When morBiog caute, a 
welcome crowd greeting, adwd if he bad met tbe gboBt? " Q« 
yes r replied the knigbt, ** dead as a doar .duI behind tbe 
screen he lies, where my »«ord has pnttad him 'fiwt ; Imstg tbe 
wrenching bar and well haul the disturber out.'' . WUh suob « 
leader, and Ivoad day to boot, the valiant- tltfOBg *«« iwnn ike 
screes where the sword was fixed, when lo>! in a raceis, lay^4be 
fregm^ita of a chapel oigua, and the aquaN wqoim tmnks 
made for hallowed souBds were used aa pt4^.4D atay the wiork 
. when the hall was coated lonod with «alt. T^. Woodeiiog 
downs now lauf^ed ak>ud at the oiystenous voice. It was-tlie 
aorthem blast that found its way tlaroi^ thecTannieji ef the 
wdl to the gcoanEQg j»pes, that alai^ed the countrj round fitf 
a century. 

10. Fossil Frags, 4ec. — (^roldfusa, in thtj Nov* Acta PhysieO' 
Medica Acad. Ctes. Leop. Carol. Nat. Cur. for 1831, desdibes 
the following fosol remains of viu-ious amphibious animals he 
detected in brown coal, in the vidnily of Bern. 1. Sana d*/u< 
viana, 8. Salamandra oxygia, two inches aod a half lp(^. 
9. Triton noachicus, two inches in length. 4. Ophis- du&im. 
This remarkable renaia he is of opuiion belongs either to a 
snake or a. soalce-sbapetl Ssh, 

11. On the Permanettce qf the Earth's Axis <^ Rotation. — 
" It appears," says Mrs Somerville, in her admirable .work) 
" from the marine shells found on the tops of the highest 
nujuntaiDH, and in almost every part of the globe, that imm^i^ 
continents have been elevated above the ocean, which.(ocean) 
must have engulfed others. Such a catasti;ophc would t^of- 
casioned by a. variation in the pout ion of the axis pf /otad^^on 
the surface of the earth ; for the seas tending to (he-new etjuatw 
would leave some portions of the. globe and overwhelirt others. 
But theory proves that neither rotation, preces^on, nor any of 
the disturbing forces which afiect the system, have the smallest 
influence on the axis of rotation, which miintains a p^r^anoit 
portion on the surface, if the earth be not disturbed in its rotar 
tion by some foreign cause, as the collision of a comet, which 
mi^ have happened in the .immeBsity 4^ time. Then*. indeed, 
the equilibrium could only h«ve been restored by tbis. rushtsg .of 
the seas to the new equator, which they would continue to do 
till their surface was every where perpendicular to the direftisn 

Scientific lntdligence.~-SbUit^. 377 

of gravity. But H is probable that nidi as acCumillMion of the- 
waters wonld dm be nifiaent to resttMc equitfinium, if the de- 
rangement had been great; fix- the meaa deority of the sea is. 
only about a fifth part of that of tbeeartli-; and the mean depth, 
evea ct the Padfie Ocean, is not more thoD four iiB^e% whereaft 
the equatorial radius of the earth exceeds the ftiaT radius by 
twenty-fire or thirty miles ; consequently, the influesce at the 
sen on the directioB c^ gravity, is veiy snwU : aad, as it' (bu» 
iqipearB that a great cfaasge ob the pontna of the axis is ineoiM- 
{latiUe vitb the Uwof equilibnwn, the geolt^cal phabomeitii 
mttstbe afcribed to an tntonal oauw. Thas,aa)tdst ibeki^lHy 
levolutions whkh have swept inmimeraUe mces «t orgBMwd 
beings ftom the earth, which have elevatiid i^Bins, and buried 
mountains in the ocean,— the rotation of the earth, and the po- 
sition of die axis«n its surface, have undergone but slight va- 


IS. Iti^an Ct^ee. — In a communication from India to I^ 
Traill, it is stat«^ that a Dr Strong has succeedbd in raising a 
marketable coffee, in some quandty, at Russypugla, about five 
miles from Calcutta. The attempt futed in the hands of Sr 
Wallich, and those of Messrs Palmer and Company, who tried 
it on a large scale. The secret of Dr Strong''s success is in cul- 
tivating his plants in the sun, not in the «hade. He states, 
when cultivated in the shade of other trees, as has been recom. 
mended by some, the roots and brandies are more scanty thaii 
when they grow in the /uS «m. We expect, in our next 
Number, to report as to the qualities of the cc^ee, from expe- 
riments made in this country. Dr Strong says that if they can 
succeed in the formation of artesian wells, the Cultivation may 
be extensively carried on in his neighbourhood, and with great 
prospect of iu becoming a grand article of commerce. Should 
it equal, or be near in quality, to Mocha coffee, it will undoubt- 
edly be of vast impcirtance to Bengal. 

13. Academt/ <fSt Prtfr#&«r^.— The sixth aeriet of the Me- 
mwrs of this Academy comn>ences at the centenary celebration 
of this learned body, held in 18S6. Up to this date, the com- 
plete collection of its volumes comprehends five series, each of 

378 Lia if Pa$nU. 

which ia mariced by a chKnge of title. From ttte fuundation of 
the Academy id 1786, to 1SS8, the Latin language wat the 
medium of commuiucatioa. The fint srriea, calird Commenta* 
rits {Caimmentarii)^ axtended from 1736 to 1747 1 tb&t ie, from 
the inaugumtion oT the Bcadeiny, by the Eiupren Catherine I.^ 
until the fimpreu £listd)eth afleoted some new regulation^ 
Tbia aeries is in foarieen Tolunwa. From 174>7 to 1776, thent 
«re twBnty-one voluunea of Naoi Commenlar^. The celebration 
of the semi'Hecukr jatrilee eetablithed a new ^XKhj from which 
the iHiblteationi are called Atta. Twelve volumes of these 
bring the labours of the Aoadtmy to the year 1788, a memora- 
ble year, in which the academy was placed under the directiroi 
ei Ute FriaceM DaschkofF, for in Ruiaia there it no Salic law, 
even in the government of letters and sdenee. Under the new 
Direoteur (such was the title given to this lady by the Imperial 
ukase, nhich invested her with the direction of the Academy)) 
6(Wn volumes of Nmta Acta terminate the publication in Latin . 
The year 1808 was an important period to the Academy ; the 
Em\)eroi AJenander gave it new laws, and the French language 
woa lubatituted for the La4*B. But the peiiod was unfavour< 
aUe to acadenuc labours ; so that, from 18031D MflSj-biU^leVfu 
volumes a{^)eBred, forming the ^/ih uries, under the title Me- 
tttMres. Lastly, a niode of publication more useful than that of 
entire volumes, viz. thftt of parts or livraisons, baa been adopted. 

lAtt qfPaientt granted m E*igiand,Jrom Slst Auguit to \&h 
]jjj Septembm- 1881.. 

Ang. 11. To J. J. JACftiriEB, Londcn, for " improTemcDti in the mteUatrj 

fat nuOdng paper." 
Sept. 6. To H. G. Dtab, London, for " on improvemeiit in tmmeUuig, or 

method of executing subterwneoufl eicavationB." 

5. To G. FoBBESTEB, IjiTerpool, en^necr, for " certain iniprOvenients 

In irheeli tor cariiigei and tatebiuerj, which improvementa bm 
^ spplkabk to Dtber parpo&en." 

6. To W. BiCKPOKD, TuckingnUl, Cornwall, for bia invesUon of " an 

inatniment for igniting gunpowder, when used in the operation 
of bksting rocks and in mintng." 
9. To Jl Neville, Surrey, engineec, for " hia improved appamtus for 

dsritying water and otlier fluids.** 
lA To G. H. Palheb, London, civil enginear, for " certain improve* 
moits in the steam ei^ines, boiler, and apparatus, or madrinery 
connected therewith, applicable to propelUi^ resaelis canisgea, 
and other purposes." / - i 




- '.mwli- 

LiH ^ScotHsh Patents. 379 

List ^Patents granted in Scotl(mdjrom Sd April to 4ih 
September 18S2. 

April 3. To Jaiteb Philv, dauaalc tnanufiu^taTer, I>unf«TtnUiie, for an in- 
vention of ** an impTorement in the manuftctiire of diaper and 
daniRsV Ubie-linen." 
4- To Albxakseb Beattie Sbakklahd, T.otidan, for an iaven. 
tion, communicated to bim by a foreif^eT, of " a new method 
of spinnin); flax and hemp Ii^ means of machinerj'.*' 
*>. To GxoRQE LowK of Bricklane, in the county of Miildleses, iAvi\ 
engineer, ftr tn invention of "an impruvement or improvement* 
in and connected with the mHnitficture Af-gas for illumination." 
17' To Alexahdeh Brown of Liverpool, merchant, and Hebhak 
Hekiisicis of Pass;, near Farts, for an Invention uf " an im< 
proved method or methods of manuftcturinf; the prusstetes of 
pota»h and soda, and the pmssiates of iron, also for thecoDBtmc- 
tlon of certain apparatus, vessels or machinery to be used in the 
said' man u&cture, and anew or improved method ormelhods of 
emjiloyinf; the said prussiate of iron (or other pruaalates of iron) 
as a substitute for Indigo In dying all sorts of wooli, and whe- 
ther in the fleece, sbein,spun or woven into cloth, stuffs, or other- 
wise, also in dying silts, cottona, linens, and in Isct all other sorts 
and descriptions of textile or other substances fit for the pur- 
poses of Teceivinf; colours of a blue, hlue-blaclc, black, greens, 
bronze, or any other colours for which indigo baa hitherto been 
used, either as a ground-worli or auxiliary, and also for an im- 
proved arrangement of certain utensils and nMchinerj to be 
used in the said dying processes." 
17. To JOBV Samoel Dawes, of Bromford, in the parish of West 
Bromwich, in the county of Stafford, iron-master, for an inven. 
tion of "certain Improvements in the manufacture of iron," 
SO. To John Potts, BicuAan Oiiveb, an^ William Wain- 
vftionr PoiTS, all of New Mills, in the county of Derby, en- 
gravers to calico printers, and co-partners, for an Invention of 
" an improved method or process of obtaining Impressions &om 
engravings in various colours, and applying the same to earthen- 
ware, porcelain, china, glass, and other similar substances." 

May 2. To Robert Mob too me by, residing in the town of Johnston, in 
the county of Renfrew, In Scotland, for an invention of a " mtt- 
diine for a new mode of spinning cotton, silk, flax, and other 
fibrous substances." Communicated to him by a certain fb- 

sq. of Tiverton, in the county of De- 
" certain new or improved methods of 
draining and cultivating land, and new or improved macblneiy 
and apparatus applicable thereto, which maehitiery and appa- 
ratus may be applied to divers other tiseftil purposes." 


380 List ^Scotch PeUenti, 

Hajr 14. To Gcoiae Goodlkt, redding In Ldtli, proprietor of the Ldd. 
doD, IMlb, and Edinburgh Steun-UiU^ for an inTenOoD <if « k 
Dew method at pi'qiuliig ixiU)^ meal Irom ground wheat, or 
other giaini, previoiu to their being dreased fur flour; alco 
rou^ meal &om giound barle;, malt, or other grain, prevtottg 
to tbeir being put in tlie nuah-tun for brewing or distilling." 

21 To Bemket WooiKBorT, of Manchester, pnnter, for an Invention 
nf " certain Impiyvunetita in the construction of a revolTing 
■fdral paddle for propelling boats and other Teaseli on water." 

22. Tu Thomas Bbdjttok, Loodoi^ and Tkomas Fullek, London, 
ciTil-engineer, lor an inventitm of '' an Ituprorement or tm- 
provement* in certain mechanical apparatus applicable to the 
raiiing of water or other fluids, and aln> a new or improved 
mode of effecting the same nlgeck" 

31. To Wii-LiAii DusB, of Bednaiuter, near the city of Briatd, 

tanner, for an Invention of " an im[n:oven>ent or improvements 

in ifl"rVg b&dea and skin^** 

To JoBX JKi.LicoB(E,.of Stanafeld Mill, in tbecountj of York, 

■pinner, for an invention of " certain improvements in spinning 

June S. To Joshua Baczs, lor an invention of " cert^ intprovements 
in machinery, or ^ipantua for roving, twiBtiOf^ or Bpinnlng cot- 
tony rilk, wool, faemp, flax, or ottier fibrous aubctancei." 
8. To JoBK JovcK, of John Street, London, for an invention " of a 
certain improrenient, or certain impcoventent^ in mocbinerf 
for making nails of iron, copper, and olhor metals." 
22. 'To FmsDEuca SrEniEa of Church, near Blackburn, in the county 
palatine of Lancaster, manu&cturing chemist and Turkey-red 
dyer, " for a certain process or processes, by which spent mad. 
ders, or madders that have been previously used, made 
to yield a great quantity of colouring matter, and tat dyeing 
with the same of various colours all deserlptions of cottoi^ linen, 
wool, silk, or any mixture of then^ and also for improvii^ for 
dyeing madders that hare not ijeen preriouHly ured." 

July 8. To.HueH Boltov of Staples, in the pariah of Bulton-le-Moors, in 
the county of Lancaster, carder, for an Invention of "an im- 
provement In machinery used for carding cotton and other 
flbimis matertals." 
Kl. To Alxxaxdee Beattie SbaKeiamb, London, £«4..Gir " a new 

method of spinning wooL" 
3^ ToJoHX Hoi^i.the younger of Whitby, ropemaker, fbraninven- 
l^ion of " a mode or process for preparing and manijacturing 
certain fibrous substances." 

Aug. I. To John HowAan ', Loudon, for an inventlM) i^ " a new 
mode of preserving certain vt^table substances from decay." 

Sept. 4. To William Dausehy Holmes, linden, engineer, Sat an Inven. 
tion of "a new method of heating bouses and other buildings, and 
of applying heat to vwiouB inantifiictures and Other p 

:, Google 

Academy of St Petenbuif^ notice of, 377 

Afncan toroado, descriptioii of, 178 

AtmoBpbnical preaanre, obMrntiom oa, by Dalton, 90 

Bwalt, on tba origin and compoailMO of, 150 

Bartlett, Lieut., on the expanaion. and contraction of buildii^ atoneiV 

Bhurtpoor, its geology, by Hardie, 328 
Breeding apota of birde, obaerratioDa on, 20 
Bnddand, Profeaaor, on the ritality of toad* eDclosed to stone and 

wood, 26 
Building stooes, on the expaneion and contraction oT, 304 

Capercailzie, on ita reintrodnction to the Foraat of BnieoMT, 160 

Catrine Worka meteoroh^cal register for 1631, 166 

Cele«tial phenomena from July 1, to October 1. 1832, 174; from Oc- 
tober 1832' to January 1833, 365 

Cholen animalcule, account of, 155 

Coala of India, China, and New Holland, analyzed, 347 

Ceylon, graphite of, described, 346 

CoBee, Indian, notice of, 376 

Connell, Arthur, F. R. S. E^ on the chemical compoaitloD of barmo- 
tome or croaa-atone, 33— on a prodaclion of naphthaline m an tnl- 
gaa apparatna, 231— on the relation of nitric and nitroot acids 
to bromine and iodine, 283 

Cos, Henry, Esq., hia register of the date of Tarions natural appear- 
ancea, kept at Treveroux lann, !o the pariah of Limpsfield, Sur- 
rey, 183 

Cryatalliza^n of ice, obeervadona an, 158. — Crystallization, aaline, 
observatioiu on, 809 

Dalton, John, F. R. S., hia physiologiral investigations ari^ng from the 
mechanical effects of atmospherical pressure on the animal fi^me,. 

982 /MJKT. 

Dew, nnctoMH, S$S 

Don, David, F. L. S^ od the cluractera and affinities of ccntun genera, 

cbiefly belonging to the Flora Peruriana, S3S 
Donglas, Sir Howard, on military bridges and the pasMge ot xiwent 

EaiB a rt knowledge of gaM and lilver, aecoturt of, 1 36-1^0 

Eardi'a axis of rotatiou, pennanenee of the, ST6 

E^a, die number of, imported from France and Scotland into Loadon, 

Ehrenberg, Profeaaor, obeervationa on Tarioiu relatioiia of tbe IhAmo- 

Entomology in Scotland, remarkB oft, 187 
Faber, bia (dweTvatiom on the breeJiag qwls af biidaj 90 
VUtm, tMl»-iP*tcr, daa«ro7«d by Ao adarisMOn of Ae ■•■ ioto m likes 

Flora, foasil, remarks on, 349 
Fossil plants, mode of deteraning, by Pfdmor Uadley, 2S1 

: frwge, 376 

Fundamental typea of organization, observa^ona on, 75 

Gmelm on the com^ition of haitalt, 150 

Gold, its occmreiice in Russia, 189. 

Gtaham, Dr, on new and rare plants raided in the Edinbui^h Botanic 

Garden, 167, 361. — Notice of his botanicaT ezcnrsiona in tbe 

Highlanda, 350 
Graphite of Ceylon described, 316 
Grease of wines described, 369 

Hard!?, James, hia outline of the geology of the Bhurtpoor district 

Harmotome, of cross-atone, its ctiemicaT constitution Inrestigatcd by 

A. Connell, Esq. S3 
Heights of mountains and lakes in America, IBS' — of monntsina in 

New Holland, 573 
Henry, Dr, hts estimate nf dw pRiloeophicah character of Dr Priestley, 1 
Heasel, Professor, on the crystallization of ice, and of rains of ice in 

lUinda CotiMry in North America, its wild animals BOliceii, 181. 
Indiwi coiFee, neitico of, 376 

1 L ,i,z<,i:,., Google 

Infusoria, ohamAtm w thafc ikriKtWft w4 diwre l i yHt, Iqr Dt 
Wagner, SlS^Bf Elirenberg, 319 

Inn», GetH^, celeatial pbenamena frMi Jntf I. to OcMw );*.1S9% 
. 174) aMkfMnQflUhwi.t8&»wJuHHTy I. ltt$S.»6^ 

Jacob, W. Bu). 00 thtt omUaM, IiiwwMkq «f |oMi Md 4i^*«r— 4ieticHl. 
».S)Mt>4bnnnui MtMewB--.i:iift l^tiwtJM^Th* Book af Job— 
jloatnulatioo vf Wwlidi wtb Ike Habwif iwt i m t--Acwianla- 
tiwi m S^rUmnd Venw; IB Oieeoa; w E<MM 136-UO 

Jbf^ik en ZygQfkyfhim ttbtfamm, \9\ 

Labradorite felspar, analyaia of, hf Captain L« Hoijte, S8 

Lakes, heights of, in America, 189 

l^e Huote, CaptiUDi his analysis of the stony pericarp of the Litbos- 

|>ermuin offidnale, 24i — His wialysis nf Labradorite felspip, found 

in tbe trap-rocks af Scotland, 86 
Lindley, Professor, on the mode of (letermiuing fossil plants, Sffl 
LitboBpennum officinale, analysis of its pericarp, by Captain Le Hante^ 

Jij^tgneUc influence, its uuform permeability of all knoim snbstances, 
and the application of the fact to engineering imd mining, by the 
Rev. W. Scoresby, 97-13S.f^On magnetic inductioB, 257 

MetecHological tables of tbe weafhei in Bengal, by Mr Macritcbjv, 

Milk, portable, noticed, 371 

Monntaine in New Hollaed, heigbts of, 373 

Natural sciences, on the history of, in reference to the scientiGc know- 
ledge of the Egyptians, 41 
Naphthaline, on a production of, in an oil-gas apparatus, SSI 

Obesity of geese noticed, 371 

Ogden, Dr Henry, on sidtlie cryataffiiMwD, 369 

OrganiBatioB, on fundamental typaa ol, T5 

Patents granted in England from 2d August to SOtb August 1831, 
191; from 3Ut August to 16ih September 1831, 376.— In 
Scotland from 15th March to 28th Marcb 1832, 192; from 3d 
April to 4th September 1832, 378 

Petersburg Academy, notice of, 377 

Pbtina of Rutsis, notice of, 189 

Priestley, Dr, estimate of his philosophical character, by Dr Henry, 1 

RoMoe, WiDim, Eaq. i 

Scientific IntelligeiKe, 177, 368 

Scorasbj, Rev. WilUan, Ui o b e er r iti oM mi ei^mimento im the mil* 
fotm permeelHlitf of all known nbatmceB to the n^netic is* 
fliMDce, and the qtpHcation of the bet to engtnesraig and miDin^ 
tar the detcfminatitra of the thickneae of aolid mibatancM ttot 
otherwise meaanrBble^ 97 — Expodtitm of aome of the I&wa and 
phenomenn of magnetic indnction, with original illuatradre expe- 
rimenl^ 257 

Sietn Leone, fint new of, 1 77 

Silrer of Ruma, notice of, 1S9 

Soromerrille, Mra, on the permaneDce <tf the Earth's asU of rotation, 

Sotmds, nibterraneoufl and ominous, noticed, 371 

Stanley, Edwsrd, on the vitality of toads, 228 

Sugar, rapour, deecribed, 368' 

Toads, on the vitality of sncb as are encloaed in stone and wood, by' 
Professor Buckland, S6— On the same subject, by E. Stanley, 228 

Toads, fossil, 376 

Tornado, AlHcan, description o^ 178 

Traill, T.S., Dr, his acconnt of the Russian vaponr-bath, 14.— Hie me- 
moir of William Roocoe, Esq., 193 

Trevinnus, Dr, on the fundamental types of organizatioB, 75 

Vapour-bath, Russian, account of, 14 

Wagner, Dr, hia obaervations npcu the structure and dovelopmeot'Df 

the Infusoria, 215 
Watson, Hewett, his obserrations on the physical distribution of plants 

in north of Scotland, 357 
Wnd animals of the llKnois country, in North America, 181 
Wilson, James, his account of the mtrodoction of the wood-grouse or 

csperctulzie, the Tetrao Urogallus, to the Forest of Rraemar, 

Wines, grease of, noticed, 369